, or herbs, deciduous or evergreen
. Stems erect
, or creeping
. Buds usually with several exposed scales
, sometimes with only 2. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, simple
; stipules paired
, rarely absent, persistent
or deciduous; petiole usually 2-glandular apically; leaf blade
often serrate at margin
, rarely entire. Inflorescences various, from single flowers to umbellate
, racemose or cymose-paniculate. Flowers usually actinomorphic
, rarely unisexual
and then plants
dioecious. Hypanthium (formed from basal parts of sepals, petals, and stamens) free from or adnate to ovary, short or elongate
. Sepals usually 5, rarely fewer or more, imbricate; epicalyx
segments sometimes also present. Petals as many as sepals, inserted
below margin of disk, free, imbricate, sometimes absent. Disk lining hypanthium, usually entire, rarely lobed
. Stamens usually numerous
, rarely few, always in a complete
at margin of or above disk; filaments
usually free, very rarely connate
, rarely elongate, 2-locular. Carpels 1 to many, free, or ± connate and then adnate to inner surface of cupular receptacle; ovary inferior, semi-inferior, or superior; ovules usually 2 in each carpel, rarely 1 or several, anatropous
. Styles as many as carpels, terminal
, or basal, free or sometimes connate. Fruit a follicle, pome, achene, or drupe, rarely a capsule, naked or enclosed in persistent hypanthium and sometimes also by sepals. Seeds erect or pendulous, sometimes winged
, usually exalbuminous
, very rarely with thin endosperm; cotyledons mostly fleshy
abaxially, rarely folded or convolute.
Between 95 and 125 genera and 2825-3500 species: cosmopolitan , mostly in N temperate zone; 55 genera (two endemic) and 950 species (546 endemic) in China.
Many plants of this family are of economic importance and contribute to people s livelihoods. The Rosaceae contain a great number of fruit trees of temperate regions . The fruits contain vitamins, acids, and sugars and can be used both raw and for making preserves, jam, jelly, candy, various drinks, wine, vinegar, etc. The dried fruits of the genera
Amygdalus and Armeniaca are of high commercial value. Some plants in the genus Rosa containing essential oils or with a high vitamin content are used in industry . Rosaceae wood is used for making various articles, stems and roots are used for making tannin extract, and young leaves are used as a substitute for tea. Numerous species are used for medical purposes or are cultivated as ornamentals .
The Rosaceae are very well represented in China, with great economic and scientific importance. The Co-chairs of the Editorial Committee (Wu and Raven) here note that the patterns of relationship are complex and the group is taxonomically difficult. 
or small trees
, deciduous. Branches unarmed
; buds small, pubescent
, with few scales
. Leaves simple
entire. Flowers solitary at apices of leafy branchlets
. Sepals 5, margin entire, reflexed
. Petals 5, white or pinkish, obovate
. Stamens 20. Ovary inferior, 5-loculed, with numerous
ovules per locule; styles 5, free
, pubescent basally. Fruit a many seeded pome, with persistent
, recurved sepals.
One species: C Asia; cultivated in China.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Name Status: Accepted Name .
Members of the genus Cydonia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 7 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
C. oblonga (Common Quince) · C. oblonga oblonga (Common Quince) · C. oblonga var. lusitanica (Pear-Shape-Fruited Quince) · C. oblonga 'Aromatnaya' (Quince) · C. oblonga 'Eline' (Quince 'eline') · C. oblonga 'Pineapple' (Quince) · C. oblonga 'Van Deman' (Fruiting Quince)
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- A catalog of woody plants of the Mont Alto State Forest and Arboretum native and introduced / Mont Alto, Pa.: Pennsylvania Dept. of Forests and Waters, 1947. url p. 18.
- A catalogue of the flowering plants and higher cryptogams, both native and introduced, found within about thirty miles of Hanover, N. H., including a few cultivated species, to which is appended a list of vertebrate animals of the same region. By Henry Jesup. [Hanover?]Printed for the Author, 1891. url p. 14.
- A catalogue of the plants growing in Bombay and its vicinty; spontaneous, cultivated or introduced, as far as they have been ascertained. / By John Graham. Bombay:Government Press, 1839. url p. 126.
- A class-book of botany, designed for colleges, academies, and other seminaries. Illustrated by a flora of northern, middle, and western states; particularly of the United States north of the Capitol, lat. 38 3/4. Claremont, N. H., Manufacturing Co., S. Ide, agent, 1850. url p. 245.
- A contribution to our knowledge of seedlings; by the Right Hon. Sir John Lubbock. London: K. Paul, Trench, Trbner, & co., ltd., 1892. url , p. 500.
- A description and history of vegetable substances, used in the arts, and in domestic economy LondonC. Knight1829 url p. 234.
- A dictionary of English names of plants applied in England and among English-speaking people to cultivated and wild plants, trees, and shrubs, by William Miller; in two parts, English-Latin and Latin-English. London, J. Murray, 1884. url p. 186.
- A dictionary of modern gardening / by George William Johnson. .. with one hundred and eighty wood cuts. Edited, with numerous additions, by David Landreth. Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard, 1847. url p. 185, p. 489.
- A dictionary of modern gardening. Philadelphia, Lea and Blanchard, 1847. url p. 185, p. 489.
- A dictionary of popular names of the plants which furnish the natural and acquired wants of man, in all matters of domestic and general economy. Their history, products, & uses, by John Smith. London, Macmillan, 1882. url p. 343.
- A first report on the relations between climates and crops. By Cleveland Abbe. Washington [D.C.]: Govt. Print. Off., 1905. url p. 208.
- A general system of gardening and botany. Founded upon Miller's Gardener's dictionary, and arranged according to the natural system. By George Don. London, Printed for C. J. G. and F. Rivington, 1831-38. url p. 650.
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- A manual of Indian timbers; an account of the growth, distribution, and uses of the trees and shrubs of India and Ceylon with descriptions of their wood-structure, by J. S. Gamble... London: S. Low, Marston & co. ltd., 1902. url p. 320.
- A manual of botany, including the structure, classification, properties, uses, and functions of plants. London, J & A. Churchill, 1887. url p. 545.
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- A manual of botany: including the structure, classification, properties, uses, and functions of plants. London, John Churchill and Sons, 1870. url p. 528, p. 532.
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- A manual of scientific terms, pronouncing, etymological, and explanatory, chiefly comprising terms in botany, natural history, anatomy, medicine, and veterinary science, with an appendix of specific names. Designed for the use of by Rev. James Stormonth Edinburgh, Maclachlan and Stewart, 1885 url p. 111, p. 348.
- A practical guide to garden plants, containing descriptions of the hardiest and most beautiful annuals and biennials, hardy herbaceous and bulbous perennials, hardy water and bog plants, flowering and ornamental trees and shrubs, conife London;Longmans, Green, 1901. url , , p. 1085, p. 407.
- A provisional host-index of the fungi of the United States, by W. G. Farlow and A. B. Seymour. Cambridge, 1888-91. url p. 199, p. 39.
- A provisional list of the parasitic fungi of Wisconsin. Madison, 1914 url p. 911, p. 935.
- A study of some characteristics of vegetable oils, by James B. McNair. 9 1930 Chicago, 1930. url p. 55, p. 59, p. 63.
- A text-book of botany / London; Macmillan, 1898. url , .
- A text-book of botany and pharmacognosy: intended for the use of students of pharmacy, as a reference book for pharmacists, and a handbook for food and drug analysts / by Henry Kraemer. Philadelphia & London: J. B. Lippincott company[c1910] url p. 177, p. 288.
- A text-book of botany, by Dr. Eduard Strasburger. .. Dr. Heinrich Schenck, Ludwig Jost [and] Dr. George Karsten. LondonMacmillan1912 url p. 612, p. 761.
- Acta Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica. Helsinki: Societas, 1875-1980. url p. 12.
- Agricultural botany an enumeration and description of useful plants and weeds, which merit the notice, or require the attention, of American agriculturists / New York: J.W. Moore; 1847. url p. 248.
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- An apple canker due to Cytospora / by Frank Lincoln Stevens. Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Agricultural Experiment Station, 1919. url p. 373.
- An encyclopaedia of gardening; comprising the theory and practice of horticulture, floriculture, arboriculture, and landscape-gardening, including all the latest improvements; a general history of gardening in all countries; and a By J.C. Loudon. London, Printed for Longman, Ross, Orme, Brown, and Green, 1828. url p. 1184.
- An encyclopaedia of trees and shrubs: being the Arboretum et fruticetum britannicum abridged: containing the hardy trees and shrubs of Britain, native and foreign, scientifically and popularly described; with their propagation, culture, by J. C. Loudon. London: F. Warne; 1869. url .
- An encyclopdia of gardening; comprising the theory and practice of horticulture, floriculture, arboriculture, and landscape-gardening, including all the latest improvements; a general history of gardening in all countries; and a By J.C. Loudon. .. illustrated with many hundred engravings on wood by Branston. London: Printed for Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, 1827. url p. 1184.
- An illustrated dictionary of scientific terms. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, pref. 1878. url p. 281.
- An illustrated encyclopaedia of gardening, by Walter P. Wright London, J. M. Dent & sons, ltd.; url p. 269.
- Anales de la Sociedad Espaola de Historia Natural. Madrid: La Sociedad, url p. 145, p. 188, p. 188, p. 253, p. 285, p. 285, p. 367, p. 381, p. 392, p. 442, p. 87, p. 95.
- Annals of applied biology. [Wellesbourne, Warwick, etc.]Association of Applied Biologists [etc.] url p. 52.
- Annual catalogue of fruit and ornamental trees and plants cultivated at the Linnan Botanic Garden and Nurseries / William Prince & Sons, proprietors, Flushing, Long Island, near New-York. [New York: s.n.], 1837 url p. 25.
- Annual report / Albany: University of the State of New York, 1902-1918. url p. 95.
- Annual report / New York State Museum. Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, c1904-1920. url p. 218.
- Annual report of the American Institute, on the subject of agriculture. Albany, N.Y.: s.n., 1843-1850 url p. 459.
- Annual report of the Commissioner of Agriculture. .. Albany: State of New York, Dept. of Agriculture, 1894-1911. url p. 386.
- Annual report of the Maine Agricultural Experiment Station. [Orono, Me.: Maine State College, 1885-1953. url p. 57.
- Annual report of the secretary of the State Pomological Society of Michigan. Lansing: The Society, 1874-1880. url p. 468.
- Anzeiger der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Mathematisch-Naturwissenschaftliche Classe. Wien: Der Akademie, 1864-1914. url p. 336, p. 336.
- Applied and economic botany for students in technical and agricultural schools, pharmaceutical and medical colleges, for chemists, food analysts and for the those engaged in the morphological and physiological study of plants. New York, Wiley url p. 399, p. 562.
- Applied and economic botany, especially adapted for the use of students in technical schools, agricultural, pharmaceutical and medical colleges, and also as a book of reference for chemists, food analysts and students engaged in by Henry Kraemer. .. illustrated with 424 plates, comprising about 2000 figures. Philadelphia, The author[c1914] url p. 399, p. 399, p. 562.
- Arboretum et fruticetum Britannicum; or, The trees and shrubs of Britain, native and foreign, hardy and half-hardy, pictorially and botanically delineated, and scientifically and popularly described; with their propagation, culture, mana London, Henry G. Bohn, 1854. url p. 146.
- Archivos. Rio de JaneiroImprensa Nacional url p. 270, p. 295.
- Bacteria in their relation to vegetable tissue: a dissertation presented to the board of university studies of the Johns Hopkins University for the degree of doctor of philosophy / by H. L. Russell. Baltimore: Press of the Friedenwald Co., 1892. url p. 36.
- Beautiful flowering shrubs, London, Cassell & company, ltd.,  url p. 35, p. 36.
- Bergen's botany, key and flora. Northern and central states ed. By Joseph Y. Bergen. Boston, Ginn,  url p. 116.
- Bergen's botany: key and flora: Northern and Central States ed. / by Joseph Y. Bergen. Boston: Ginn, 1901. url p. 108.
- Bibliographical contributions from the Lloyd library, Cincinnati, Ohio. Cincinnati, Ohio, Lloyd Library. url p. 784.
- Birds & nature magazine. Chicago, nature study publishing company [etc.]1896-1907. url p. 35.
- Birds and all nature. Chicago: Nature Study Publishing Co., 1898-1900. url p. 35.
- Black rot, leaf spot and canker of pomaceous fruits / L.R. Hesler. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University, 1916. url p. 53, p. 98.
- Botanic drugs, their materia medica, pharmacology, and therapeutics, by Thomas S. Blair. Cincinnati, O.: The Therapeutic digest publishing co., 1917. url p. 344.
- Botanical Museum leaflets, Harvard University. 10 1942 Cambridge, Mass.: Botanical Museum, Harvard University, 1932- url p. 153.
- Botanical abstracts. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Co. url p. 166.
- Botany for academies and colleges: consisting of plant development and structure from seaweed to clematis, Philadelphia, J.B. Lippincott company, 1889. url .
- Botany for high schools and colleges / by Charles E. Bessey. New York: H. Holt, 1883, c1880. url p. 527.
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- Botany. New York, Holt, 1889. url p. 527.
- British vegetable galls, an introduction to their study, by Edward T. Connold. .. Illustrated with one hundred and thirty full-page plates and twenty-seven smaller drawings. London, Hutchinson & co., 1901. url p. 9.
- Britton, N. L. (ed.). North American flora. 7 1912 [New York]New York Botanical Garden. url p. 196, p. 198, p. 203, p. 207, p. 736, p. 825, p. 826, p. 938.
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- Bulletin / U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology. Washington: G.P.O., 1904-1916. url p. 37, p. 85.
- Bulletin of miscellaneous information /Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 1914 London: H.M. Stationery Office, 1900-1941. url p. 271, p. 342, p. 44.
- Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). London: BM(NH) url p. 259.
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- Bulletin of the New York Botanical Garden. 7 1909-1911 Lancaster, Pa.: Published for the Garden by the New Era Printing Co., url p. 422, p. 454, p. 456, p. 463, p. 465, p. 471, p. 475, p. 480.
- Bulletin of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. [Washington, D.C.?]: Supt. of Docs., Govt. Print. Off., 1913-1923. url p. 12, p. 12, p. 12, p. 24, p. 36, p. 36, p. 7, p. 7.
- Bulletin of the United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories / Department of the Interior. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1874- url p. 112.
- Bulletin. Bureau of Plant Industry. U. S. Department of Agriculture. 1901-13. WashingtonGovt. Print. Off. url p. 188, p. 21, p. 24, p. 30, p. 60, p. 62, p. 67.
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- C. E. Hobbs Botanical hand-book of common local, English, botanical and pharmacopial names arranged in alphabetical order, of most of the crude vegetable drugs, etc., in common use. Especially designed as a reference book for druggists and apothecaries. Comp. and pub. by Charles E. Hobbs. Boston, Printed by C.C. Roberts, 1876. url p. 167, p. 204, p. 262, p. 269.
- C.E. Hobbs' Botanical hand-book: of common local, English, botanical and pharmacopial names arranged in alphabetical order, of most of the crude vegetable drugs, etc., in common use: their properties, productions and uses in an abb Boston: Printed by C.C. Roberts, 1876. url , , , , , .
- Cassell's dictionary of practical gardening; an illustrated encyclopdia of practical horticulture for all classes; ed. by Walter P. Wright. London, Cassell and company, limited, 1902. url p. 258.
- Catalogue of scientific papers (1800-1900) Comp. by the Royal society of London. Cambridge, C. J. Clay and sons, 1867-1902; url p. 221, p. 631, p. 833.
- Catalogue of scientific papers, 1800-1900. Compiled by the Royal Society of London. London, C.J. Clay and Sons, 1867-1902 [etc.] Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1914-25. url p. 221, p. 631, p. 833.
- Catalogue of the Hanbury Herbarium, in the Museum of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain / compiled by E.M. Holmes. London: Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain, 1892. url p. 61.
- Catalogue of the books, manuscripts, maps and drawings in the British Museum (Natural History) London: BM(NH), 1903-1940. url p. 1350.
- Catalogue of the collections in the museum of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain compiled by E.M. Holmes. London, The Society, 1878. url p. 43.
- Catalogue of the economic products of the Presidency of Bombay: being a catalogue of the Government Central Museum, Division 1., Raw produce (vegetable) / compiled by Assistant Surgeon Birdwood. Bombay: Printed at the Education Society's Press, 1862. url p. 151, p. 32.
- Catalogue of the flowering plants and ferns of Connecticut growing without cultivation / by Charles Burr Graves. .. [et al.]; Committee of the Connecticut Botanical Society. Hartford: Printed for the State Geological and Natural History Survey, 1910. url p. 224, p. 493.
- Catalogue of the library of the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University / compiled under the direction of Charles Sprague Sargent by Ethelyn Maria Tucker. Cambridge: Printed at the Cosmos Press, 1914-1933. url p. 345.
- Catalogue of the science collections for teaching and research in the South Kensington Museum. .. London, Printed for H.M. Stationery Off. by Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1891- url p. 110.
- Cellulose: an outline of the chemistry of the structural elements of plants, with reference to their natural history and industrial uses. By Cross & Bevan (C. F. Cross, E. J. Bevan, and C. Beadle). New impression with a supplement. London, Longmans, Green, and co., 1918. url p. 215.
- Chamber's encyclopaedia, a dictionary of universal knowledge. London, Chambers, 1902. url p. 20.
- Chestnut blight. 1906-1960. url .
- Circular / United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Entomology. Washington, D.C.: The Bureau, 1904-1913. url p. 6, p. 7, p. 9.
- Class book of botany. Being outlines of the structure, physiology and classification of plants. With a flora of all parts of the United States and Canada. By Alphonso Wood. .. New York, A.S. Barnes & Burr;1860. url p. 333.
- Class-book of botany being outlines of the structures, physiology, and classification of plants: with a flora of the United States and Canada / by Alphonso Wood. Cincinnati: American Book Co., c1881. url .
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- Commercial gardening, a practical & scientific treatise for market gardeners, market growers, fruit, flower & vegetable growers, nurserymen, etc. By many practical specialists under the editorship of John Weathers. London, The Gresham publishing company, 1913. url p. 107, p. 232.
- Comparative anatomy of the vegetative organs of the phanerogams and ferns / by A. de Bary; translated and annotated by F.O. Bower and D.H. Scott; with 241 woodcuts and an index. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1884. url p. 493, p. 635.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 24 1931 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 109, p. 185, p. 251, p. 261.
- Contributions to the natural history of the Bermudas. Washington, Govt. print. off., 1884. url p. 135, p. 73.
- Cultivated plants, their propagation and improvement. Edinburgh, W. Blackwood & Sons, 1877. url p. 469.
- Cultures of Uredineae 1899-1921. n.p., n.d. url p. 157, p. 194, p. 195, p. 201, p. 210, p. 322.
- Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants sold in the United by L. H. Bailey. .. assisted by William Miller. .. and many expert cultivators and botanists. London: The Macmillan company, 1909. url p. 427.
- Dedication papers: scientific papers presented at the dedication of the laboratory building and plant houses, April 19-21, 1917. Brooklyn, N.Y.: Brooklyn Botanic Garden, 1918. url p. 220, p. 224, p. 293.
- Dictionary of the common names of plants with list of foreign plants cultivated in the open / by Rudolf Marloth. Cape Town: Specialty Press of South Africa, 1917. url p. 160.
- Diseases of cultivated plants and trees / by George Massee. New York: Macmillan, [1910?] url p. 434.
- Diseases of plants induced by cryptogamic parasites: introduction to the study of pathogenic Fungi, slime-Fungi, bacteria, & Algae / London; Longmans, Green & co., 1897. url , , , .
- Elements of botany. Boston, Ginn[c1904, pref. 1906] url .
- Elliott's fruit book; New York, C. M. Saxton, 1854. url p. 431.
- Elliott's fruit book; or, The American fruit-grower's guide in orchard and garden. Being a compend of the history, modes of propagation, culture, etc., of fruit trees and shrubs, with descriptions of nearly all the varieti By F.R. Elliot. New York: A.O. Moore, 1858. url p. 431, p. 431.
- Elliott's fruit book; or, the American fruit-grower's guide in orchard and garden. Being a compend of the history, modes of propagation, culture, &c., of fruit trees and shrubs, with descriptions of nearly all the varietie By F.R. Elliot New York, C.M. Saxton, 1854 url p. 431, p. 431.
- Enquiry into plants and minor works on odoùrs and weather signs, London, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1916. url p. 460, p. 489.
- Entomologica Americana. [Lawrence, Kan., etc.]New York Entomological Society [etc.] url p. 158, p. 78, p. 78.
- Essentials of botany. Boston, Ginn[c1908] url , .
- Exercises in botany for the Pacific states / by Volney Rattan. San Francisco: Whitaker & Ray, 1897. url p. 333.
- Experiment station record. Washington: G.P.O., 1889-1946. url p. 247.
- Facts for farmers; New York, A.J. Johnson;1867. url p. 553.
- Facts for farmers; also for the family circle. A compost of rich materials for all land-owners, about domestic animals and domestic economy; farm buildings; gardens, orchards, and vineyards; and all farm crops, tools, fences, fertilization, draini Ed. by Solon Robinson. .. New York, Johnson and Ward, 1864. url p. 553.
- Farmer's cyclopedia: a compilation of such bulletins and reports as are indispensable to the practical farmer. Garden City, N. Y.: Doubleday, Page, 1914. url p. 206, p. 212.
- Farmers' bulletin / U.S. Department of Agriculture. Washington: G.P.O., 1889- url p. 6, p. 9, p. 9.
- Fifth report of the United States Entomological Commission, being a revised and enlarged edition of Bulletin no. 7, on insects injurious to forest and shade trees. By Alpheus S. Packard. .. Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1890. url p. 249, p. 302, p. 948.
- Flora cestrica: an herborizing companion for the young botanists of Chester County...Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, Lindsay & Blakiston, 1853. url p. 461.
- Flora medica; a botanical account of all the more important plants used in medicine in different parts of the world. London, Longman, 1838. url p. 234.
- Flora of Guatemala, by Paul C. Standley and J.A. Steyermark. 24 1946 Chicago, 1946- url p. 445.
- Flora of New Bedford and the shores of Buzzards Bay, with a procession of the flowers. New Bedford [Mass.]E. Anthony, 1911. url p. 24.
- Flora of Peru / by J. Francis Macbride. 13 1938 Chicago, [Ill.]: Field Museum of Natural History,  url p. 1063, p. 1145.
- Flora of Syria, Palestine and Sinai; from the Taurus to Ras Muhammad, and from the Mediterranean Sea to the Syrian desert. By Rev. George E. Post. Beirut, Syria, Syrian Protestant College url p. 310.
- Flora of Syria, Palestine, and Sinai: from the Taurus to Ras Muhammas and from the Mediterranean sea to the Syrian desert / by Rev. George E. Post. Beirut, Syria: Syrian Protestant college url p. 310.
- Flora of the southern United States, containing an abridged description of the flowering plants and ferns of Tennessee, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida; arranged according to the natural system by A.W. Chapman. New York, American Book Company url p. 129.
- Flora, or, Vegetable life of the mountain. Philadelphia, Lippincott, 1860. url p. 278.
- Foundations of botany / by Joseph Y. Bergen. Boston: Ginn, 1901. url p. 108, p. 108.
- Fruits and fruit-trees, home and foreign. An index to the kinds valued in Britain, with descriptions, histories, and other particulars. By Leo H. Grindon. .. Manchester [Eng.]Palmer and Howe; [etc., etc.]1885. url p. 42.
- Fruits, vegetables and flowers, a non-technical manual for their culture, management and improvement, by Frank D. Gardner, assisted by R. L. Watts, Paul Work, C. W. Waid [and others] Chicago, The John C. Winston company[c1918] url p. 122.
- Fungous diseases of plants, Boston, Ginn and company[c1909] url p. 392, p. 495, p. 501.
- Fungous diseases of plants, with chapters on physiology, culture methods and technique, by Benjamin Minge Duggar. Boston, Ginn and company, [c1909] url p. 123, p. 392, p. 495, p. 501.
- Fungous diseases of plants: with chapters on physiology, culture methods and technique / Boston; Ginn, [c1909] url , , , .
- Fungous diseases of plants; with chapters on physiology, culture methods and techniques. Boston, Ginn url p. 392, p. 501.
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 11, 2007:
- Biologiezentrum der Oberoesterreichischen Landesmuseen, Biologiezentrum Linz
- GBIF-Spain, Real Jardin Botanico
- , Vascular Plant Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2779495
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Ros-528
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13693023
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:724560-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 2123392
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