Common Names in English:
The largest family of flowering plants , the Compositae (Asteraceae), comprising about 1,100 genera and more than 20,000 species and characterized by many small flowers arranged in a head looking like a single flower and subtended by an involucre of bracts. A head may consist of both ray flowers and disk flowers, as in the sunflower, of disk flowers only, as in the burdock, or of ray flowers only, as in the dandelion.
The Lactuceae are a tribe of closely related genera of the sunflower family that are easily recognized because the flowering heads are composed of wholly of ligulate florets that are usually 5-lobed. Another very distinguishing feature is the milky sap . Although not apparent without magnification, the pollen is distinctive in that the spines are more or less restricted to discrete ridges or flanges on the surface of the grain. In other members of the family the spines are distributed more or less evenly over the surface of the pollen grain . The pappus usually consists of scales or stiff hairs . -- Gerald D. Carr.
, biennials, or perennials
, 3-120 cm; usually taprooted, sometimes rhizomatous
deep or shallow, woody or fibrous
, caudices often woody). Stems 1-20+. erect
) or branched, usually striate
, often densely hispid
). Leaves basal (often in rosettes) and cauline; petiolate
(at least basal, petioles
) ; basal blades mostly elliptic
, or lanceolate to linear
, or spatulate
, often lyrate or runcinate, margins
, serrate, toothed
, or pinnately lobed
sometimes toothed; cauline usually present, lobed or entire, usually reduced in size and lobing distally. Heads (erect) usually in cymiform, corymbiform
, or paniculiform
arrays, sometimes borne singly. Peduncles not inflated
distally, not bracteate
. Calyculi of 5-12, reduced, subulate
to lanceolate or deltate bractlets
in ± 1 series, mostly unequal, glabrous, tomentulose
, or setose. Involucres cylindric
(sometimes becoming turbinate
in fruit), 4-15 mm diam. Phyllaries 5-18 in 1-2 series. lanceolate, equal or subequal
becoming thickened and keeled
, keels sometimes pronounced in fruit) margins green to yellowish, often scarious
, apices acute to acuminate, abaxial
, or setose, sometimes stipitate-glandular, adaxial
glabrous or with appressed
hairs. Receptacles flat or convex
, usually pitted
, glabrous or hairy, epaleate [paleate, paleae narrow, thin]. Florets 5-100+; corollas usually yellow or orange, sometimes white, pink, or reddish. Cypselae monomorphic
. yellow, brown, green, red, and/or black, subcylindric
or subterete, usually curved
, apices tapered or beaked
10-20, sometimes spiculate-roughened, faces glabrous or hispidulous
; pappi persistent
or falling, of 80-150, usually distinct
, sometimes basally connate
, white to tawny
to fine, ± equal (or outer shorter), barbellulate
in 1-2 series. x = 3, 4, 5, 6, 11.
Species ca. 200: North America, Eurasia , Africa; introduced nearly worldwide.
Crepis is generally recognized by the rosettes of coarse, often pinnately lobed leaves, erect heads, epaleate receptacles, calyculate involucres. yellow corollas, subcylindric or fusiform, ribbed cypselae, and pappi of barbellulate bristles. The taxonomy and evolutionary relationships of Crepis were studied by E. B . Babcock (1947) and his associates. Their work was thorough and important because of the effort to incorporate cytogenetic information in the evolutionary analysis. Extensive survey of chromosome number and karyotype indicated two major ploidy groups in Crepis, corresponding to New World and Old World species complexes. Of the 12 species of Crepis native to North America, 10 are polyploids with x = 11. The core diploid populations commonly occupy discrete ecologic zones and are thought to be entirely distinct from one another, yet they are interconnected by a continuous complex series of intergrading polyploid forms that are partly or completely apomictic (Babcock). The polyploids are of two forms, autopolyploids that are similar to the diploids, and allopolyploids that combine the characteristics of two or more diploid species. The allopolyploid forms of hybrid origin may exhibit the characteristics of multiple parental species and therefore are difficult to classify. Some of the heterogeneous apomictic populations, or groups of populations, have been grouped together and recognized as subspecies ; those taxa are often difficult to identify and further study is clearly needed. Despite these difficulties, the subspecific taxa of Babcock were tentatively included in the present study. The Old World species are mostly diploid (n = 3, 4, 5, or 6). Babcock concluded that there was a progressive decrease in the chromosome numbers, from n = 6 to n = 3. Along with the decrease is a corresponding increase in chromosome asymmetry and reduction in chromosome length.
Species Crepis elegans
, 6-30 cm (taproots
deep, caudices stout). Stems
(often reddish brown, in loose
± dichotomously branched distally, glabrous
basal and cauline; petiolate
) ; blades
, 1-4 × 0.5-1.5 cm, margins
or entire, apices acute, faces
glabrous. Heads 10-100+, in
arrays. Calyculi of 7-8 (blackish green),
ovate, glabrous bractlets 1-2 mm.
× 2-3 mm. Phyllaries 8-10, (blackish green) oblong
8-10 mm, (margins scarious
) apices acute or obtuse
, faces glabrous.
Florets 6-10; corollas yellow, 6-8 mm. Cypselae golden
(subterete or flattened), 4-5 mm, beaked
10 (narrow, spiculate-roughened) ; pappi white, 4-5 mm.
2n = 14. [source]
Crepis elegans is recognized by its loose, cespitose habit, relatively small spatulate leaves, blackish green, glabrous phyllaries, and beaked cypselae. It is thought to be closely related to C. nana, and, possibly, derived from it (E. B . Babcock 1947). [source]
Stream banks, gravelly flats, sandbars , roadsides; 1300-2000 m (Ref. 51840).
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,650 meters (0 to 8,694 feet).
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Lindley, 1833
- Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- Subfamily: Cichorioideae ()
- Family: Compositae () - Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- Order: Asterales () - Lindley, 1833
- Superorder: Campanulanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Askellia elegans (Hook.) W. A. Weber • Barkhausia Elegans • Barkhausia elegans (Hook.) Nutt. • Cacalia sulcata Fern. • Mesadenia sulcata (Fern.) Harper • Youngia Elegans
Status: Accepted Name
Comment: Data Providers: Govaerts World Compositae Checklist A-G, IPNI, Tropicos. GCC LSID: urn :lsid:compositae.org:names:6CBA0367-708C-4CE6-98A0-14F679F26FC4
Last scrutiny: 18-Aug-09
Members of the genus Crepis
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 44 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
C. acuminata (Long-Leaf Hawksbeard) · C. acuminata acuminata (Longleaf Hawksbeard) · C. acuminata pluriflora (Longleaf Hawksbeard) · C. atribarba (Hawksbeard) · C. atribarba atribarba (Hawksbeard) · C. aurea (Golden Hawks Beard) · C. bakeri (Baker's Hawksbeard) · C. bakeri cusickii (Baker's Hawksbeard) · C. bakeri idahoensis (Baker's Hawksbeard) · C. biennis (Rough Hawksbeard) · C. bursifolia (Italian Hawksbeard) · C. capillaris (Smooth Hawk's-Beard) · C. elegans (Elegant Hawksbeard) · C. foetida (Roadside Hawksbeard) · C. foetida foetida (Stinking Hawksbeard) · C. intermedia (Gray Hawksbeard) · C. modocensis rostrata (Common Hawksbeard) · C. monticola (Mountain Hawksbeard) · C. nana (Dwarf Alpine Hawksbeard) · C. nana ramosa (Dwarf Alpine Hawksbeard) · C. nicaeensis (Turkish Hawksbeard) · C. occidentalis conjuncta (Gray Hawksbeard) · C. occidentalis pumila (Large-Flower Hawk's-Beard) · C. pannonica (Pasture Hawksbeard) · C. pleurocarpa (Naked-Stem Hawksbeard) · C. pulchra (Hawksbeard) · C. pulchra pulchra (Smallflower Hawksbeard) · C. pumila (Largeflower Hawksbeard) · C. rostrata (Modoc Hawksbeard) · C. rubra (Hawksbeard) · C. rubra 'Alba' (Hawks Beard) · C. runcinata andersonii (Dandelion Hawksbeard) · C. runcinata barberi (Barber's Hawksbeard) · C. runcinata hallii (Fiddleleaf Hawksbeard) · C. runcinata hispidulosa (Fiddleleaf Hawksbeard) · C. runcinata imbricata (Fiddleleaf Hawksbeard) · C. runcinata runcinata (Fiddle-Leaf Hawk's-Beard) · C. setosa (Bristly Hawksbeard) · C. tectorum (Narrow-Leaf Hawk's-Beard) · C. tectorum tectorum (Narrowleaved Hawk's Beard) · C. vesicaria (Beaked Hawksbeard) · C. vesicaria haenseleri (Beaked Hawksbeard) · C. vesicaria taraxacifolia (Beaked Hawksbeard) · C. zacintha (Striped Hawksbeard)
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- ... Flora of Glacier National Park, Montana, by Paul C. Standley. Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1921. url p. 417.
- Alpine flora of the Canadian Rocky Mountains. Illustrated with water-colour drawings and photographs by Mrs. Charles Schäffer. New York, London, G. P. Putnam's sons, 1907. url p. 281, p. 281.
- Budd's flora of the Canadian Prairie Provinces / [Ottawa]: Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, 1987. url p. 692.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 22 1920-1927 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 417.
- Contributions to the botany of the Yukon Territory, by Marshall A. Howe [and ohters] New York, 1901 url p. 184.
- First report on the flora of Wyoming / Aven Nelson. Laramie: Wyoming Experiment Station, 1896. url p. 144.
- Flora of southern British Columbia and Vancouver Island: with many references to Alaska and northern species / by Joseph Kaye Henry. Toronto: W.J. Gage, c1915. url p. 329.
- Flora of the Rocky Mountains and adjacent plains, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, Idaho, Montana, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and neighboring parts of Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota, and British Columbia / by P.A. Rydberg. New York: The author, 1922. url p. 1021.
- Flora of the U.S.S.R. [Springfield, Va.: Israel Program for Scientific Translations; 1968- url p. 376.
- Hooker, W. J. Flora boreali-americana, or, the botany of the northern parts of British America: compiled principally from the plants collected by Dr. Richardson & Mr. Drummond on the late northern expeditions, under command of Captain Sir John Franklin, R.N. To which are added (by permission of the Horticultural society of London, ) those of Mr. Douglas, from north-west America, and of other naturalists /by Sir William Jackson Hooker. 1 1840 London, H.G. Bohn -1840. url p. 297.
- Journal of ethnobiology. 19 1999 Flagstaff, Ariz.: Center for Western Studies, 1981- url p. 208.
- Manual of the botany (Phaenogamia and Pteridophyta) of the Rocky mountain region, from New Mexico to the British boundary. By John M. Coulter. and Chicago: Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor, and company, 1885. url p. 218.
- Mountain wild flowers of America: a simple and popular guide to the names and descriptions of the flowers that bloom above the clouds / by Julia W. Henshaw. Boston: Ginn, 1906. url p. 302, p. 378.
- Mountain wild flowers of America; a simple and popular guide to the names and descriptions of the flowers that bloom above the clouds, by Julia W. Henshaw. Toronto, Briggs, 1906. url p. 302, p. 378, p. 378.
- Mountain wild flowers of Canada; a simple and popular guide to the names and descriptions of the flowers that bloom above the clouds, Julia W. Henshaw. Toronto, Briggs, 1906. url p. 302, p. 378.
- New manual of botany of the central Rocky mountains (vascular plants) Cincinnati [etc.]American Book Company[c1909] url .
- Phytologia. Bronx Park, New York, H.A. Gleason and H.N. Moldenke, url p. 6.
- Report for the year - British Columbia Provincial Museum. [Victoria]; Printed by A. Sutton [etc.], for the Queen. url .
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- Selected western flora: Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta / Toronto: Macmillan Company of Canada, [c1915] url .
- Sensitive plant surveys in the Bull River and adjacent drainages, U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Region 1, Kootenai National Forest, Montana / prepared by Lisa Ann Schassberger and J. Stephen Shelly. Helena, Mont.: Montana Natural Heritage Program, . url p. 54.
- Sensitive, threatened, and endangered vascular plants of Montana / Peter Lesica, J. Stephen Shelly. Helena, Mont.: Montana Natural Heritage Program, Montana State Library, 1991. url p. 80.
- Synoptical flora of North America. New York, American Book Company, 1878-1895/97 [v.2, pt. 1, 1878] url p. 431.
- Synoptical flora of North America: the Gamopetalae, a second edition of vol. I, pt. II, and vol. II, pt. I / collected by Asa Gray. Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution, 1888. url p. 431.
- The Canadian field-naturalist. 75 1961 Ottawa, Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club. url p. 120, p. 149, p. 187, p. 268, p. 290, p. 302, p. 320, p. 323, p. 325, p. 428, p. 555, p. 571, p. 65, p. 69, p. 742, p. 766, p. 99.
- The Great Basin naturalist. 39 1979 Provo, Utah: M.L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University, 1939-1999. url p. 281.
- Torrey, J. & A. Gray A flora of North America: containing abridged descriptions of all the known indigenous and naturalized plants growing north of Mexico, arranged according to the natural system /by John Torrey and Asa Gray. New York: Wiley & Putnam, 1838-. url p. 489.
- Wild flowers of the North American mountains. New York, McBride, 1917. url p. 371, p. 44.
- Zoe:a biological journal. San Diego, Calif. [etc.]Zoe Publishing Co. url p. 112, p. 112.
- Babcock, E. B. 1947. The genus Crepis. Pt. 1: The taxonomy, phylogeny, distribution, and evolution of Crepis. Pt. II: Systematic treatment. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 21, 22.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 21, 2007:
- Canadian Museum of Nature, Canadian Museum of Nature Herbarium
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alaska Museum of the North, University of Alaska Museum of the North Herbarium
- Utah Valley State College
- , Utah Valley State College Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2658417
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Ast-7917
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13747795
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:199835-1
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 37183
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDAST2R070
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: ASEL7
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 22340
- David J. Bogler "Crepis". in Flora of North America Vol. 19, 20 and 21 Page 214, 216, 217, 219, 222, 223, 228. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 799.750 meters (2,623.852 feet), Standard Deviation = 614.980 based on 51 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]