Common Names in English:
, or vines
, rarely subshrubs
or herbs, with latex or rarely watery juice. Leaves simple
, opposite, rarely whorled
or alternate, pinnately veined; stipules absent or rarely present. Inflorescences cymose
, with bracteoles. Flowers bisexual
, 5- [or 4]-merous, actinomorphic
. Calyx 5- or rarely 4-partite, quincuncial, basal glands
usually present. Corolla 5- or rarely 4-lobed, salverform
, or rarely rotate, lobes
overlapping to right
or left, rarely valvate
. Stamens 5 or rarely 4; filaments
or connivent into a cone adherent
to pistil head
, dehiscing longitudinally, base
, cordate, sagittate, or prolonged into an empty spur; pollen granular
; disc ringlike or cup-shaped, 2-5-lobed, or absent. Ovaries superior, rarely half-inferior, connate
, 1- or 2-locular; ovules (1 or) 2-numerous per locule. Style 1; pistil head capitate, conical
, or lampshade-shaped, base stigmatic, apex 2-cleft and not stigmatic
. Fruit a berry, drupe, capsule, or follicle. Seeds with or without coma; endosperm thick and often horny
, scanty, sometimes absent; embryo straight or nearly so, cotyledons often large, radicle terete
About 155 genera and 2000 species distributed primarily in the tropics and subtropics, poorly represented in the temperate regions . Of the 44 genera and 145 species present in China, one genus and 38 species are endemic, and nearly 95% of the taxa grow in the southern and southwestern portions of the country.
Fruit type is highly diversified in the family , and it is diagnostic of many genera. Genera 1-4 produce 1, 2-celled berries from a flower; genus 5 produces 2, 1-celled berries from a flower; 6 and 7 produce mostly fleshy follicles containing deeply indented seeds with ruminate endosperm; 8 has follicles and winged seeds; 9 produces follicles and seeds with 2 comas; 10-12 have follicles with globose seeds; 13-18 have drupes mostly with fleshy mesocarp; 19 has samaroid fruit; 20 has spiny capsules with seeds winged all around; and 21-44 have free or fused follicles and comose seeds. Double flowers are known only from cultivated forms of Nerium oleander, Tabernaemontana divaricata, and Wrightia religiosa.
Plants of the Apocynaceae are often poisonous and are rich in alkaloids or glycosides, especially in the seeds and latex. Some species are valuable sources of medicine, insecticides , fibers, and rubber.
, often rhizomatous
, woody or fleshy
. Leaves opposite, rarely whorled
, often petiolate
, axils sometimes with small stipulelike leaves. Inflorescences extra-axillary
or occasionally terminal
, rarely axillary
, umbel-like, corymbose
, or racemelike. Sepals erect, often with basal glands
. Corolla rotate or subrotate; tube
, overlapping to right
or left, rarely subvalvate. Corona
of gynostegium, membranous or fleshy, cupular, cylindric
, or deeply 5-divided, sometimes with adaxial
into tube, anthers
with membranous apical appendages; pollinia 2 per pollinarium
, pendulous. Stigma head
or short conical
. Follicles fusiform
or lanceolate, usually smooth
, rarely narrowly winged
About 200 species: Africa, North and South America, Asia, Europe; 57 species in China.
Habit: Vine , Forb/herb
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Gentiananae () - Thorne Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Cymanchum parviflorum Swartz • Metastelma parviflorum (Sw.) R. Br. Ex J. A. Schultes • Metastelma parviflorum R.Br. • Metastelma suberosum Grisebach
Publishing author : Sw. Publication : Prodr. (Swartz) 53 1788 [20 Jun-29 Jul 1788]
Members of the genus Cynanchum
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 31 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
C. anegadense (Caribbean Swallow-Wort) · C. angustifolium (Gulf Coast Swallow-Wort) · C. aphyllum (Cynanchum) · C. arizonicum (Arizona Swallow-Wort) · C. barbigerum (Bearded Swallow-Wort) · C. blodgettii (Blodgett's Swallow-Wort) · C. cheesmanii (Cheesman's Swallow-Wort) · C. cubense (Cuban Swallow-Wort) · C. danguyanum (Cynanchum) · C. ephedroides (Puerto Rico Swallow-Wort) · C. formosum (Swallow-Wort) · C. grisebachianum (Grisebach's Swallow-Wort) · C. laeve (Blue Vined Milkweed) · C. ligulatum (Mexican Swallow-Wort) · C. lineare (West Indian Swallow-Wort) · C. louiseae (Black Swallow-Wort) · C. maccartii (Maccart's Swallow-Wort) · C. marnierianum (Cynanchum) · C. microphyllum (Swallow-Wort) · C. monense (Mona Island Swallow-Wort) · C. northropiae (Fragrant Swallow-Wort) · C. odoratum (Latexplant) · C. parviflorum (Smallflower Swallow-Wort) · C. perrieri (Swallow-Wort) · C. pringlei (Pringle's Swallow-Wort) · C. racemosum (Talayote) · C. racemosum var. unifarium (Talayote) · C. rossicum (European Swallow-Wort) · C. scoparium (Leafless Swallow-Wort) · C. utahense (Swallowwort) · C. vincetoxicum (White Shallow-Wort)
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- A general history of the dichlamydeous plants, comprising complete descriptions of the different orders; together with the characters of the genera and species, and an enumeration of the cultivated varieties. .. the scientific names accentuated, t By George Don. London, J.G. and F. Rivington [etc.]1831-38. url p. 158.
- Contribution [I]-III to the coastal and plain flora of Yucatan, by Charles Frederick Millspaugh. 1 1895 Chicago, 1895-1898. url p. 38.
- Contributions to the flora of Venezuela / Julian A. Steyermark and collaborators. 28 1957 Chicago, Ill.: Chicago Natural History Museum, 1957. url p. 1078.
- National list of scientific plant names. [Washington, D.C.]: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, 1982- url p. 264.
- The Bahama flora, New York, The Authors, 1920. url .
- The Bahama flora, by Nathaniel Lord Britton and Charles Frederick Millspaugh. New York, The authors, 1920. url p. 342, p. 342, p. 342.
- The miscellaneous botanical works of Robert Brown vol. II, containing III. systematic memoirs, and IV. contributions to systematic works. London: Published for the Ray Society by R. Hardwicke, 1867. url .
- Tsiang Ying & Li Ping-tao. 1977. Apocynaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 63: 1-249.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed March 27, 2012.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2666536
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-501899
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13758991
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:96482-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 414601
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 501899
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 74186-2
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: MEPA14
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 33824
- Bingtao Li, Antony J. M. Leeuwenberg & David J. Middleton "Apocynaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 143. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Cynanchum". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 205. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]