Common Names in English:
Hawksbeard, Dark Hawksbeard, Slender Hawksbeard
The largest family of flowering plants , the Compositae (Asteraceae), comprising about 1,100 genera and more than 20,000 species and characterized by many small flowers arranged in a head looking like a single flower and subtended by an involucre of bracts. A head may consist of both ray flowers and disk flowers, as in the sunflower, of disk flowers only, as in the burdock, or of ray flowers only, as in the dandelion.
The Lactuceae are a tribe of closely related genera of the sunflower family that are easily recognized because the flowering heads are composed of wholly of ligulate florets that are usually 5-lobed. Another very distinguishing feature is the milky sap . Although not apparent without magnification, the pollen is distinctive in that the spines are more or less restricted to discrete ridges or flanges on the surface of the grain. In other members of the family the spines are distributed more or less evenly over the surface of the pollen grain . The pappus usually consists of scales or stiff hairs . -- Gerald D. Carr.
, biennials, or perennials
, 3-120 cm; usually taprooted, sometimes rhizomatous
deep or shallow, woody or fibrous
, caudices often woody). Stems 1-20+. erect
) or branched, usually striate
, often densely hispid
). Leaves basal (often in rosettes) and cauline; petiolate
(at least basal, petioles
) ; basal blades mostly elliptic
, or lanceolate to linear
, or spatulate
, often lyrate or runcinate, margins
, serrate, toothed
, or pinnately lobed
sometimes toothed; cauline usually present, lobed or entire, usually reduced in size and lobing distally. Heads (erect) usually in cymiform, corymbiform
, or paniculiform
arrays, sometimes borne singly. Peduncles not inflated
distally, not bracteate
. Calyculi of 5-12, reduced, subulate
to lanceolate or deltate bractlets
in ± 1 series, mostly unequal, glabrous, tomentulose
, or setose. Involucres cylindric
(sometimes becoming turbinate
in fruit), 4-15 mm diam. Phyllaries 5-18 in 1-2 series. lanceolate, equal or subequal
becoming thickened and keeled
, keels sometimes pronounced in fruit) margins green to yellowish, often scarious
, apices acute to acuminate, abaxial
, or setose, sometimes stipitate-glandular, adaxial
glabrous or with appressed
hairs. Receptacles flat or convex
, usually pitted
, glabrous or hairy, epaleate [paleate, paleae narrow, thin]. Florets 5-100+; corollas usually yellow or orange, sometimes white, pink, or reddish. Cypselae monomorphic
. yellow, brown, green, red, and/or black, subcylindric
or subterete, usually curved
, apices tapered or beaked
10-20, sometimes spiculate-roughened, faces glabrous or hispidulous
; pappi persistent
or falling, of 80-150, usually distinct
, sometimes basally connate
, white to tawny
to fine, ± equal (or outer shorter), barbellulate
in 1-2 series. x = 3, 4, 5, 6, 11.
Species ca. 200: North America, Eurasia , Africa; introduced nearly worldwide.
Crepis is generally recognized by the rosettes of coarse, often pinnately lobed leaves, erect heads, epaleate receptacles, calyculate involucres. yellow corollas, subcylindric or fusiform, ribbed cypselae, and pappi of barbellulate bristles. The taxonomy and evolutionary relationships of Crepis were studied by E. B . Babcock (1947) and his associates. Their work was thorough and important because of the effort to incorporate cytogenetic information in the evolutionary analysis. Extensive survey of chromosome number and karyotype indicated two major ploidy groups in Crepis, corresponding to New World and Old World species complexes. Of the 12 species of Crepis native to North America, 10 are polyploids with x = 11. The core diploid populations commonly occupy discrete ecologic zones and are thought to be entirely distinct from one another, yet they are interconnected by a continuous complex series of intergrading polyploid forms that are partly or completely apomictic (Babcock). The polyploids are of two forms, autopolyploids that are similar to the diploids, and allopolyploids that combine the characteristics of two or more diploid species. The allopolyploid forms of hybrid origin may exhibit the characteristics of multiple parental species and therefore are difficult to classify. Some of the heterogeneous apomictic populations, or groups of populations, have been grouped together and recognized as subspecies ; those taxa are often difficult to identify and further study is clearly needed. Despite these difficulties, the subspecific taxa of Babcock were tentatively included in the present study. The Old World species are mostly diploid (n = 3, 4, 5, or 6). Babcock concluded that there was a progressive decrease in the chromosome numbers, from n = 6 to n = 3. Along with the decrease is a corresponding increase in chromosome asymmetry and reduction in chromosome length.
Species Crepis atribarba
, 15-70 cm (taproots
slender, caudices swollen,
often covered by old leaf bases
). Stems 1-2, erect
usually branched distal to middles
basal and cauline; petiolate
lanceolate to linear
× 0.5-6 cm, margins
deeply pinnately lobed
lanceolate or linear, usually entire or toothed
), apices acuminate,
tomentulose to glabrate
. Heads 3-30, in corymbiform
arrays. Calyculi of 5-10, narrowly triangular to lanceolate,
10-12 × 4-7 mm. Phyllaries 8-13, lanceolate, 10-12 mm
(margins yellow, scarious
), apices acute, abaxial
usually tomentulose, sometimes glabrous, often with coarse
or blackish setae, adaxial
glabrous or with fine, appressed
Florets 6-35; corollas yellow, 10-18 mm. Cypselae dark
or blackish green, subcylindric
, 3-10 mm, apices tapered, not beaked
) ; pappi whitish, 5-9 mm. 2n
= 22, 33, 44, 55, 88. [source]
Crepis atribarba is generally recognized by the deeply pinnately lobed leaves with linear lobes, fine tomentulose indument on stems and leaves, setose phyllaries, and dark green, strongly ribbed cypselae. It is a variable mixture that includes polyploid, apomictic forms and hybrids with C. acuminata and other species. The typical form is recognized by its short stature, narrow pinnately lobed, tomentulose leaves, stems with 3-10 heads , and phyllaries with scattered , black, eglandular setae. Larger, more robust forms with stems 30-70 cm, 10-30+ heads, narrower involucres, and few or no black setae have been recognized as subsp. originalis. The latter was considered by E. B . Babcock (1947) to represent the original diploid form of the species; it is difficult to distinguish in practice. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: May, June, July. • Flower Color: yellow
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Lindley, 1833
- Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- Subfamily: Cichorioideae ()
- Family: Compositae () - Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- Order: Asterales () - Lindley, 1833
- Superorder: Campanulanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
C. exilis originalis Babcock & Stebbins • C. occidentalis Nuttall Var. gracilis D. C. Eaton • Crepis exilis Osterhout
Status: Accepted Name
Comment: Data Providers: Govaerts World Compositae Checklist A-G, IPNI, Tropicos, LCR Editor. GCC LSID: urn :lsid:compositae.org:names:5787B390-7853-4DF6-B29F-503E66A28110
Last scrutiny: 18-Nov-09
Members of the genus Crepis
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 44 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
C. acuminata (Long-Leaf Hawksbeard) · C. acuminata acuminata (Longleaf Hawksbeard) · C. acuminata pluriflora (Longleaf Hawksbeard) · C. atribarba (Hawksbeard) · C. atribarba atribarba (Hawksbeard) · C. aurea (Golden Hawks Beard) · C. bakeri (Baker's Hawksbeard) · C. bakeri cusickii (Baker's Hawksbeard) · C. bakeri idahoensis (Baker's Hawksbeard) · C. biennis (Rough Hawksbeard) · C. bursifolia (Italian Hawksbeard) · C. capillaris (Smooth Hawk's-Beard) · C. elegans (Elegant Hawksbeard) · C. foetida (Roadside Hawksbeard) · C. foetida foetida (Stinking Hawksbeard) · C. intermedia (Gray Hawksbeard) · C. modocensis rostrata (Common Hawksbeard) · C. monticola (Mountain Hawksbeard) · C. nana (Dwarf Alpine Hawksbeard) · C. nana ramosa (Dwarf Alpine Hawksbeard) · C. nicaeensis (Turkish Hawksbeard) · C. occidentalis conjuncta (Gray Hawksbeard) · C. occidentalis pumila (Large-Flower Hawk's-Beard) · C. pannonica (Pasture Hawksbeard) · C. pleurocarpa (Naked-Stem Hawksbeard) · C. pulchra (Hawksbeard) · C. pulchra pulchra (Smallflower Hawksbeard) · C. pumila (Largeflower Hawksbeard) · C. rostrata (Modoc Hawksbeard) · C. rubra (Hawksbeard) · C. rubra 'Alba' (Hawks Beard) · C. runcinata andersonii (Dandelion Hawksbeard) · C. runcinata barberi (Barber's Hawksbeard) · C. runcinata hallii (Fiddleleaf Hawksbeard) · C. runcinata hispidulosa (Fiddleleaf Hawksbeard) · C. runcinata imbricata (Fiddleleaf Hawksbeard) · C. runcinata runcinata (Fiddle-Leaf Hawk's-Beard) · C. setosa (Bristly Hawksbeard) · C. tectorum (Narrow-Leaf Hawk's-Beard) · C. tectorum tectorum (Narrowleaved Hawk's Beard) · C. vesicaria (Beaked Hawksbeard) · C. vesicaria haenseleri (Beaked Hawksbeard) · C. vesicaria taraxacifolia (Beaked Hawksbeard) · C. zacintha (Striped Hawksbeard)
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- Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 38 1911 New York: Torrey Botanical Club, 1870-1996 url p. 14, p. 551.
- Contributions from the New York Botanical Garden. New York: The Garden, 1899- url p. 14.
- Key to the Rocky Mountain flora. Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, Idaho, Montana, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and parts of Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota, and British Columbia. New York, [c1919] url .
- Key to the Rocky Mountain flora; Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, Idaho, Montana, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and parts of Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota, and British Columbia. New York, 1919. url p. 276.
- Phytologia. Bronx Park, New York, H.A. Gleason and H.N. Moldenke, url p. 189.
- Plant species of special concern and plant associations of Sheridan County, Montana / Helena, Mont.: Montana Natural Heritage Program, 2000. url .
- Sensitive plant surveys in the Big Belt and Elkhorn Mountains, U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Region 1, Helena National Forest, Montana / prepared by Jackie M. Poole and Bonnie L. Heidel; prepared for Helena National Forest. Helena, Mont.: Montana Natural Heritage Program,  url .
- Babcock, E. B. 1947. The genus Crepis. Pt. 1: The taxonomy, phylogeny, distribution, and evolution of Crepis. Pt. II: Systematic treatment. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 21, 22.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal February 03, 2008:
- Canadian Museum of Nature, Canadian Museum of Nature Herbarium
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Oregon State University, Vascular Plant Collection
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Colorado Museum, Zoological specimens
- University of Washington Burke Museum, Vascular Plant Collection - University of Washington Herbarium
- Utah State University, USU-UTC Specimen Database
- Utah Valley State College
- , Utah Valley State College Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2658407
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Ast-141
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:69321-2
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 37172
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDAST2R020
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: CRBA3 CRAT
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 33002
- David J. Bogler "Crepis". in Flora of North America Vol. 19, 20 and 21 Page 214, 216, 217, 219, 222, 223, 228. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Crepis atribarba". in Flora of North America Vol. 19, 20 and 21 Page 224, 225, 227, 229. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]