, or herbs, deciduous or evergreen
. Stems erect
, or creeping
. Buds usually with several exposed scales
, sometimes with only 2. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, simple
; stipules paired
, rarely absent, persistent
or deciduous; petiole usually 2-glandular apically; leaf blade
often serrate at margin
, rarely entire. Inflorescences various, from single flowers to umbellate
, racemose or cymose-paniculate. Flowers usually actinomorphic
, rarely unisexual
and then plants
dioecious. Hypanthium (formed from basal parts of sepals, petals, and stamens) free from or adnate to ovary, short or elongate
. Sepals usually 5, rarely fewer or more, imbricate; epicalyx
segments sometimes also present. Petals as many as sepals, inserted
below margin of disk, free, imbricate, sometimes absent. Disk lining hypanthium, usually entire, rarely lobed
. Stamens usually numerous
, rarely few, always in a complete
at margin of or above disk; filaments
usually free, very rarely connate
, rarely elongate, 2-locular. Carpels 1 to many, free, or ± connate and then adnate to inner surface of cupular receptacle; ovary inferior, semi-inferior, or superior; ovules usually 2 in each carpel, rarely 1 or several, anatropous
. Styles as many as carpels, terminal
, or basal, free or sometimes connate. Fruit a follicle, pome, achene, or drupe, rarely a capsule, naked or enclosed in persistent hypanthium and sometimes also by sepals. Seeds erect or pendulous, sometimes winged
, usually exalbuminous
, very rarely with thin endosperm; cotyledons mostly fleshy
abaxially, rarely folded or convolute.
Between 95 and 125 genera and 2825-3500 species: cosmopolitan , mostly in N temperate zone; 55 genera (two endemic) and 950 species (546 endemic) in China.
Many plants of this family are of economic importance and contribute to people s livelihoods. The Rosaceae contain a great number of fruit trees of temperate regions . The fruits contain vitamins, acids, and sugars and can be used both raw and for making preserves, jam, jelly, candy, various drinks, wine, vinegar, etc. The dried fruits of the genera
Amygdalus and Armeniaca are of high commercial value. Some plants in the genus Rosa containing essential oils or with a high vitamin content are used in industry . Rosaceae wood is used for making various articles, stems and roots are used for making tannin extract, and young leaves are used as a substitute for tea. Numerous species are used for medical purposes or are cultivated as ornamentals .
The Rosaceae are very well represented in China, with great economic and scientific importance. The Co-chairs of the Editorial Committee (Wu and Raven) here note that the patterns of relationship are complex and the group is taxonomically difficult. 
, or small trees
, deciduous, rarely evergreen
, rarely unarmed
; buds ovoid
or subglobose. Leaves simple
serrate and lobed
or partite, rarely entire. Inflorescences corymbose
, sometimes flowers solitary. Hypanthium campanulate
. Sepals 5. Petals 5, white, rarely pinkish. Stamens 5-25; carpels 1-5, connate
, but free
apically. Ovary inferior or semi-inferior, with 2 ovules per locule, but one rudimentary
. Fruit a pome, with persistent
sepals at apex; carpels bony when mature
, each locule with 1 seed; seed erect, cotyledons plano-convex
At least 1000 species: N temperate regions , especially abundant in North America; 18 species (ten endemic) in China.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Rosanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Name Status: Accepted Name .
Members of the genus Crataegus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 243 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
C. aemula (Rome Hawthorn) · C. aestivalis (Apple Hawthorn) · C. aestivalis var. cerasoides (Eastern Mayhaw) · C. aestivalis var. dormonae (Eastern Mayhaw) · C. aestivalis var. maloides (Eastern Mayhaw) · C. ambigua (Russian Hawthorn) · C. ambitiosa (Grand Rapids Hawthorn) · C. anamesa (Fort Bend Hawthorn) · C. ancisa (Mississippi Hawthorn) · C. annosa (Phoenix City Hawthorn) · C. anomala (Anomalous Hawthorn) · C. apiomorpha (Fort Sheridan Hawthorn) · C. arborea (Montgomery Hawthorn) · C. arcana (Carolina Hawthorn) · C. arnoldiana (Arnold Hawthorn) · C. arrogans (Dixie Hawthorn) · C. ater (Nashville Hawthorn) · C. austromontana (Valley Head Hawthorn) · C. azarolus (Azarole) · C. azarolus var. pontica (Mediterranean-Medlar) · C. beadlei (Beadle's Hawthorn) · C. beata (Dunbar's Hawthorn) · C. berberifolia (Barberry Hawthorn) · C. bona (Berks County Hawthorn) · C. brachyacantha (Blue Haw) · C. brainerdii (Brainerd Hawthorn) · C. brazoria (Brazos Hawthorn) · C. brevipes (Hawthorn) · C. calpodendron (Pear Hawthorn) · C. canadensis (Canadian Hawthorn) · C. carrollensis (Eureka Springs Hawthorn) · C. coccinea (Scarlet Hawthorn) · C. coccinioides (Kansas Haswthorn) · C. coccinioides var. corallicola (Kansas Haswthorn) · C. coccinioides var. pottsii (Kansas Haswthorn) · C. coleae (Cole's Hawthorn) · C. columbiana (Columbian Hawthorn) · C. compacta (Clustered Hawthorn) · C. compta (Adorned Hawthorn) · C. condigna (River Junction Hawthorn) · C. consanguinea (Tallahassee Hawthorn) · C. contrita (Southern Hawthorn) · C. corusca (Shiningbranch Hawthorn) · C. crus-galli (Cockspur Hawthorn) · C. crus-galli var. inermis (Thornless Cockspur Hawthorn) · C. crusgalli (Clarkton Hawthorn) · C. cuneata (Nippon Hawthorn) · C. dallasiana (Dallas Hawthorn) · C. densiflora (Denseflower Hawthorn) · C. desueta (New York Hawthorn) · C. dilatata (A Hawthorn) · C. dispar (Aiken Hawthorn) · C. disperma (Spreading Hawthorn) · C. dispessa (Mink Hawthorn) · C. dissona (Northern Hawthorn) · C. distincta (Distinct Hawthorn) · C. dodgei (Dodge's Hawthorn) · C. douglasii (Black Haw) · C. douglasii var. douglasii (Black Hawthorn) · C. douglasii var. duchesnensis (Duchesne Black Hawthorn) · C. engelmannii (Engelmann's Hawthorn) · C. erythrocarpa (Red Hawthorn) · C. erythropoda (Cerro Hawthorn) · C. exilis (Slender Hawthorn) · C. extraria (Marietta Hawthorn) · C. flabellata (Fanleaf Hawthorn) · C. flava (Summer Haw) · C. flava var. integra (Yellowfruit-Thorn) · C. flava 'Upright' (Upright Yellow Hawthorne) · C. fragilis (Fragile Hawthorn) · C. fulleriana (Fuller's Hawthorn) · C. furtiva (Albany Hawthorn) · C. glareosa (Port Huron Hawthorn) · C. grandis (Grand Hawthorn) · C. greggiana (Gregg Hawthorn) · C. haemacarpa (Hawthorn) · C. harbisonii (Harbison Hawthorn) · C. harveyana (Harvey's Hawthorn) · C. holmesiana (Holmes' Hawthorn) · C. hudsonica (Hudson Hawthorn) · C. ideae (Concord Hawthorn) · C. ignave (Bedford Springs Hawthorn) · C. immanis (Hawthorn) · C. impar (Redclay Hawthorn) · C. inanis (Oldmaid Hawthorn) · C. incaedua (Hawthorn) · C. indicens (Mansfield Hawthorn) · C. insidiosa (Ozark Hawthorn) · C. integra (Lake Ella Hawthorn) · C. intricata (Biltmore Hawthorn) · C. invicta (Fulton Hawthorn) · C. iracunda (Stolonbearing Hawthorn) · C. irrasa (Blanchard Hawthorn) · C. jesupii (Jesup's Hawthorn) · C. jonesiae (Miss Jones Hawthorn) · C. kelloggii (Kellogg Hawthorn) · C. kennedyi (Kennedy's Hawthorn) · C. kingstonensis (Kingston's Hawthorn) · C. knieskerniana (Knieskern's Hawthorn) · C. laciniata (Oriental Hawthorn)
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- A check-list of plants mentioned in the Arnold Arboretum bulletins / [compiled by Charles Downing Lay, Robert Wheelwright]. Harrisburg, Pa.: Landscape Architecture, Inc., 1919 url p. 11.
- A class-book of botany, designed for colleges, academies, and other seminaries. Illustrated by a flora of northern, middle, and western states; particularly of the United States north of the Capitol, lat. 38 3/4. Claremont, N. H., Manufacturing Co., S. Ide, agent, 1850. url p. 243.
- A contribution to the knowledge of the flora of southeastern Minnesota. [Boston, Heliotype Print. Co.]1900. url p. 391.
- A dictionary of American plant names / compiled by Willard N. Clute. Joliet, Ill.: W.N. Clute, 1923. url p. 9.
- A general system of gardening and botany. Founded upon Miller's Gardener's dictionary, and arranged according to the natural system. By George Don. London, Printed for C. J. G. and F. Rivington, 1831-38. url p. 598.
- A guide to the trees / by Alice Lounsberry...with sixty-four coloured and one hundred and sixty-four black-and-white plates and fifty diagrams, by Mrs. Ellis Rowan...with and introduction by Dr. N. L. Britton. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company Publishers, [c1900] url .
- A preliminary list of the vascular flora of Allegheny County, Pennsylvania / by John A. Shaffer. Pittsburgh?: Carnegie Institute Museum?, 1901? url p. 48.
- A provisional host-index of the fungi of the United States, by W. G. Farlow and A. B. Seymour. Cambridge, 1888-91. url p. 199, p. 39.
- Addisonia: colored illustrations and popular descriptions of plants. New York: New York Botanical Garden, 1916-. url p. 67.
- American forest trees, by Henry H. Gibson; ed. by Hu Maxwell. Chicago, Hardwood record, 1913. url , p. 12.
- American forest trees; edited by Hu Maxwell. ChicagoHardwood Record1913 url .
- American forests. Washington [etc.]American Forestry Association [etc.] url .
- An essay toward a natural history of La Salle County, Illinois, in two parts / J. W. Huett. Ottawa, Illinois: Fair-dealer print, 1898. url p. 73.
- An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions: from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia and from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the 102nd meridian / by Nathaniel Lord Britton and Hon. Addison Brown. New York: Scribner, 1913. url p. 300, p. 302, p. 302, p. 319, p. 320.
- An illustrated guide to the flowering plants of the middle Atlantic and New England states (excepting the grasses and sedges) the descriptive text written in familiar language, by George T. Stevens. .. with more than 1800 illustrations from drawings by the author. New York, Dodd, Mead and company, 1910. url p. 331.
- Annals of the Carnegie Museum. [Pittsburgh]: Published by authority of the Board of Trustees of the Carnegie Institute, 1901- url p. 48.
- Anniversary memoirs of the Boston society of natural history; pub. in celebration of the fiftieth anniversary of the Society's foundation. 1830-1880. Boston, The Society, 1880. url p. 34, p. 35, p. 36, p. 37.
- Annotated list of the ferns and flowering plants of New York state, by Homer D. House. Albany, The University of the state of New York, 1924. url p. 426, p. 429.
- Annual report / Albany: University of the State of New York, 1902-1918. url p. 110, p. 117, p. 132.
- Annual report / New York State Museum. Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, c1904-1920. url p. 110.
- Annual report Missouri Botanical Garden. 19 1908 St. Louis: Board of Trustees, 1890-1912. url p. 115, p. 116, p. 38.
- Annual report of the Michigan Academy of Science. Lansing, Mich.: The Academy, 1904. url p. 18, p. 29, p. 90.
- Annual report of the Minnesota State Horticultural Society. Minneapolis: The Society, 1883-1898. url p. 235, p. 368.
- Annual report of the Nebraska State Horticultural Society. Lincoln, Neb.: The Society. url p. 197, p. 197.
- Annual report of the New Jersey State Museum. Trenton, N.J.: MacCrellish & Quigley, url p. 489.
- Annual report of the Ohio State Academy of Science. Columbus: The Academy, 1893-1930. url p. 156, p. 258, p. 258.
- Annual report of the Regents / Albany: J.B. Lyon, State Printer, 1890-1903. url p. 23, p. 271, p. 275.
- Annual report of the Regents / New York State Museum. Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, 1890-1903. url p. 22.
- Annual report of the Regents of the University on the condition of the State Cabinet of Natural History, with catalogues of the same. Albany, N.Y.: The University, 1848-1873. url p. 30.
- Annual report of the Secretary of the State Board of Agriculture of the State of Michigan. .. Lansing: The Board, 1862- url p. 175, p. 51.
- Annual report of the State Horticultural Society of Missouri. Jefferson City, Mo.: The Society, 1894- url p. 375.
- Annual report of the regents of the university of the state of New York on the condition of the State Cabinet of Natural History and the historical and antiquarian collection annexed thereto. Albany, Regents of the University of the State of New York. url p. 16.
- Annual report of the secretary of the State Horticultural Society of Michigan. Lansing: The Society, 1881- url p. 440.
- Annual report on the New York State Museum of Natural History. Albany, Regents of the University of the State of New York. url p. 18.
- Annual report. .. / [State Board of Agriculture]. [Montpelier, Vt.]: The Board, 1900-1908. url p. 95.
- Annual report. United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories. 1st-12th, 1867-1878. Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1867-83. url p. 482.
- Bibliographical index to North American botany; or, Citations of authorities for all the recorded indigenous and naturalized species of the flora of North America, with a chronological arrangement of the synonymy. by Sereno Watson. Washington, Smithsonian Institution, 1878. url , p. 279, p. 280, p. 289.
- Botanical abstracts. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Co. url p. 48.
- Botanical survey of Nebraska. Conducted by the Botanical Seminar. I-VII. Lincoln, Neb., 1892-1904. url , .
- Botany of the northern and middle states, or, A description of the plants found in the United States, north of Virginia: arranged according to the natural system: with a synopsis of the genera according to the Linnaean system. .. / Albany: Printed by Webster and Skinners. .., 1833. url p. 111.
- Britton, N. L. (ed.). North American flora. 10 1917 [New York]New York Botanical Garden. url p. 152, p. 206, p. 40, p. 77, p. 826, p. 885.
- Bulletin - New York State Museum. Albany: New York State Education Dept. url p. 110, p. 12, p. 15, p. 29, p. 46, p. 62, p. 66, p. 68.
- Bulletin - United States National Museum. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, [etc.];1877-1971. url p. 12, p. 146, p. 147, p. 471.
- Bulletin / Illinois Natural History Survey. Urbana, State of Illinois, Dept. of Registration and Education, Natural History Survey Division, 1918-1985. url p. 102, p. 213, p. 392.
- Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. New YorkAmerican Museum of Natural History1881- url p. 306.
- Bulletin of the Essex Institute. Salem, Mass., Essex Institute. url p. 84.
- Bulletin of the Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History. Bloomington, Ill.: The Laboratory, 1876-1918. url p. 209, p. 209, p. 413.
- Bulletin of the New York Botanical Garden. 1 1898 Lancaster, Pa.: Published for the Garden by the New Era Printing Co., url p. 143, p. 415, p. 448.
- Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 1896 New York: Torrey Botanical Club, 1870-1996 url p. 156, p. 4, p. 459, p. 91.
- Bulletin of the United States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories / Department of the Interior. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1874- url p. 809.
- Bulletin. Bureau of Plant Industry. U. S. Department of Agriculture. 1901-13. WashingtonGovt. Print. Off. url p. 21, p. 9.
- Bulletin: report of Agricultural Experiment Station, Agricultural and Mechanical College, Auburn, Ala. Auburn, Ala.: The Station, [1888-1903] url p. 295.
- Catalogue of scientific papers, 1800-1900. Compiled by the Royal Society of London. London, C.J. Clay and Sons, 1867-1902 [etc.] Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1914-25. url p. 689.
- Catalogue of the described Diptera of North America. By C. R. Osten-Sacken. Washington, Smithsonian Institution, 1878. url p. 6.
- Catalogue of the flowering plants and ferns of Connecticut growing without cultivation / by Charles Burr Graves. .. [et al.]; Committee of the Connecticut Botanical Society. Hartford: Printed for the State Geological and Natural History Survey, 1910. url p. 426.
- Check list of the forest trees of the United States: their names and ranges / by George B. Sudworth. Washington, D.C.: Dept. of Agriculture, Forestry Division, 1898. url p. 132, p. 143, p. 73.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 21 1919 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 179, p. 223.
- Contributions to Canadian natural history [Montreal?: J. Lovell)1860 url .
- Contributions to the botany of Vermont. Burlington, Vt.: Botanical Dept., University of Vermont, 1898-1911. url p. 95.
- Cultures of Uredineae 1899-1921. n.p., n.d. url p. 108, p. 193, p. 194, p. 201, p. 211, p. 217, p. 219.
- Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants sold in the United by L. H. Bailey. .. assisted by William Miller. .. and many expert cultivators and botanists. London: The Macmillan company, 1909. url p. 397.
- Diseases of plants induced by cryptogamic parasites: introduction to the study of pathogenic Fungi, slime-Fungi, bacteria, & Algae / London; Longmans, Green & co., 1897. url , .
- Edwards's botanical register. London: James Ridgway, 1829-1847. url p. 79.
- Entomological news, and proceedings of the Entomological Section of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. Philadelphia[Entomological Rooms of the Academy of Natural Sciences] url p. 145.
- Facts relating to the history of Groton, Massachusetts, by Samuel Abbott Green. .. [Cambridge, J. Wilson and Son]1912-14. url p. 23.
- Familiar trees and their leaves / described and illustrated by F. Schuyler Mathews; with illustrations in colors and over two hundred drawings by the author, and an introduction by L.H. Bailey. New York: D. Appleton, 1901. url p. 139, p. 308, p. 309.
- Familiar trees and their leaves, described and illustrated by F. Schuyler Mathews, with illus. in colors and over two hundred drawings by the author, and an introd. by L.H. Bailey. Ed. in colors. 1911 New YorkD. Appleton1911 url p. 312, p. 322, p. 323.
- Farm wind-breaks and shelter-belts, St. Paul, Minn., Webb publishing co., 1906. url p. 36.
- First biennial report of the progress of the Geological survey of Michigan, embracing observations on the geology, zoo?logy and botany of the lower peninsula. Made to the governor, December 31, 1860. Lansing, Hosmer & Kerr, printers to the state, 1861. url .
- Flora Americae Septentrionalis: or, A systematic arrangement and description of the plants of North America. Containing, besides what have been described by preceding authors, many new and rare species, collected during twelve years by Frederick Pursh. .. London: Printed for James Black and son, 1816. url p. 337, p. 338.
- Flora of Ann Arbor and vicinity. Ann Arbor, [Mich.]: Courier Steam Print. House, 1876. url p. 94.
- Flora of Delaware and the Eastern Shore: an annotated list of the ferns and flowering plants of the peninsula of Delaware, Maryland and Virginia. [Wilmington]: Society of Natural History of Delaware, 1946. url p. 142.
- Flora of Indiana, by Charles C. Deam. Indianapolis, Wm. B. Burford printing co., contractor for state printing and binding, 1940. url p. 552.
- Flora of Mount Desert Island, Maine: a preliminary catalogue of the plants growing on Mount Desert and the adjacent islands / by Edward L. Rand and John H. Redfield; with a geological introduction by William Morris Davis, and a new map of Mount Desert Island. Cambridge, Mass.: J. Wilson, 1894. url p. 277.
- Flora of Mount Desert island, Maine. A preliminary catalogue of the plants growing on Mount Desert and the adjacent islands. By Edward L. Rand and John H. Redfield. With a geological introduction by William Morris Davis, and a new map of Mount Desert island. Cambridge, Mass., J. Wilson and son, 1894. url p. 277.
- Flora of Nebraska; a list of the conifers and flowering plants of the state with keys for their determination. Plainview, Neb.[c1912] url .
- Flora of Nebraska; a list of the ferns, conifers and flowering plants of the state with keys for their determination. Plainview, Neb., 1923 url p. 135.
- Flora of Pennsylvania, Boston, Ginn & Company, 1903. url .
- Flora of Pennsylvania. Edited with the addition of analytical keys by John Kunkel Small. Boston, Ginn & Co., 1903. url p. 177.
- Flora of Vermont; a list of the fern and seed plants growing without cultivation. Prepared by Ezra Brainerd, L.R. Jones and W.W. Eggleston, committee for the Vermont botanical club. Burlington, Vt., Free Press Association, 1900. url p. 95.
- Flora of Winneshiek County. Des Moines: 1906. url .
- Flora of the District of Columbia and vicinity. By A.S. Hitchcock and Paul C. Standley, with the assistance of the botanists of Washington. WashingtonGovt. print. off.1919 url p. 179.
- Flora of the Miami Valley, Ohio /c by A.P. Morgan. Dayton, Ohio: Literary Union, 1878. url p. 18.
- Flora of the southeastern United States; being descriptions of the seed-plants, ferns and fern-allies growing naturally in North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Tennessee, Alabama, Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, and in Oklahom by John Kunkel Small. New York, The author, 1913. url p. 538.
- Flower ecology. [n.p.]Press of J. B. Hungerford url .
- Forestry in Minnesota, Delano [Minn.]The Eagle printing co., 1898. url p. 244, p. 245, p. 77.
- Forestry in Minnesota. Delano, [Minn.]: Eagle printing, 1898. url p. 243, p. 244, p. 245.
- Forestry in Minnesota. St. Paul, Minn., Pioneer press company, 1902. url p. 172, p. 85.
- Foundations of botany, Boston, Ginn & Co., 1901. url .
- Fungous diseases of plants, Boston, Ginn and company[c1909] url p. 392.
- Fungous diseases of plants, with chapters on physiology, culture methods and technique, by Benjamin Minge Duggar. Boston, Ginn and company, [c1909] url p. 392.
- Fungous diseases of plants: with chapters on physiology, culture methods and technique / Boston; Ginn, [c1909] url .
- Fungous diseases of plants; with chapters on physiology, culture methods and techniques. Boston, Ginn url p. 392.
- Garden and forest; a journal of horticulture, landscape art and forestry. New York: The Garden and forest publishing co., 1888-97. url p. 116, p. 34, p. 393.
- Growth of plants; twenty years' research at Boyce Thompson Institute. New York, Reinhold Pub. Corp., 1948. url p. 111, p. 451.
- Handbook of plants and general horticulture. 1890. url p. 453, p. 50.
- Handbook of the flora of Philadelphia and vicinity, containing data relating to the plants within the following radius: eastern Pennsylvania, north to the Blue mountains, and west to the Susquehanna; all of New Jersey except the northern counties; and Philadelphia, Philadelphia Botanical Club, 1905. url .
- Harper's guide to wild flowers, by Mrs. Caroline A. Creevey. New York, Harper, 1912. url p. 479, p. 504, p. 527.
- Horticulture. Boston, Mass.: Horticulture Pub. Co., c1904- url p. 663.
- How to know wild fruits; a guide to plants when not in flower by means of fruit and leaf. Illustrated by Mary Elisabeth Herbert. New York, Macmillan, 1905. url , p. 337, p. 78.
- How to plan the home grounds, by S. Parsons, jr.... With illustrations drawn by W. E. Spader... New York, Doubleday & McClure co., 1899. url p. 196.
- Injurious and beneficial insects of California. / By E. O. Essig. Sacramento, California state printing office, 1915 url p. 62.
- Insects injurious to forest and shade trees. By A. S. Packard, jr., M.D. Washington, Govt. print. off., 1881. url p. 136.
- Journal of mycology. Manhattan, Kan.: [s.n.], 1885-1908. url p. 19.
- Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society. Chapel Hill, N.C. [etc.]Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society [etc.] url p. 71, p. 71.
- Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society. Oxford [etc.]Royal Microscopical Society. url p. 297.
- Leaf-mining insects / by James G. Needham, Stuart W. Frost, Beatrice H. Tothill. Baltimore: The Williams & Wilkins company, [c1928] url p. 308.
- List of Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta growing without cultivation in northeastern North America. Prepared by a Committee of the Botanical Club, American Association for the Advancement of Science. New York, 1894. url p. 184.
- Manual of the flora of the northern states and Canada / by Nathaniel Lord Britton. New York: Holt, 1905. url p. 522.
- Manual of the flowering plants of Iowa. [Lamoni, Iowa]Privately published, 1899. url .
- Manual of the trees of North America (exclusive of Mexico) by Charles Sprague Sargent, with seven hundred and eighty-three illustrations from drawings by Charles Edward Faxon and Mary W. Gill. Boston and New York, Houghton Mifflin company, 1922. url p. 536, p. 536, p. 902, p. 902.
- Memoir / Ithaca, N.Y. url p. 1067, p. 1090, p. 1094, p. 1103, p. 1108, p. 1114.
- Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences. Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1866- url .
- Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club. 5 1893 - 18 Durham, N.C.: Published for the Club by the Seeman Printery, 1889- url p. 184, p. 228, p. 269, p. 31.
- Message from the President of the United States, transmitting a report of the secretary of agriculture in relation to the forests, rivers and mountains of the southern Appalachian region. Washington, Gov't print. off., 1902. url p. 101.
- Michigan flora: a list of the fern and seed plants growing without cultivation / prepared by W.J. Beal. [Lansing, Mich.]: State Board of Agriculture: 1904. url , p. 18, p. 18, p. 29, p. 29, p. 90.
- Minnesota botanical studies. Minneapolis, Geological and Natural History Survey of Minnesota. url p. 391, p. 391, p. 546.
- Minnesota trees and shrubs: an illustrated manual of the native and cultivated woody plants of the state / Frederic E. Clements, C. Otto Rosendahl, Frederic K. Butters. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, 1912. url p. 155.
- Miscellaneous papers on the botany of Michigan, by C. K. Dodge. Prepared under the direction of Alexander G. Ruthven. Published as a part of the Annual report of the Board of Geological Survey for 1920. Lansing, Mich., Wynkoop Hallenbeck Crawford, State Printers, 1921. url p. 196.
- Museum bulletin / Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, 1908-1916. url p. 110, p. 117.
- Museum bulletin / New York State Museum. Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, 1908-1916. url p. 132.
- Natural history of New York. Albany: D. Appleton: 1842-1894. url p. 222.
- New York State Museum bulletin. Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, 1916-1944. url p. 65, p. 66.
- New-England's rarities discovered in birds, beasts, fishes, serpents, and plants of that country. / By John Josselyn, gent.; With an introduction and notes by Edward Tuckerman, M.A. Boston: William Veazie, 1865. url p. 93.
- On the natural history of the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the distribution of the Mollusca of Eastern Canada [Montreal?: s.n.]1859 url .
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