The largest family of flowering plants , the Compositae (Asteraceae), comprising about 1,100 genera and more than 20,000 species and characterized by many small flowers arranged in a head looking like a single flower and subtended by an involucre of bracts. A head may consist of both ray flowers and disk flowers, as in the sunflower, of disk flowers only, as in the burdock, or of ray flowers only, as in the dandelion.
, 2-25[-50+] cm (sometimes aromatic
). Stems usually 1, erect
at nodes), usually branched, glabrous
or ± strigillose
). Leaves usually mostly cauline [basal]; alternate [opposite]; petiolate
or sessile; blades
to lanceolate or linear
, sometimes 1-3-pinnately [palmati-pinnately] lobed
entire or irregularly toothed
glabrous or ± strigillose to villous [lanate
] (hairs mostly basifixed). Heads disciform
], borne singly (peduncles sometimes dilated
). Involucres broadly hemispheric
, 3-12+[-15+] mm diam. Phyllaries persistent
, 13-30+ in 2-3+ series, margins and apices (colorless, light to dark brown, or purplish) scarious
. Receptacles flat to convex
[conic], epaleate (sometimes ± covered with persistent stalks of florets
). Ray florets 0 [5-8+, pistillate
; corollas white] (peripheral pistillate florets 8-80+ in 1-3+ series; corollas usually none). Disc florets 12-200+[-600+], bisexual
, fertile [functionally staminate
]; corollas ochroleucous
or yellow, tubes
sometimes adaxially saccate
(3-) 4, ± deltate (sometimes one larger than others, usually each with central resin canal). Cypselae obovoid
, ob-compressed or -flattened, ribs
, sometimes becoming wings
, faces ± papillate
(pericarps relatively thin, sometimes with myxogenic cells
and/or 2 lateral resin sacs
) ; pappi 0. x = 10.
Species 55: introduced ; s Old World; introduced also (perhaps some native ) in Mexico, South America, s Oceanic Islands .
Some species of Cotula are widely naturalized . F. Hrusa et al. (2002) reported Cotula mexicana (de Candolle) Cabrera as established on golf courses in California; it is similar to C. australis and differs in leaf blades mostly 1-pinnate, receptacles pilose , and disc florets functionally staminate.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Order: Asterales () - Lindley, 1833
- Superorder: Campanulanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Cotula
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 10 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
C. australis (Australian Waterbuttons) · C. bipinnata (Ferny Cotula) · C. coronopifolia (Bachelors Buttons) · C. coronopifolia 'Cream Buttons' (Brassbuttons) · C. hemisphaerica (Pin-Cushion Weed) · C. hispida (Goudknopjes) · C. matricarioides (Pineapple Weed) · C. mexicana (Mexican Brassbuttons) · C. pilulifera (Stinknet) · C. prostrata (Yerba De Tago)
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- Johnson's Gardeners' dictionary and cultural instructor. London, A. T. De La Mare printing and publishing co., ltd. url p. 493.
- Manual of the New Zealand flora. By T. F. Cheeseman. .. Wellington, N. Z., J. Mackay, Govt. Printer, 1906. url p. 350, p. 353, p. 354.
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- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url p. 2, p. 226.
- The standard cyclopedia of horticulture; a discussion, for the amateur, and the professional and commercial grower, of the kinds, characteristics and methods of cultivation of the species of plants grown in the regions of the United States a by L. H. Bailey; illustrated with colored plates, four thousand engravings in the text, and ninety-six full-page cuts. . New York, The Macmillan Co.; [etc., etc.]1916-1917 [v.5 1916] url p. 868.
- The students' flora of New Zealand and the outlying islands. Wellington, N. Z., John Mackay, govt. printer url , .
- The subantarctic islands of New Zealand. Reports on the geo-physics, geology, zoology and botany of the islands lying to the south of New Zealand, based mainly on observations and collections made during an expedition in the government steam Wellington, N.Z.Printed by J. McKay, Gov't. Printer1909 url p. 199, p. 204, p. 211, p. 213.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 8971077
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:198491-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 2055613