, or herbs, deciduous or evergreen
. Stems erect
, or creeping
. Buds usually with several exposed scales
, sometimes with only 2. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, simple
; stipules paired
, rarely absent, persistent
or deciduous; petiole usually 2-glandular apically; leaf blade
often serrate at margin
, rarely entire. Inflorescences various, from single flowers to umbellate
, racemose or cymose-paniculate. Flowers usually actinomorphic
, rarely unisexual
and then plants
dioecious. Hypanthium (formed from basal parts of sepals, petals, and stamens) free from or adnate to ovary, short or elongate
. Sepals usually 5, rarely fewer or more, imbricate; epicalyx
segments sometimes also present. Petals as many as sepals, inserted
below margin of disk, free, imbricate, sometimes absent. Disk lining hypanthium, usually entire, rarely lobed
. Stamens usually numerous
, rarely few, always in a complete
at margin of or above disk; filaments
usually free, very rarely connate
, rarely elongate, 2-locular. Carpels 1 to many, free, or ± connate and then adnate to inner surface of cupular receptacle; ovary inferior, semi-inferior, or superior; ovules usually 2 in each carpel, rarely 1 or several, anatropous
. Styles as many as carpels, terminal
, or basal, free or sometimes connate. Fruit a follicle, pome, achene, or drupe, rarely a capsule, naked or enclosed in persistent hypanthium and sometimes also by sepals. Seeds erect or pendulous, sometimes winged
, usually exalbuminous
, very rarely with thin endosperm; cotyledons mostly fleshy
abaxially, rarely folded or convolute.
Between 95 and 125 genera and 2825-3500 species: cosmopolitan , mostly in N temperate zone; 55 genera (two endemic) and 950 species (546 endemic) in China.
Many plants of this family are of economic importance and contribute to people s livelihoods. The Rosaceae contain a great number of fruit trees of temperate regions . The fruits contain vitamins, acids, and sugars and can be used both raw and for making preserves, jam, jelly, candy, various drinks, wine, vinegar, etc. The dried fruits of the genera
Amygdalus and Armeniaca are of high commercial value. Some plants in the genus Rosa containing essential oils or with a high vitamin content are used in industry . Rosaceae wood is used for making various articles, stems and roots are used for making tannin extract, and young leaves are used as a substitute for tea. Numerous species are used for medical purposes or are cultivated as ornamentals .
The Rosaceae are very well represented in China, with great economic and scientific importance. The Co-chairs of the Editorial Committee (Wu and Raven) here note that the patterns of relationship are complex and the group is taxonomically difficult. 
, or small trees
, deciduous, rarely evergreen
, rarely unarmed
; buds ovoid
or subglobose. Leaves simple
serrate and lobed
or partite, rarely entire. Inflorescences corymbose
, sometimes flowers solitary. Hypanthium campanulate
. Sepals 5. Petals 5, white, rarely pinkish. Stamens 5-25; carpels 1-5, connate
, but free
apically. Ovary inferior or semi-inferior, with 2 ovules per locule, but one rudimentary
. Fruit a pome, with persistent
sepals at apex; carpels bony when mature
, each locule with 1 seed; seed erect, cotyledons plano-convex
At least 1000 species: N temperate regions , especially abundant in North America; 18 species (ten endemic) in China.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Rosanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Name Status: Accepted Name .
Members of the genus Crataegus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 243 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
C. aemula (Rome Hawthorn) · C. aestivalis (Apple Hawthorn) · C. aestivalis var. cerasoides (Eastern Mayhaw) · C. aestivalis var. dormonae (Eastern Mayhaw) · C. aestivalis var. maloides (Eastern Mayhaw) · C. ambigua (Russian Hawthorn) · C. ambitiosa (Grand Rapids Hawthorn) · C. anamesa (Fort Bend Hawthorn) · C. ancisa (Mississippi Hawthorn) · C. annosa (Phoenix City Hawthorn) · C. anomala (Anomalous Hawthorn) · C. apiomorpha (Fort Sheridan Hawthorn) · C. arborea (Montgomery Hawthorn) · C. arcana (Carolina Hawthorn) · C. arnoldiana (Arnold Hawthorn) · C. arrogans (Dixie Hawthorn) · C. ater (Nashville Hawthorn) · C. austromontana (Valley Head Hawthorn) · C. azarolus (Azarole) · C. azarolus var. pontica (Mediterranean-Medlar) · C. beadlei (Beadle's Hawthorn) · C. beata (Dunbar's Hawthorn) · C. berberifolia (Barberry Hawthorn) · C. bona (Berks County Hawthorn) · C. brachyacantha (Blue Haw) · C. brainerdii (Brainerd Hawthorn) · C. brazoria (Brazos Hawthorn) · C. brevipes (Hawthorn) · C. calpodendron (Pear Hawthorn) · C. canadensis (Canadian Hawthorn) · C. carrollensis (Eureka Springs Hawthorn) · C. coccinea (Scarlet Hawthorn) · C. coccinioides (Kansas Haswthorn) · C. coccinioides var. corallicola (Kansas Haswthorn) · C. coccinioides var. pottsii (Kansas Haswthorn) · C. coleae (Cole's Hawthorn) · C. columbiana (Columbian Hawthorn) · C. compacta (Clustered Hawthorn) · C. compta (Adorned Hawthorn) · C. condigna (River Junction Hawthorn) · C. consanguinea (Tallahassee Hawthorn) · C. contrita (Southern Hawthorn) · C. corusca (Shiningbranch Hawthorn) · C. crus-galli (Cockspur Hawthorn) · C. crus-galli var. inermis (Thornless Cockspur Hawthorn) · C. crusgalli (Clarkton Hawthorn) · C. cuneata (Nippon Hawthorn) · C. dallasiana (Dallas Hawthorn) · C. densiflora (Denseflower Hawthorn) · C. desueta (New York Hawthorn) · C. dilatata (A Hawthorn) · C. dispar (Aiken Hawthorn) · C. disperma (Spreading Hawthorn) · C. dispessa (Mink Hawthorn) · C. dissona (Northern Hawthorn) · C. distincta (Distinct Hawthorn) · C. dodgei (Dodge's Hawthorn) · C. douglasii (Black Haw) · C. douglasii var. douglasii (Black Hawthorn) · C. douglasii var. duchesnensis (Duchesne Black Hawthorn) · C. engelmannii (Engelmann's Hawthorn) · C. erythrocarpa (Red Hawthorn) · C. erythropoda (Cerro Hawthorn) · C. exilis (Slender Hawthorn) · C. extraria (Marietta Hawthorn) · C. flabellata (Fanleaf Hawthorn) · C. flava (Summer Haw) · C. flava var. integra (Yellowfruit-Thorn) · C. flava 'Upright' (Upright Yellow Hawthorne) · C. fragilis (Fragile Hawthorn) · C. fulleriana (Fuller's Hawthorn) · C. furtiva (Albany Hawthorn) · C. glareosa (Port Huron Hawthorn) · C. grandis (Grand Hawthorn) · C. greggiana (Gregg Hawthorn) · C. haemacarpa (Hawthorn) · C. harbisonii (Harbison Hawthorn) · C. harveyana (Harvey's Hawthorn) · C. holmesiana (Holmes' Hawthorn) · C. hudsonica (Hudson Hawthorn) · C. ideae (Concord Hawthorn) · C. ignave (Bedford Springs Hawthorn) · C. immanis (Hawthorn) · C. impar (Redclay Hawthorn) · C. inanis (Oldmaid Hawthorn) · C. incaedua (Hawthorn) · C. indicens (Mansfield Hawthorn) · C. insidiosa (Ozark Hawthorn) · C. integra (Lake Ella Hawthorn) · C. intricata (Biltmore Hawthorn) · C. invicta (Fulton Hawthorn) · C. iracunda (Stolonbearing Hawthorn) · C. irrasa (Blanchard Hawthorn) · C. jesupii (Jesup's Hawthorn) · C. jonesiae (Miss Jones Hawthorn) · C. kelloggii (Kellogg Hawthorn) · C. kennedyi (Kennedy's Hawthorn) · C. kingstonensis (Kingston's Hawthorn) · C. knieskerniana (Knieskern's Hawthorn) · C. laciniata (Oriental Hawthorn)
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- A guide to the trees / by Alice Lounsberry...with sixty-four coloured and one hundred and sixty-four black-and-white plates and fifty diagrams, by Mrs. Ellis Rowan...with and introduction by Dr. N. L. Britton. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company Publishers, [c1900] url .
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