Common Names in English:
Beaked Hawksbeard, Beaked Hawk´s-Beard
The largest family of flowering plants , the Compositae (Asteraceae), comprising about 1,100 genera and more than 20,000 species and characterized by many small flowers arranged in a head looking like a single flower and subtended by an involucre of bracts. A head may consist of both ray flowers and disk flowers, as in the sunflower, of disk flowers only, as in the burdock, or of ray flowers only, as in the dandelion.
The Lactuceae are a tribe of closely related genera of the sunflower family that are easily recognized because the flowering heads are composed of wholly of ligulate florets that are usually 5-lobed. Another very distinguishing feature is the milky sap . Although not apparent without magnification, the pollen is distinctive in that the spines are more or less restricted to discrete ridges or flanges on the surface of the grain. In other members of the family the spines are distributed more or less evenly over the surface of the pollen grain . The pappus usually consists of scales or stiff hairs . -- Gerald D. Carr.
, biennials, or perennials
, 3-120 cm; usually taprooted, sometimes rhizomatous
deep or shallow, woody or fibrous
, caudices often woody). Stems 1-20+. erect
) or branched, usually striate
, often densely hispid
). Leaves basal (often in rosettes) and cauline; petiolate
(at least basal, petioles
) ; basal blades mostly elliptic
, or lanceolate to linear
, or spatulate
, often lyrate or runcinate, margins
, serrate, toothed
, or pinnately lobed
sometimes toothed; cauline usually present, lobed or entire, usually reduced in size and lobing distally. Heads (erect) usually in cymiform, corymbiform
, or paniculiform
arrays, sometimes borne singly. Peduncles not inflated
distally, not bracteate
. Calyculi of 5-12, reduced, subulate
to lanceolate or deltate bractlets
in ± 1 series, mostly unequal, glabrous, tomentulose
, or setose. Involucres cylindric
(sometimes becoming turbinate
in fruit), 4-15 mm diam. Phyllaries 5-18 in 1-2 series. lanceolate, equal or subequal
becoming thickened and keeled
, keels sometimes pronounced in fruit) margins green to yellowish, often scarious
, apices acute to acuminate, abaxial
, or setose, sometimes stipitate-glandular, adaxial
glabrous or with appressed
hairs. Receptacles flat or convex
, usually pitted
, glabrous or hairy, epaleate [paleate, paleae narrow, thin]. Florets 5-100+; corollas usually yellow or orange, sometimes white, pink, or reddish. Cypselae monomorphic
. yellow, brown, green, red, and/or black, subcylindric
or subterete, usually curved
, apices tapered or beaked
10-20, sometimes spiculate-roughened, faces glabrous or hispidulous
; pappi persistent
or falling, of 80-150, usually distinct
, sometimes basally connate
, white to tawny
to fine, ± equal (or outer shorter), barbellulate
in 1-2 series. x = 3, 4, 5, 6, 11.
Species ca. 200: North America, Eurasia , Africa; introduced nearly worldwide.
Crepis is generally recognized by the rosettes of coarse, often pinnately lobed leaves, erect heads, epaleate receptacles, calyculate involucres. yellow corollas, subcylindric or fusiform, ribbed cypselae, and pappi of barbellulate bristles. The taxonomy and evolutionary relationships of Crepis were studied by E. B . Babcock (1947) and his associates. Their work was thorough and important because of the effort to incorporate cytogenetic information in the evolutionary analysis. Extensive survey of chromosome number and karyotype indicated two major ploidy groups in Crepis, corresponding to New World and Old World species complexes. Of the 12 species of Crepis native to North America, 10 are polyploids with x = 11. The core diploid populations commonly occupy discrete ecologic zones and are thought to be entirely distinct from one another, yet they are interconnected by a continuous complex series of intergrading polyploid forms that are partly or completely apomictic (Babcock). The polyploids are of two forms, autopolyploids that are similar to the diploids, and allopolyploids that combine the characteristics of two or more diploid species. The allopolyploid forms of hybrid origin may exhibit the characteristics of multiple parental species and therefore are difficult to classify. Some of the heterogeneous apomictic populations, or groups of populations, have been grouped together and recognized as subspecies ; those taxa are often difficult to identify and further study is clearly needed. Despite these difficulties, the subspecific taxa of Babcock were tentatively included in the present study. The Old World species are mostly diploid (n = 3, 4, 5, or 6). Babcock concluded that there was a progressive decrease in the chromosome numbers, from n = 6 to n = 3. Along with the decrease is a corresponding increase in chromosome asymmetry and reduction in chromosome length.
Duration: Annual , Biennial
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Lindley, 1833
- Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- C. Linnaeus, 1753
- Hawksbeard [Greek krepis, slipper or sandal. possibly alluding to shape of cypselae, a name of a plant in writings by Theophrastus]
- Specific epithet:
- (Thuill.) Thellung
- Botanical name: - Crepis vesicaria taraxacifolia (Thuill.) Thellung
- Subspecies: taraxacifolia
- Specific epithet: vesicaria - (Thuill.) Thellung
- Genus: Crepis () - C. Linnaeus, 1753 - Hawksbeard [Greek krepis, slipper or sandal. possibly alluding to shape of cypselae, a name of a plant in writings by Theophrastus]
- Subtribe: Crepidinae ()
- Tribe: Lactuceae ()
- Subfamily: Cichorioideae ()
- Family: Compositae () - Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- Order: Asterales () - Lindley, 1833
- Superorder: Campanulanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Crepis vesicaria L. taraxacifolia (Thuill.) Thell. Ex Schinz & R. Keller
Place of publication
: H. Schinz & R. Keller, Fl.
3, 2:361. 1914
Name verified on 15-Aug-1986 by ARS Systematic Botanists. Last updated: 17-Dec-2002
Members of the genus Crepis
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 44 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
C. acuminata (Long-Leaf Hawksbeard) · C. acuminata acuminata (Longleaf Hawksbeard) · C. acuminata pluriflora (Longleaf Hawksbeard) · C. atribarba (Hawksbeard) · C. atribarba atribarba (Hawksbeard) · C. aurea (Golden Hawks Beard) · C. bakeri (Baker's Hawksbeard) · C. bakeri cusickii (Baker's Hawksbeard) · C. bakeri idahoensis (Baker's Hawksbeard) · C. biennis (Rough Hawksbeard) · C. bursifolia (Italian Hawksbeard) · C. capillaris (Smooth Hawk's-Beard) · C. elegans (Elegant Hawksbeard) · C. foetida (Roadside Hawksbeard) · C. foetida foetida (Stinking Hawksbeard) · C. intermedia (Gray Hawksbeard) · C. modocensis rostrata (Common Hawksbeard) · C. monticola (Mountain Hawksbeard) · C. nana (Dwarf Alpine Hawksbeard) · C. nana ramosa (Dwarf Alpine Hawksbeard) · C. nicaeensis (Turkish Hawksbeard) · C. occidentalis conjuncta (Gray Hawksbeard) · C. occidentalis pumila (Large-Flower Hawk's-Beard) · C. pannonica (Pasture Hawksbeard) · C. pleurocarpa (Naked-Stem Hawksbeard) · C. pulchra (Hawksbeard) · C. pulchra pulchra (Smallflower Hawksbeard) · C. pumila (Largeflower Hawksbeard) · C. rostrata (Modoc Hawksbeard) · C. rubra (Hawksbeard) · C. rubra 'Alba' (Hawks Beard) · C. runcinata andersonii (Dandelion Hawksbeard) · C. runcinata barberi (Barber's Hawksbeard) · C. runcinata hallii (Fiddleleaf Hawksbeard) · C. runcinata hispidulosa (Fiddleleaf Hawksbeard) · C. runcinata imbricata (Fiddleleaf Hawksbeard) · C. runcinata runcinata (Fiddle-Leaf Hawk's-Beard) · C. setosa (Bristly Hawksbeard) · C. tectorum (Narrow-Leaf Hawk's-Beard) · C. tectorum tectorum (Narrowleaved Hawk's Beard) · C. vesicaria (Beaked Hawksbeard) · C. vesicaria haenseleri (Beaked Hawksbeard) · C. vesicaria taraxacifolia (Beaked Hawksbeard) · C. zacintha (Striped Hawksbeard)
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- Ali, S. I. & S. M. H. Jafri, eds. 1976–. Flora of Libya. (F Libya) [lists as C. vesicaria subsp. taraxacifolia (Thuill.) Thell. ex Schinz & R. Keller].
- Babcock, E. B. 1947. The genus Crepis. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 22:843–853.
- Davis, P. H., ed. 1965–1988. Flora of Turkey and the east Aegean islands. (F Turk) [lists as C. vesicaria subsp. taraxacifolia (Thuill.) Thell. ex Schinz & R. Keller].
- Gleason, H. A. & A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada, ed. 2. (Glea Cron ed2)
- Jahandiez, E. & R. Maire. 1931–1941. Catalogue des plantes du Maroc. (L Maroc)
- Kartesz, J. T. 1994. A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland. (L US Can ed2) [= Crepis vesicaria subsp. haenseleri (Boiss. ex DC.) P. D. Sell].
- Munz, P. A. & D. D. Keck. 1959. A California flora. (F CalifMunz)
- Pottier-Alapetite, G. 1979–1981. Flore de la Tunisie: Angiospermes-Dicotyledones. (F Tunis)
- Quézel, P. & S. Santa. 1962–1963. Nouvelle flore de l'Algerie. (F Alger)
- Radford, A. E. et al., eds. 1980–. Vascular flora of the southeastern United States. (F SE US)
- Scoggan, H. J. 1978–1979. The flora of Canada, 4 vol. (F Canada)
- Tutin, T. G. et al., eds. 1964–1980. Flora europaea. (F Eur) [= Crepis vesicaria subsp. haenseleri (Boiss. ex DC.) P. D. Sell].
- Babcock, E. B. 1947. The genus Crepis. Pt. 1: The taxonomy, phylogeny, distribution, and evolution of Crepis. Pt. II: Systematic treatment. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 21, 22.
- Bisby FA, Roskov YR, Orrell TM, Nicolson D, Paglinawan LE, Bailly N, Kirk PM, Bourgoin T, van Hertum J, eds (2008). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2008 Annual Checklist Taxonomic Classification. CD-ROM; Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed March 18, 2008. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 2 providers.
- USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL (April 27, 2008)
- USDA, NRCS. 2005. The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 (http://plants.usda.gov). National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 3877591
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-525180
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13747798
- GRIN Nomen Number: 12205
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 525180
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: CRVEH
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 33045