Common Names in English:
Swane's Golden Italian Cypress
, monoecious or dioecious. Leaves decussate or in whorls of 3, scalelike and then often dimorphic
with flattened facial leaves and keeled
leaves, or needlelike particularly in juvenile plants
, often with an abaxial
. Pollen cones terminal
, solitary, maturing and shed annually; microsporophylls
6-16, decussate or whorled
, each bearing (2 or) 3-6(-9) pollen sacs
; pollen wingless. Seed cones usually terminal, solitary, globose
, or oblong
or indehiscent when mature
in 1st or 2nd(or 3rd) year; cone scales developing after ovules originate in bract axils; bracts almost completely enveloped by cone scales, free
only at apex; ovules 1-numerous per bract axil, erect
; cone scales of mature cones 3-16, flat or peltate, woody, leathery, or succulent, 1-20-seeded. Seeds winged
or not; wings
derived from seed coat
. Cotyledons usually 2, rarely 3-6. Germination epigeal.
Nineteen genera and ca. 125 species: worldwide; eight genera (one introduced ) and 46 species (16 endemic, 13 introduced) in China.
or large shrubs
, in decussate arrays (or partially comblike in Cupressus macnabiana ). Leaves opposite in 4 ranks
to divergent, scalelike, rhomboid
portion of long-shoot leaves to 4 mm; abaxial
present or absent. Pollen cones with 4--10 pairs of sporophylls, each sporophyll with 3--10 pollen sacs
. Seed cones maturing in 1--2 years, generally persisting closed
many years or until opened by fire, globose
, 1--4 cm; scales
, 3--6 pairs, valvate
, peltate, thick and woody. Seeds 5--20 per scale, lenticular
, narrowly 2-winged; cotyledons 2--5. x
Species 10--26: warm north temperate regions .
The genus Cupressus in North America consists mainly of small, disjunct , relictual populations, many differing from related populations in color and size of leaves and seeds, activity of leaf glands , glaucousness of various parts, form of growth, and characteristics of bark . Disagreements on the number and rank of taxa reflect these variations . This treatment, with seven taxa, approaches the more conservative end of a spectrum; anywhere from 6 to 15 taxa---species, subspecies , and varieties---might be accepted in the flora . The taxonomy of the genus would benefit from detailed studies of variation in and among populations (cf. J. F. Goggans and C. E. Posey 1968).
The Mediterranean Cupressus sempervirens Linnaeus, usually with a fastigiate habit, is commonly cultivated in California, often away from dwellings, but it does not appear to have become naturalized . Other introduced Eurasian and Mexican species are clearly associated with cultivated landscapes.
Flowers: Flower Conspicuous: None
Growth Rate: Slow Growing • Size: Slow grower to 15 to 20 ft . tall, 2 to 3 ft. wide.
Care: Follow a regular watering schedule during the first growing season to establish a deep, extensive root system . Watering can be reduced after establishment. Feed with a general purpose fertilizer before new growth begins in spring .
Culture: Space 4-6' apart.
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full sun
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: High • Water Requirements: Once established needs only occasional water.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Order: Cupressales ()
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Burnett
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Cupressus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 53 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
C. arizonica (Arizona Cypress) · C. arizonica arizonica var. arizonica (Arizona Cypress) · C. arizonica Greene var. glabra (Sudw.) Little (Arizona Cypress) · C. arizonica nevadensis (Piute Cypress) · C. arizonica stephensonii (Cuyamaca Cypress) · C. arizonica var. Blue Ice (Blue Arizona Cypress) · C. arizonica var. glabra 'Carolina Sapphire' (Carolina Sapphire Cypress) · C. arizonica var. montana (San Pedro Martir Cypress) · C. arizonica var. montana 'Blue Column' (San Pedro Martir Cypress) · C. arizonica var. nevadensis (Piute Cypress) · C. arizonica var. stephensonii (Cuyamaca Cypress) · C. arizonica 'Blue Pyramid' (Blue Pyramid Cypress) · C. arizonica 'Carolina Sapphire' (Carolina Sapphire Cypress) · C. bakeri (Baker's Cypress) · C. bakeri matthewsii (Siskiyou Cypress) · C. cashmeriana (Kashmir Cypress) · C. chengiana (Chengs Cypress) · C. duclouxiana (Chinese Cypress) · C. dupreziana (Saharan Cypress) · C. dupreziana var. atlantica (Atlas Cypress) · C. funebris (Chinese Weeping Cypress) · C. glabra arizonica (Arizona Smooth Cypress) · C. glabra 'Carolina Sapphire' (Arizona Cypress) · C. glabra 'Chaparral' (Arizona Cypress) · C. glabra 'Silver Smoke' (Silver Smoke Arizona Cypress) · C. goveniana (Gowen Cypress) · C. goveniana Gordon var. goveniana (Gowen Cypress) · C. goveniana pygmaea (Gowen Cypress) · C. goveniana var. abramsiana (Santa Cruz Cypress) · C. goveniana var. goveniana (Gowen Cypress) · C. goveniana var. pygmaea (Pygmy Cypress) · C. guadalupensis (Forbes Cypress) · C. guadalupensis var. forbesii (Tecate Cypress) · C. lusitanica (Cedar of Goa) · C. macnabiana (Macnab Cypress) · C. macnabiana A.Murray bis var. bakeri (Jeps.) Jeps. (Fragrant Cypress) · C. macrocarpa (Monterey Cypress) · C. macrocarpa 'Goldcrest' (Monterey Cypress) · C. macrocarpa 'Golden Pillar' (Monterey Cypress) · C. macrocarpa 'Greenstead Magnificent' (Monterey Cypress) · C. macrocarpa 'Lutea' (Monterey Cypress) · C. macrocarpa 'Saligna Aurea' (Monterey Cypress) · C. sargentii (Sargent Cypress) · C. sempervirens (Italian Cypress) · C. sempervirens f. horizontalis (Italian Cypress) · C. sempervirens f. sempervirens (Italian Cypress) · C. sempervirens var. stricta (Italian Cypress) · C. sempervirens 'Glauca' (Blue Italian Cypress) · C. sempervirens 'Green Pencil' (Italian Cypress) · C. sempervirens 'Monshel' (Tiny Tower® Italian Cypress) · C. sempervirens 'Swane's Golden' (Swane's Golden Italian Cypress) · C. sempervirens 'Totem' (Dwarf Italian Cypress) · C. torulosa (Himalayan Cypress)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- Wang Wen-tsai, Cheng Wan-chün, Fu Li-kuo & Chu Cheng-de. 1978. Cupressaceae. In: Cheng Wan-chün & Fu Li-kuo, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 7: 313-398.
- Goggans, J. F. and C. E. Posey. 1968. Variation in seeds and ovulate cones of some species and varieties of Cupressus. Circ. Agric. Exp. Sta., Alabama 160: 1--23.
- Little, E. L. Jr. 1966. Varietal transfers in Cupressus and Chamaecyparis. Madroño 18: 161--167.
- Little, E. L. Jr. 1970. Names of New World cypresses (Cupressus). Phytologia 20: 429--445.
- Silba, J. 1981. Revision of Cupressus L. (Cupressaceae). Phytologia 49: 390--399.
- Wolf, C. B. 1948. Taxonomic and distributional studies of the New World cypresses. Aliso 1: 1--250.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed March 27, 2012.
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 709422
- Liguo Fu, Yong-fu Yu, Robert P. Adams & Aljos Farjon "Cupressaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 4 Page 62. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- James E. Eckenwalder "Cupressus". in Flora of North America Vol. 2. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]