Has a compact , dense, closely-branched habit that develops into a broad-spreading mound with dark green leaves. Makes a good rock garden specimen. Some authorities place this cultivar under Cotoneaster adpressus.
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Chinese:
Ping Zhi Xun Zi
Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
Cotoneaster, Rock Cotoneaster, Rock-Spray, Rockspray Cotoneaster
, or herbs, deciduous or evergreen
. Stems erect
, or creeping
. Buds usually with several exposed scales
, sometimes with only 2. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, simple
; stipules paired
, rarely absent, persistent
or deciduous; petiole usually 2-glandular apically; leaf blade
often serrate at margin
, rarely entire. Inflorescences various, from single flowers to umbellate
, racemose or cymose-paniculate. Flowers usually actinomorphic
, rarely unisexual
and then plants
dioecious. Hypanthium (formed from basal parts of sepals, petals, and stamens) free from or adnate to ovary, short or elongate
. Sepals usually 5, rarely fewer or more, imbricate; epicalyx
segments sometimes also present. Petals as many as sepals, inserted
below margin of disk, free, imbricate, sometimes absent. Disk lining hypanthium, usually entire, rarely lobed
. Stamens usually numerous
, rarely few, always in a complete
at margin of or above disk; filaments
usually free, very rarely connate
, rarely elongate, 2-locular. Carpels 1 to many, free, or ± connate and then adnate to inner surface of cupular receptacle; ovary inferior, semi-inferior, or superior; ovules usually 2 in each carpel, rarely 1 or several, anatropous
. Styles as many as carpels, terminal
, or basal, free or sometimes connate. Fruit a follicle, pome, achene, or drupe, rarely a capsule, naked or enclosed in persistent hypanthium and sometimes also by sepals. Seeds erect or pendulous, sometimes winged
, usually exalbuminous
, very rarely with thin endosperm; cotyledons mostly fleshy
abaxially, rarely folded or convolute.
Between 95 and 125 genera and 2825-3500 species: cosmopolitan , mostly in N temperate zone; 55 genera (two endemic) and 950 species (546 endemic) in China.
Many plants of this family are of economic importance and contribute to people s livelihoods. The Rosaceae contain a great number of fruit trees of temperate regions . The fruits contain vitamins, acids, and sugars and can be used both raw and for making preserves, jam, jelly, candy, various drinks, wine, vinegar, etc. The dried fruits of the genera
Amygdalus and Armeniaca are of high commercial value. Some plants in the genus Rosa containing essential oils or with a high vitamin content are used in industry . Rosaceae wood is used for making various articles, stems and roots are used for making tannin extract, and young leaves are used as a substitute for tea. Numerous species are used for medical purposes or are cultivated as ornamentals .
The Rosaceae are very well represented in China, with great economic and scientific importance. The Co-chairs of the Editorial Committee (Wu and Raven) here note that the patterns of relationship are complex and the group is taxonomically difficult. 
, rarely small trees
, or prostrate
, deciduous, semievergreen, or evergreen
, rarely slightly angulate
. Winter buds
several, imbricate, exposed. Leaves alternate, simple
, shortly petiolate
; stipules caducous
, usually subulate
, small; margin
of leaf blade
. Inflorescences terminal
, sometimes flowers several fascicled or solitary. Hypanthium turbinate
, rarely cylindric
to ovary. Sepals 5, persistent
, short. Petals 5, erect or spreading
, imbricate in bud, white, pink, or red. Stamens 10-20(-22), inserted
of hypanthium. Ovary inferior or semi-inferior, 2-5-loculed; carpels 2-5, connate
adaxially; ovules 2 per carpel, erect; styles 2-5, free; stigmas dilated
. Fruit a drupe-like pome, red, brownish red, or orange to black, with persistent, incurved
sepals, containing pyrenes; pyrenes (1 or) 2-5, bony, 1-seeded; seeds compressed
; cotyledons plano-convex
About 90 species in the broad sense: widespread in temperate N Africa, Asia (except Japan), Central America (Mexico), and Europe, most abundant in SW China; 59 species (37 endemic) in China.
The shrubs are widely planted as ornamentals for their attractive fruits and flowers, and as borders , hedges , and ground cover. Further studies are necessary to clarify a taxonomy complicated by hybridization and apomixis.
Species Cotoneaster horizontalis
deciduous or semievergreen, procumbent
, usually to 50 cm tall,
sometimes taller, with horizontally spreading
, distichously much
branched stems. Branchlets
blackish brown, terete
, initially strigose
when old. Petiole
1-3 mm, pubescent
; stipules caducous
or lanceolate, 2-4 mm, puberulous
; leaf blade
or broadly elliptic
, rarely obovate
, 6-14 × 4-9 mm, midvein
raised abaxially and ± impressed
adaxially, abaxially sparsely
pubescent, adaxially glabrous, base
cuneate, apex usually
acute. Inflorescences 1- or 2-flowered. Pedicel short to nearly absent.
Flowers 5-7 mm in diam. Hypanthium campanulate
, abaxially sparsely
pubescent. Sepals triangular, 1-1.5 × 1-2 mm, apex acute. Petals
, pink, reddish, or whitish, 3-4 × 2-3 mm, base shortly
clawed, apex obtuse
. Stamens ca.
12, shorter than petals. Ovary pilose
apically; styles (2 or) 3, free
, not exceeding stamens. Fruit bright
red, subglobose or ellipsoid
, (3-) 5-7 mm in diam., pyrenes 3, rarely
May-Jun, fr. Sep-Oct. [source]
Plants with somewhat larger leaves, clearly and very strikingly variegated with white, have been described as Cotoneaster horizontalis var. variegatus Osborn (Gard. Chron., ser. 3, 72: 351. 1922). They are grown as ornamentals , particularly in rock gardens. [source]
ID Features: Fishbone stem pattern. Red, pome fruits. Irregular growth habit. Long drooping branches. Alternate leaves. Pubescence on underside of leaf.
Habit: A semi-evergreen , multi-stemmed shrub with a spreading , irregular habit. Branches are slender and drooping . Has a compact , dense, closely-branched habit that develops into a broad-spreading mound with dark green leaves. • Growth Form: Thicket Forming • Shape and Orientation: Prostrate
Flowers: Light pink flowers. Blooms in late May. Flowers are small, but in abundance are showy. • Bloom Period: Spring • Flower Color: White • Flower Conspicuous: Yes
Seeds: Seed per Pound: 64000 • Seed Spread Rate: None • Seedling Vigor: Medium • Fruit: Red small, pome fruits. 0.25" in diameter. Held through winter. Ripen in September through October. Can be showy. • Fruit/Seed Abundance: Medium • Fruit/Seed Color: Red • Fruit/Seed Conspicuous: Yes • Cold Stratification Required: Yes
Foliage: Foliage Color: Green • Summer foliage: Leaves are alternate and simple . Leave margins are entire. 0.20" to 0.50" long. Glabrous on upperside of leaf. Pubescent on underside of leaf. Dark green color. Leaf blade is flat. • Fall foliage: Purplish winter color. • Foliage Texture: Coarse • Fall Conspicuous: No • Leaf Retention: Yes
Active Growth Period: Spring , Summer, Fall • Growth Rate: Moderate to rapid. • Mature Height (feet): 4.0 • Maximum Height at 20 Years (feet): 1 • Size: 5' to 6' tall and 6' to 8' wide • Vegetative Spread Rate: Slow • Lifespan: Lifespan
Landscape Uses: Good rock garden specimen. Groundcover. Bank cover . Groupings or mass. Espalier . For flowers or fruit afect. • Liabilities: Bees are attractive to flowers. Fireblight. Leaf spot. Spider mites .
Thickets, rocks, rocky slopes
, dry mountain areas; 1500--3500 m
Zone 5. Tolerant to -20oF, but some damage will occur.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,337 meters (0 to 14,229 feet).
Coppice Potential: No • Progagated by Bulbs: No • Propagated by Bare Root: Yes • Propagated by Container: Yes • Propagated by Corms: No • Propagated by Cuttings: Yes • Propagated by Seed: No • Propagated by Sod: No • Propagated by Sprigs: No • Propagated by Tubers: No • Fruit/Seed Period Begin: Summer • Fruit/Seed Period End: Fall • Fruit/Seed Persistence: Yes
Culture: Transplant from containers only because of sparse root system . Prefers well-drained, fertile soil. Needs adequate moisture. Wind tolerant . PH adaptable. Full sun to partial shade. Prune tolerant.
Soil: Adapted to Medium Textured: Adapted to Medium Textured Soils • Adapted to Coarse Textured Soils: No • Anaerobic Tolerance: None • Salinity Tolerance: None • CaCO3 Tolerance: Medium • Minimum pH: 5.5 • Maximum pH: 7.0 • Fertility Requirement: Medium
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade. • Shade Tolerance: Tolerant
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: Medium • Minimum Precipitation: 32 • Maximum Precipitation: 60 • Moisture Use: Medium
Temperature: Minimum Temperature (F): -28 • Minimum Frost Free Days: 100 • Cold Hardiness: 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Order: Rosales () - Perleb, 1826
- Superorder: Rosanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Cotoneaster davidianus hort. ex Dippel • Cotoneaster microphyllus Diels
: Decne. Publication
: in Fl.
des Serres Ser. II,
xii. (1877) 168.
Name Status: Accepted Name .
Last scrutiny: 2009
Members of the genus Cotoneaster
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 56 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
C. acutifolius (Peking Cotoneaster) · C. adpressus (Creeping Cotoneaster) · C. adpressus var. praecox (Creeping Cotoneaster) · C. adpressus 'Little Gem' (Little Gem Cotoneaster) · C. amoenus (Cotoneaster) · C. apiculatus (Cranberry Cotoneaster) · C. bullatus (Cotoneaster) · C. cochleatus (Cotoneaster) · C. congestus (Pyrenees Cotoneaster) · C. conspicuus (Necklace Cotoneaster) · C. dammeri (Bearberry Cotoneaster) · C. dammeri 'Eichholz' (Bearberry Cotoneaster) · C. dammeri 'Mooncreeper' (Bearberry Cotoneaster) · C. dammeri 'Skogholm' (Bearberry Cotoneaster) · C. dammeri 'Streibs Findling' (Bearberry Cotoneaster) · C. dielsianus (Cotoneaster) · C. discolor (Cotoneaster) · C. divaricatus (Spreading Cotoneaster) · C. franchetii (Franchet Cotoneaster) · C. frigidus (Himalayan Tree Cotoneaster) · C. glabratus (Cotoneaster) · C. glaucophyllus (Bright Bead Cotoneaster) · C. granatensis (Durillo) · C. harrysmithii (Harrysmith Cotoneaster) · C. henryanus (Henrys Cotoneaster) · C. horizontalis (Cotoneaster) · C. horizontalis var. perpusillus (Prostrate Rock Cotoneaster) · C. horizontalis 'Variegatus' (Cotoneaster) · C. hupehensis (Hupeh Cotoneaster) · C. hylmoei (Cotoneaster) · C. integerrimus (Cotoneaster) · C. integrifolius (Small-Leaf Cotoneaster) · C. lacteus (Milkflower Cotoneaster) · C. lucidus (Hedge Cotoneaster) · C. microphyllus (Chinese Rockspray) · C. microphyllus 'Cooperi' (Chinese Rockspray) · C. multiflora (Cotoneaster) · C. multiflorus (Many-Flowered Cotoneaster) · C. nanshan (Creeping Cotoneaster) · C. niger (Dark-Seed Cotoneaster) · C. pannosus (Cotoneaster) · C. radicans (Bearberry Cotoneaster) · C. salicifolius (Cotoneaster) · C. salicifolius 'Repens' (Spreading Willowleaf Cotoneaster) · C. salicifolius 'Scarlet Leader' (Willow-Leaf Cotoneaster) · C. salicifolus (Willowleaf Cotoneaster) · C. serotinus (Cotoneaster) · C. simonsii (Himalayan Cotoneaster) · C. splendens (Splendid Cotoneaster) · C. sternianus (Cotoneaster) · C. tomentosus (Hairy Cotoneaster) · C. wilsonii (Cotoneaster) · C. x waterei 'John Waterer' (Cotoneaster) · C. 'Cornubia' (Cotoneaster) · C. 'Hybridus Pendulus' (Weeping Cotoneaster) · C. 'Rothschildianus' (Cotoneaster)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 21, 2007:
- Australian National Herbarium
- , Australian National Herbarium
- Biologiezentrum der Oberoesterreichischen Landesmuseen, Biologiezentrum Linz
- Bundesamt für Naturschutz / Zentralstelle für Phytodiversität Deutschland, Bundesamt fuer Naturschutz / Zentralstelle fuer Phytodiversitaet Deutschland
- Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien, Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien
- GBIF-Spain, Aranzadi Zientzi Elkartea
- GBIF-Spain, Dirección General de Investigación, Desarrollo Tecnológico e Innovación de la Junta de Extremadura(DGIDTI): HSS
- GBIF-Spain, Jardín Botánico de Córdoba: Herbarium COA
- GBIF-Spain, Real Jardin Botanico
- , Vascular Plant Herbarium
- GBIF-Spain, Universitat de Girona: HGI-Cormophyta
- Harvard University Herbaria, Harvard University Herbaria
- Herbario SANT, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, SANT herbarium vascular plant collection
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- National Herbarium of New South Wales, NSW herbarium collection
- National Institute of Genetics, ROIS, Herbarium Specimens of Museum of Nature and Human Activities, Hyogo Pref., Japan
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plant Herbarium, Oslo
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plants, Field notes, Oslo
- Oregon State University, Vascular Plant Collection
- Taiwan Biodiversity Information Facility, Magnoliophyta
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Lund Botanical Museum
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Plants
- Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Washington Burke Museum, Vascular Plant Collection - University of Washington Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2666304
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Ros-58945
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2494459
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:722522-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 11749
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 501650
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 722522-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDROS0F030
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: COHO80
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 30807
- Cuizhi Gu, Chaoluan Li, Lingdi Lu, Shunyuan Jiang, Crinan Alexander, Bruce Bartholomew, Anthony R. Brach, David E. Boufford, Hiroshi Ikeda, Hideaki Ohba, Kenneth R. Robertson & Steven A. Spongberg "Rosaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 9 Page 46. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Lu Ling-ti, Anthony R. Brach "Cotoneaster". in Flora of China Vol. 9 Page 85. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 123.550 meters (405.348 feet), Standard Deviation = 279.340 based on 3,287 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]