Common Names in English:
Cockspur Hawthorn, Cockspurthorn
, or herbs, deciduous or evergreen
. Stems erect
, or creeping
. Buds usually with several exposed scales
, sometimes with only 2. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, simple
; stipules paired
, rarely absent, persistent
or deciduous; petiole usually 2-glandular apically; leaf blade
often serrate at margin
, rarely entire. Inflorescences various, from single flowers to umbellate
, racemose or cymose-paniculate. Flowers usually actinomorphic
, rarely unisexual
and then plants
dioecious. Hypanthium (formed from basal parts of sepals, petals, and stamens) free from or adnate to ovary, short or elongate
. Sepals usually 5, rarely fewer or more, imbricate; epicalyx
segments sometimes also present. Petals as many as sepals, inserted
below margin of disk, free, imbricate, sometimes absent. Disk lining hypanthium, usually entire, rarely lobed
. Stamens usually numerous
, rarely few, always in a complete
at margin of or above disk; filaments
usually free, very rarely connate
, rarely elongate, 2-locular. Carpels 1 to many, free, or ± connate and then adnate to inner surface of cupular receptacle; ovary inferior, semi-inferior, or superior; ovules usually 2 in each carpel, rarely 1 or several, anatropous
. Styles as many as carpels, terminal
, or basal, free or sometimes connate. Fruit a follicle, pome, achene, or drupe, rarely a capsule, naked or enclosed in persistent hypanthium and sometimes also by sepals. Seeds erect or pendulous, sometimes winged
, usually exalbuminous
, very rarely with thin endosperm; cotyledons mostly fleshy
abaxially, rarely folded or convolute.
Between 95 and 125 genera and 2825-3500 species: cosmopolitan , mostly in N temperate zone; 55 genera (two endemic) and 950 species (546 endemic) in China.
Many plants of this family are of economic importance and contribute to people s livelihoods. The Rosaceae contain a great number of fruit trees of temperate regions . The fruits contain vitamins, acids, and sugars and can be used both raw and for making preserves, jam, jelly, candy, various drinks, wine, vinegar, etc. The dried fruits of the genera
Amygdalus and Armeniaca are of high commercial value. Some plants in the genus Rosa containing essential oils or with a high vitamin content are used in industry . Rosaceae wood is used for making various articles, stems and roots are used for making tannin extract, and young leaves are used as a substitute for tea. Numerous species are used for medical purposes or are cultivated as ornamentals .
The Rosaceae are very well represented in China, with great economic and scientific importance. The Co-chairs of the Editorial Committee (Wu and Raven) here note that the patterns of relationship are complex and the group is taxonomically difficult. 
, or small trees
, deciduous, rarely evergreen
, rarely unarmed
; buds ovoid
or subglobose. Leaves simple
serrate and lobed
or partite, rarely entire. Inflorescences corymbose
, sometimes flowers solitary. Hypanthium campanulate
. Sepals 5. Petals 5, white, rarely pinkish. Stamens 5-25; carpels 1-5, connate
, but free
apically. Ovary inferior or semi-inferior, with 2 ovules per locule, but one rudimentary
. Fruit a pome, with persistent
sepals at apex; carpels bony when mature
, each locule with 1 seed; seed erect, cotyledons plano-convex
At least 1000 species: N temperate regions , especially abundant in North America; 18 species (ten endemic) in China.
ID Features: 1.5" to 3" long thorns along stems. A medium-sized deciduous tree. 20' to 30' tall and wide. Broad, rounded tree. Simple ovate leaves. Sessile, rounded, reddish brown buds.
Foliage: Summer foliage: Alternate leaf arrangement . Simple , deciduous leaves. Obovate leaf shape. 1" to 4" long. Sharp, serrated margins . Shiny, dark green leaf color. • Fall foliage: Bronze-red to red fall color.
Growth Rate: Slow. • Size: 20' to 30' tall with an equal spread
Landscape Uses: Specimen tree . Screen border . • Liabilities: Thorns can be hazardous. Tends to have many pest problems similar to apple trees . Fireblight, aphids, scales , powdery mildew .
Hardy to zone 4.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,092 meters (0 to 3,583 feet).
Culture: Transplant in Spring . Prefers well-drained soil. Soil tolerant . PH adaptable. Full sun is best.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Crataegus acutifolia Sarg. • Crataegus algens Beadle • Crataegus barrettiana Sarg. • Crataegus bushii Sarg. • Crataegus canbyi Sarg. • Crataegus cherokeensis Sarg. • Crataegus cocksii Sarg. • Crataegus crus-galli var. barrettiana (Sarg.) Palmer • Crataegus danielsii Palmer • Crataegus denaria Beadle • Crataegus fecunda Sarg. • Crataegus fontanesiana (Spach) Steud. • Crataegus hannibalensis Palmer • Crataegus mohrii Beadle • Crataegus operta Ashe • Crataegus palliata Sarg. • Crataegus palmeri Sarg. • Crataegus permixta Palmer • Crataegus pyracanthoides (Ait.) Beadle • Crataegus regalis Beadle • Crataegus sabineana Ashe • Crataegus schizophylla Egglest. • Crataegus signata Beadle • Crataegus subpilosa Sarg. • Crataegus tantula Sarg. • Crataegus tenax Ashe • Crataegus triumphalis Sarg. • Crataegus uniqua Sarg. • Crataegus vallicola Sarg.
Name Status: Accepted Name .
Members of the genus Crataegus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 243 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
C. aemula (Rome Hawthorn) · C. aestivalis (Apple Hawthorn) · C. aestivalis var. cerasoides (Eastern Mayhaw) · C. aestivalis var. dormonae (Eastern Mayhaw) · C. aestivalis var. maloides (Eastern Mayhaw) · C. ambigua (Russian Hawthorn) · C. ambitiosa (Grand Rapids Hawthorn) · C. anamesa (Fort Bend Hawthorn) · C. ancisa (Mississippi Hawthorn) · C. annosa (Phoenix City Hawthorn) · C. anomala (Anomalous Hawthorn) · C. apiomorpha (Fort Sheridan Hawthorn) · C. arborea (Montgomery Hawthorn) · C. arcana (Carolina Hawthorn) · C. arnoldiana (Arnold Hawthorn) · C. arrogans (Dixie Hawthorn) · C. ater (Nashville Hawthorn) · C. austromontana (Valley Head Hawthorn) · C. azarolus (Azarole) · C. azarolus var. pontica (Mediterranean-Medlar) · C. beadlei (Beadle's Hawthorn) · C. beata (Dunbar's Hawthorn) · C. berberifolia (Barberry Hawthorn) · C. bona (Berks County Hawthorn) · C. brachyacantha (Blue Haw) · C. brainerdii (Brainerd Hawthorn) · C. brazoria (Brazos Hawthorn) · C. brevipes (Hawthorn) · C. calpodendron (Pear Hawthorn) · C. canadensis (Canadian Hawthorn) · C. carrollensis (Eureka Springs Hawthorn) · C. coccinea (Scarlet Hawthorn) · C. coccinioides (Kansas Haswthorn) · C. coccinioides var. corallicola (Kansas Haswthorn) · C. coccinioides var. pottsii (Kansas Haswthorn) · C. coleae (Cole's Hawthorn) · C. columbiana (Columbian Hawthorn) · C. compacta (Clustered Hawthorn) · C. compta (Adorned Hawthorn) · C. condigna (River Junction Hawthorn) · C. consanguinea (Tallahassee Hawthorn) · C. contrita (Southern Hawthorn) · C. corusca (Shiningbranch Hawthorn) · C. crus-galli (Cockspur Hawthorn) · C. crus-galli var. inermis (Thornless Cockspur Hawthorn) · C. crusgalli (Clarkton Hawthorn) · C. cuneata (Nippon Hawthorn) · C. dallasiana (Dallas Hawthorn) · C. densiflora (Denseflower Hawthorn) · C. desueta (New York Hawthorn) · C. dilatata (A Hawthorn) · C. dispar (Aiken Hawthorn) · C. disperma (Spreading Hawthorn) · C. dispessa (Mink Hawthorn) · C. dissona (Northern Hawthorn) · C. distincta (Distinct Hawthorn) · C. dodgei (Dodge's Hawthorn) · C. douglasii (Black Haw) · C. douglasii var. douglasii (Black Hawthorn) · C. douglasii var. duchesnensis (Duchesne Black Hawthorn) · C. engelmannii (Engelmann's Hawthorn) · C. erythrocarpa (Red Hawthorn) · C. erythropoda (Cerro Hawthorn) · C. exilis (Slender Hawthorn) · C. extraria (Marietta Hawthorn) · C. flabellata (Fanleaf Hawthorn) · C. flava (Summer Haw) · C. flava var. integra (Yellowfruit-Thorn) · C. flava 'Upright' (Upright Yellow Hawthorne) · C. fragilis (Fragile Hawthorn) · C. fulleriana (Fuller's Hawthorn) · C. furtiva (Albany Hawthorn) · C. glareosa (Port Huron Hawthorn) · C. grandis (Grand Hawthorn) · C. greggiana (Gregg Hawthorn) · C. haemacarpa (Hawthorn) · C. harbisonii (Harbison Hawthorn) · C. harveyana (Harvey's Hawthorn) · C. holmesiana (Holmes' Hawthorn) · C. hudsonica (Hudson Hawthorn) · C. ideae (Concord Hawthorn) · C. ignave (Bedford Springs Hawthorn) · C. immanis (Hawthorn) · C. impar (Redclay Hawthorn) · C. inanis (Oldmaid Hawthorn) · C. incaedua (Hawthorn) · C. indicens (Mansfield Hawthorn) · C. insidiosa (Ozark Hawthorn) · C. integra (Lake Ella Hawthorn) · C. intricata (Biltmore Hawthorn) · C. invicta (Fulton Hawthorn) · C. iracunda (Stolonbearing Hawthorn) · C. irrasa (Blanchard Hawthorn) · C. jesupii (Jesup's Hawthorn) · C. jonesiae (Miss Jones Hawthorn) · C. kelloggii (Kellogg Hawthorn) · C. kennedyi (Kennedy's Hawthorn) · C. kingstonensis (Kingston's Hawthorn) · C. knieskerniana (Knieskern's Hawthorn) · C. laciniata (Oriental Hawthorn)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 21, 2007:
- Bundesamt für Naturschutz / Zentralstelle für Phytodiversität Deutschland, Bundesamt fuer Naturschutz / Zentralstelle fuer Phytodiversitaet Deutschland
- Canadian Museum of Nature, Canadian Museum of Nature Herbarium
- Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien, Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2649827
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Ros-4947
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13791993
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:723205-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 12089
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 24552
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 68112-2
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDROS0H170
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: CRPY2
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 32777
- Cuizhi Gu, Chaoluan Li, Lingdi Lu, Shunyuan Jiang, Crinan Alexander, Bruce Bartholomew, Anthony R. Brach, David E. Boufford, Hiroshi Ikeda, Hideaki Ohba, Kenneth R. Robertson & Steven A. Spongberg "Rosaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 9 Page 46. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Ku Tsue-chih, Stephen A. Spongberg "Crataegus". in Flora of China Vol. 9 Page 111. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 202.860 meters (665.551 feet), Standard Deviation = 150.350 based on 865 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]