Has a compact , dense, closely-branched habit that develops into a broad-spreading mound with dark green leaves. Makes a good rock garden specimen. Some authorities place this cultivar under Cotoneaster adpressus.
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Chinese:
Ping Zhi Xun Zi
Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
Cotoneaster, Rock Cotoneaster, Rock-Spray, Rockspray Cotoneaster
, or herbs, deciduous or evergreen
. Stems erect
, or creeping
. Buds usually with several exposed scales
, sometimes with only 2. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, simple
; stipules paired
, rarely absent, persistent
or deciduous; petiole usually 2-glandular apically; leaf blade
often serrate at margin
, rarely entire. Inflorescences various, from single flowers to umbellate
, racemose or cymose-paniculate. Flowers usually actinomorphic
, rarely unisexual
and then plants
dioecious. Hypanthium (formed from basal parts of sepals, petals, and stamens) free from or adnate to ovary, short or elongate
. Sepals usually 5, rarely fewer or more, imbricate; epicalyx
segments sometimes also present. Petals as many as sepals, inserted
below margin of disk, free, imbricate, sometimes absent. Disk lining hypanthium, usually entire, rarely lobed
. Stamens usually numerous
, rarely few, always in a complete
at margin of or above disk; filaments
usually free, very rarely connate
, rarely elongate, 2-locular. Carpels 1 to many, free, or ± connate and then adnate to inner surface of cupular receptacle; ovary inferior, semi-inferior, or superior; ovules usually 2 in each carpel, rarely 1 or several, anatropous
. Styles as many as carpels, terminal
, or basal, free or sometimes connate. Fruit a follicle, pome, achene, or drupe, rarely a capsule, naked or enclosed in persistent hypanthium and sometimes also by sepals. Seeds erect or pendulous, sometimes winged
, usually exalbuminous
, very rarely with thin endosperm; cotyledons mostly fleshy
abaxially, rarely folded or convolute.
Between 95 and 125 genera and 2825-3500 species: cosmopolitan , mostly in N temperate zone; 55 genera (two endemic) and 950 species (546 endemic) in China.
Many plants of this family are of economic importance and contribute to people s livelihoods. The Rosaceae contain a great number of fruit trees of temperate regions . The fruits contain vitamins, acids, and sugars and can be used both raw and for making preserves, jam, jelly, candy, various drinks, wine, vinegar, etc. The dried fruits of the genera
Amygdalus and Armeniaca are of high commercial value. Some plants in the genus Rosa containing essential oils or with a high vitamin content are used in industry . Rosaceae wood is used for making various articles, stems and roots are used for making tannin extract, and young leaves are used as a substitute for tea. Numerous species are used for medical purposes or are cultivated as ornamentals .
The Rosaceae are very well represented in China, with great economic and scientific importance. The Co-chairs of the Editorial Committee (Wu and Raven) here note that the patterns of relationship are complex and the group is taxonomically difficult. 
, rarely small trees
, or prostrate
, deciduous, semievergreen, or evergreen
, rarely slightly angulate
. Winter buds
several, imbricate, exposed. Leaves alternate, simple
, shortly petiolate
; stipules caducous
, usually subulate
, small; margin
of leaf blade
. Inflorescences terminal
, sometimes flowers several fascicled or solitary. Hypanthium turbinate
, rarely cylindric
to ovary. Sepals 5, persistent
, short. Petals 5, erect or spreading
, imbricate in bud, white, pink, or red. Stamens 10-20(-22), inserted
of hypanthium. Ovary inferior or semi-inferior, 2-5-loculed; carpels 2-5, connate
adaxially; ovules 2 per carpel, erect; styles 2-5, free; stigmas dilated
. Fruit a drupe-like pome, red, brownish red, or orange to black, with persistent, incurved
sepals, containing pyrenes; pyrenes (1 or) 2-5, bony, 1-seeded; seeds compressed
; cotyledons plano-convex
About 90 species in the broad sense: widespread in temperate N Africa, Asia (except Japan), Central America (Mexico), and Europe, most abundant in SW China; 59 species (37 endemic) in China.
The shrubs are widely planted as ornamentals for their attractive fruits and flowers, and as borders , hedges , and ground cover. Further studies are necessary to clarify a taxonomy complicated by hybridization and apomixis.
Species Cotoneaster horizontalis
deciduous or semievergreen, procumbent
, usually to 50 cm tall,
sometimes taller, with horizontally spreading
, distichously much
branched stems. Branchlets
blackish brown, terete
, initially strigose
when old. Petiole
1-3 mm, pubescent
; stipules caducous
or lanceolate, 2-4 mm, puberulous
; leaf blade
or broadly elliptic
, rarely obovate
, 6-14 × 4-9 mm, midvein
raised abaxially and ± impressed
adaxially, abaxially sparsely
pubescent, adaxially glabrous, base
cuneate, apex usually
acute. Inflorescences 1- or 2-flowered. Pedicel short to nearly absent.
Flowers 5-7 mm in diam. Hypanthium campanulate
, abaxially sparsely
pubescent. Sepals triangular, 1-1.5 × 1-2 mm, apex acute. Petals
, pink, reddish, or whitish, 3-4 × 2-3 mm, base shortly
clawed, apex obtuse
. Stamens ca.
12, shorter than petals. Ovary pilose
apically; styles (2 or) 3, free
, not exceeding stamens. Fruit bright
red, subglobose or ellipsoid
, (3-) 5-7 mm in diam., pyrenes 3, rarely
May-Jun, fr. Sep-Oct. [source]
Plants with somewhat larger leaves, clearly and very strikingly variegated with white, have been described as Cotoneaster horizontalis var. variegatus Osborn (Gard. Chron., ser. 3, 72: 351. 1922). They are grown as ornamentals , particularly in rock gardens. [source]
ID Features: Fishbone stem pattern. Red, pome fruits. Irregular growth habit. Long drooping branches. Alternate leaves. Pubescence on underside of leaf.
Habit: A semi-evergreen , multi-stemmed shrub with a spreading , irregular habit. Branches are slender and drooping . Has a compact , dense, closely-branched habit that develops into a broad-spreading mound with dark green leaves. • Growth Form: Thicket Forming • Shape and Orientation: Prostrate
Flowers: Light pink flowers. Blooms in late May. Flowers are small, but in abundance are showy. • Bloom Period: Spring • Flower Color: White • Flower Conspicuous: Yes
Seeds: Seed per Pound: 64000 • Seed Spread Rate: None • Seedling Vigor: Medium • Fruit: Red small, pome fruits. 0.25" in diameter. Held through winter. Ripen in September through October. Can be showy. • Fruit/Seed Abundance: Medium • Fruit/Seed Color: Red • Fruit/Seed Conspicuous: Yes • Cold Stratification Required: Yes
Foliage: Foliage Color: Green • Summer foliage: Leaves are alternate and simple . Leave margins are entire. 0.20" to 0.50" long. Glabrous on upperside of leaf. Pubescent on underside of leaf. Dark green color. Leaf blade is flat. • Fall foliage: Purplish winter color. • Foliage Texture: Coarse • Fall Conspicuous: No • Leaf Retention: Yes
Active Growth Period: Spring , Summer, Fall • Growth Rate: Moderate to rapid. • Mature Height (feet): 4.0 • Maximum Height at 20 Years (feet): 1 • Size: 5' to 6' tall and 6' to 8' wide • Vegetative Spread Rate: Slow • Lifespan: Lifespan
Landscape Uses: Good rock garden specimen. Groundcover. Bank cover . Groupings or mass. Espalier . For flowers or fruit afect. • Liabilities: Bees are attractive to flowers. Fireblight. Leaf spot. Spider mites .
Thickets, rocks, rocky slopes
, dry mountain areas; 1500--3500 m
Zone 5. Tolerant to -20oF, but some damage will occur.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,337 meters (0 to 14,229 feet).
Coppice Potential: No • Progagated by Bulbs: No • Propagated by Bare Root: Yes • Propagated by Container: Yes • Propagated by Corms: No • Propagated by Cuttings: Yes • Propagated by Seed: No • Propagated by Sod: No • Propagated by Sprigs: No • Propagated by Tubers: No • Fruit/Seed Period Begin: Summer • Fruit/Seed Period End: Fall • Fruit/Seed Persistence: Yes
Culture: Transplant from containers only because of sparse root system . Prefers well-drained, fertile soil. Needs adequate moisture. Wind tolerant . PH adaptable. Full sun to partial shade. Prune tolerant.
Soil: Adapted to Medium Textured: Adapted to Medium Textured Soils • Adapted to Coarse Textured Soils: No • Anaerobic Tolerance: None • Salinity Tolerance: None • CaCO3 Tolerance: Medium • Minimum pH: 5.5 • Maximum pH: 7.0 • Fertility Requirement: Medium
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade. • Shade Tolerance: Tolerant
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: Medium • Minimum Precipitation: 32 • Maximum Precipitation: 60 • Moisture Use: Medium
Temperature: Minimum Temperature (F): -28 • Minimum Frost Free Days: 100 • Cold Hardiness: 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Order: Rosales () - Perleb, 1826
- Superorder: Rosanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Cotoneaster davidianus hort. ex Dippel • Cotoneaster microphyllus Diels
: Decne. Publication
: in Fl.
des Serres Ser. II,
xii. (1877) 168.
Name Status: Accepted Name .
Last scrutiny: 2009
Members of the genus Cotoneaster
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 56 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
C. acutifolius (Peking Cotoneaster) · C. adpressus (Creeping Cotoneaster) · C. adpressus var. praecox (Creeping Cotoneaster) · C. adpressus 'Little Gem' (Little Gem Cotoneaster) · C. amoenus (Cotoneaster) · C. apiculatus (Cranberry Cotoneaster) · C. bullatus (Cotoneaster) · C. cochleatus (Cotoneaster) · C. congestus (Pyrenees Cotoneaster) · C. conspicuus (Necklace Cotoneaster) · C. dammeri (Bearberry Cotoneaster) · C. dammeri 'Eichholz' (Bearberry Cotoneaster) · C. dammeri 'Mooncreeper' (Bearberry Cotoneaster) · C. dammeri 'Skogholm' (Bearberry Cotoneaster) · C. dammeri 'Streibs Findling' (Bearberry Cotoneaster) · C. dielsianus (Cotoneaster) · C. discolor (Cotoneaster) · C. divaricatus (Spreading Cotoneaster) · C. franchetii (Franchet Cotoneaster) · C. frigidus (Himalayan Tree Cotoneaster) · C. glabratus (Cotoneaster) · C. glaucophyllus (Bright Bead Cotoneaster) · C. granatensis (Durillo) · C. harrysmithii (Harrysmith Cotoneaster) · C. henryanus (Henrys Cotoneaster) · C. horizontalis (Cotoneaster) · C. horizontalis var. perpusillus (Prostrate Rock Cotoneaster) · C. horizontalis 'Variegatus' (Cotoneaster) · C. hupehensis (Hupeh Cotoneaster) · C. hylmoei (Cotoneaster) · C. integerrimus (Cotoneaster) · C. integrifolius (Small-Leaf Cotoneaster) · C. lacteus (Milkflower Cotoneaster) · C. lucidus (Hedge Cotoneaster) · C. microphyllus (Chinese Rockspray) · C. microphyllus 'Cooperi' (Chinese Rockspray) · C. multiflora (Cotoneaster) · C. multiflorus (Many-Flowered Cotoneaster) · C. nanshan (Creeping Cotoneaster) · C. niger (Dark-Seed Cotoneaster) · C. pannosus (Cotoneaster) · C. radicans (Bearberry Cotoneaster) · C. salicifolius (Cotoneaster) · C. salicifolius 'Repens' (Spreading Willowleaf Cotoneaster) · C. salicifolius 'Scarlet Leader' (Willow-Leaf Cotoneaster) · C. salicifolus (Willowleaf Cotoneaster) · C. serotinus (Cotoneaster) · C. simonsii (Himalayan Cotoneaster) · C. splendens (Splendid Cotoneaster) · C. sternianus (Cotoneaster) · C. tomentosus (Hairy Cotoneaster) · C. wilsonii (Cotoneaster) · C. x waterei 'John Waterer' (Cotoneaster) · C. 'Cornubia' (Cotoneaster) · C. 'Hybridus Pendulus' (Weeping Cotoneaster) · C. 'Rothschildianus' (Cotoneaster)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- A check-list of plants mentioned in the Arnold Arboretum bulletins / [compiled by Charles Downing Lay, Robert Wheelwright]. Harrisburg, Pa.: Landscape Architecture, Inc., 1919 url p. 9.
- A partial list of plants available for various uses in general landscape planting, comp. by Albert D. Taylor. Cleveland, A.D. Taylor, c1916 url p. 37, p. 37.
- A practical guide to garden plants, containing descriptions of the hardiest and most beautiful annuals and biennials, hardy herbaceous and bulbous perennials, hardy water and bog plants, flowering and ornamental trees and shrubs, conife London;Longmans, Green, 1901. url , , p. 102, p. 410.
- About trees, shrubs, and climbing plants for South Africa; concise hints on the making of farm plantations, shrubberies. .. Maritzburg, 1919. url p. 116.
- Alpine flowers for gardens: rock, wall, marsh plants, and mountain shrubs / by W. Robinson. London: John Murray, 1903. url p. 197.
- Alpine flowers for gardens; rock, wall, marsh plants, and mountain shrubs, by W. Robinson. London, J. Murray, 1910. url p. 197.
- Alpine plants / by A.J. Macself; illustrated with colour photographs by R.A. Malby, water colour drawings by Winifred Walker, line drawings by G.E. Lee. New York: Scribner, 1923. url p. 196, p. 200.
- Andorra hand-book [of trees and shrubs] Philadelphia url p. 26.
- Aristocrats of the garden, Garden City, N. Y., Doubleday, Page & company, 1917. url .
- Aristocrats of the garden, by Ernest H. Wilson. .. Garden City, N. Y., Doubleday, Page & company[c1917] url p. 303, p. 303, p. 91, p. 91.
- Beautiful flowering trees and shrubs for British and Irish gardens / by John Weathers. London: Simpkin, Marshall, [1903?] url .
- Biltmore Nursery, Biltmorse, N.C. [North Carolina?: The Nursery?], c1912 url p. 48.
- Book of garden plans, Garden City, N. Y., Doubleday, Page & company, 1916. url .
- British floral decoration, by R. Forester Felton. London: A. & C. Black, 1910. url p. 219.
- British journal of entomology and natural history. [London]: British Entomological and Natural History Society, 1988- url p. 27, p. 31.
- Bulletin - Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station. Amherst, : Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station, 1907-1974. url p. 20, p. 23, p. 32, p. 78.
- Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). London: The Museum, 1951-1992. url p. 128, p. 131.
- Colour in my garden, by Louise Beebe Wilder. Illustrated in colour, by Anna Winegar. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, Page, 1918. url p. 327.
- Curtis's botanical magazine. 131 1905 London; New York [etc.]: Academic Press [etc.] url , .
- Entomological news. [Philadelphia]American Entomological Society, 1925- url p. 59.
- Flora of the Queen Charlotte Islands. [Ottawa: Queen's Printer], 1968-. url p. 53.
- Florists' review Chicago: Florists' Pub. Co. url , , .
- Garden guide, the amateur gardener's handbook; how to plan, plant and maintain the home grounds, the suburban garden, the city lot. How to grow gook vegetables and fruit. How to care for roses and other favorite flowers, hardy plants, trees, shrub ed. by J. Harrison Dick... New York, A. T. De La Mare company, inc.1917 url p. 42.
- Garden guide, the amateur gardeners' handbook; how to plan, plant and maintain the home grounds, the suburban garden, the city lot. How to grow good vegetables and fruit. How to care for roses and other favorite flowers, hardy plants, trees, shrub New York, A. T. De La Mare company, inc.[c1917] url .
- Garden guide; the amateur gardeners' handbook. Profusely illustrated with over 275 teaching plans and diagrams and reproduced photographs, all made expressly for this standard text book. Edited by A. T. De La Mare. New York, A. T. De La Mare[c1920] url , , p. 55, p. 56.
- Gardeners' chronicle of America. New York: Chronicle Press, 1905-1950. url p. 150.
- Gardening for beginners; a handbook to the garden, by E.T. Cook. [London]"Country Life" [etc., 1914] url .
- Gardens of England / London: A. & C. Black, 1911. url .
- Gardens, their form and design, London, E. Arnold, 1919. url , .
- Gardens, their form and design, by Viscountess Wolseley; illustrated by Mary G. Campion. London, E. Arnold, 1919. url .
- Growth of plants; twenty years' research at Boyce Thompson Institute. New York, Reinhold Pub. Corp., 1948. url p. 451.
- Horticulture. Boston, Mass.: Horticulture Pub. Co., c1904- url p. 499, p. 665.
- In a Gloucestershire garden. London, E. Arnold, 1896. url , p. 108, p. 300.
- International catalogue of scientific literature. London: Published for the International Council by the Royal Society of London, 1902-1919. url p. 470.
- Inventory of seeds and plants imported / U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. Washington, D.C.: G.P.O., 1914-1924. url p. 95.
- Irish gardening. Dublin: Pub. Office, 1906-1922 url , p. 134.
- Jenaische Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaft. Jena, Gustav Fischer [etc.]. url p. 456, p. 463.
- Journal of the International Garden Club. New York, International garden club. url p. 382.
- Journal of the New York Botanical Garden. 42 1941 Lancaster, Pa.: Published for the Garden by the New Era Printing Co., 1900- url p. 294.
- Landscape garden series, ed. by Ralph Rodney Root. Davenport, Ia.: The Garden Press,  url p. 26.
- Landscaping your home / Urbana: University of Illinois Press, c1975. url p. 229, p. 242.
- Lists of plant types for landscape planting; the materials of planting for ornament listed according to their various uses, by Stephen F. Hamblin. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1923. url , , , , , , , , p. 35, p. 39, p. 42, p. 57, p. 61, p. 70.
- My garden in spring, by E. A. Bowles. New York: Dodge Pub. Co.,  url p. 299.
- My garden, by Louise Beebe Wilder. .. illustrated by Will Simmons. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, Page & company, [c1916] url p. 206, p. 206.
- New or unusual plant injuries and diseases found in Connecticut, 1916-1919 / [New Haven]: Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 1920. url p. 432.
- Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. 7 1912-1913 Edinburgh: H. M. Stationery Off. url p. 239.
- Ornamental shrubs of the United States, hardy, cultivated. New YorkAmerican Book Co.[c1910] url p. 178.
- Oxford gardens, based upon Daubeny's Popular guide to the physick garden of Oxford: with notes on the gardens of the colleges and on the University park, by R. T. Günther. Oxford: Parker & son; [etc., etc.], 1912. url p. 146, p. 43.
- Plantae Wilsonianae; an enumeration of the woody plants collected in western China for the Arnold arboretum of Harvard university during the years 1907, 1908, and 1910, by E. H. Wilson, ed. by Charles Sprague Sargent. Cambridge, University Press, 1913-17. url p. 154, p. 155, p. 466, p. 469, p. 522, p. 550, p. 551, p. 562, p. 589, p. 600.
- Plants for California landscapes: a catalog of drought tolerant plants. [Sacramento, Calif.]: State of California, Resources Agency, Dept. of Water Resources,  url p. 80.
- Practical landscape gardening: the importance of careful planning, locating the house, arrangement of walks and drives, construction of walks and drives, lawns and terraces, how to plant a property, laying out a flower garden, arch New York, A.T. De La Mare Company, inc., 1916. url .
- Practical landscape gardening; the importance of careful planning, locating the house, arrangement of walks and drives, construction of walks and drives, lawns and terraces, how to plant a property, laying out a flower garden, arch by Robert B. Cridland. New York, A.T. De La Mare Company, inc., 1918. url p. 265, p. 270.
- Proceedings and transactions of the South London Entomological & Natural History Society. London: The Society. url p. 29.
- Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. Washington, etc.: Entomological Society of Washington url p. 83.
- Sargent, C. S. Plantae Wilsonianae: an enumeration of the woody plants collected in western China for the Arnold arboretum of Harvard university during the years 1907, 1908, and 1910 /by E. H. Wilson, ed. by Charles Sprague Sargent. 1 1913 Cambridge: The University press, 1913-17. url p. 154, p. 155, p. 466, p. 469, p. 550, p. 551, p. 562, p. 589, p. 600.
- Seeds and plants imported / U.S. Department of Agriculture. Washington, D.C.: G.P.O., 1903-1913. url p. 57.
- Standardized plant names; a catalogue of approved scientific and common names of plants in American commerce. Salem, Mass., 1923. url p. 99.
- Textbook of theoretical botany, by R. C. McLean and W. R. Ivimey-Cook. London, Longmans, Green[1951- url p. 1053.
- The American florist: a weekly journal for the trade. Chicago: American Florist Company, [1885-1931] url p. 1294, p. 622, p. 832.
- The Book of gardening; a handbook of horticulture. London, C. Scribner's Sons, 1900. url .
- The Bradley bibliography; a guide to the literature of the woody plants of the world published before the beginning of the twentieth century; Cambridge, Riverside Press, 1911-18. url p. 18, p. 259.
- The Canadian field-naturalist. Ottawa, Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club. url p. 341.
- The English flower garden and home grounds: design and arrangement followed by a description of the plants, shrubs and trees for the open-air garden and their culture / by W. Robinson. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1921. url p. 414.
- The Entomologist's record and journal of variation. s.l., s.n. url p. 210, p. 23, p. 232, p. 253.
- The Florists' exchange: a weekly medium of interchange for florists, nurserymen, seedsmen and the trade in general. New York, N.Y.: [A.T. De la Mare Ptg. and Pub. Co., url , p. 1071, p. 1145, p. 1367, p. 305, p. 417, p. 640, p. 686, p. 890, p. 939, p. 993.
- The Garden: an illustrated weekly journal of gardening in all its branches. London: [s.n., url , , , , , , , p. 102, p. 11, p. 14, p. 144, p. 148, p. 15, p. 164, p. 187, p. 2, p. 200, p. 219, p. 219, p. 240, p. 247, p. 256, p. 264, p. 27, p. 271, p. 293, p. 296, p. 300, p. 312, p. 312, p. 323, p. 335, p. 345, p. 354, p. 387, p. 395, p. 4, p. 411, p. 418, p. 446, p. 449, p. 48, p. 490, p. 516, p. 520, p. 527, p. 538, p. 545, p. 552, p. 59, p. 591, p. 594, p. 599, p. 601, p. 606, p. 610, p. 626, p. 63, p. 634, p. 64, p. 648, p. 650, p. 650, p. 72, p. 9, p. 90, p. 92.
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url , , , , , p. 100, p. 110, p. 128, p. 128, p. 14, p. 160, p. 194, p. 20, p. 202, p. 229, p. 234, p. 24, p. 255, p. 263, p. 274, p. 309, p. 315, p. 332, p. 339, p. 341, p. 352, p. 378, p. 42, p. 429, p. 432, p. 439, p. 45, p. 458, p. 502, p. 94.
- The Great Basin naturalist. 41 1981 Provo, Utah: M.L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University, 1939-1999. url p. 22.
- The Review of applied entomology. Farnham Royal, Eng., etc.: Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux, etc. url p. 408, p. 409, p. 623.
- The art & craft of garden making / Thomas H. Mawson. London: B.T. Batsford;  url p. 274, p. 293.
- The book of rock and water gardens. London, J. Lane Company[1907?] url .
- The care of trees in lawn, street and park. With a list of trees and shrubs for decorative use. New YorkHolt1910 url p. 366, p. 370.
- The century supplement to the dictionary of gardening, a practical and scientific encyclopaedia of horticulture for gardeners and botanists / by Geo. Nicholson. .. [et al.]. Hyde Park, Mass.: Geo. T. King; 1901. url p. 262.
- The complete garden, by Albert D. Taylor, assisted by Gordon D. Cooper. Illustrated with fifty full page cuts, four line charts, and nine coloured plates. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, Page, 1921. url p. 139, p. 139, p. 174, p. 174, p. 207, p. 209, p. 209, p. 253, p. 289, p. 289, p. 325, p. 325, p. 327, p. 327, p. 340, p. 340.
- The complete home landscape, by Arthur J. Jennings, in collaboration with Leonard H. Johnson. New York, A. T. De La Mare, 1924. url p. 127, p. 137, p. 144, p. 146.
- The complete illustrated book of garden magic. Chicago, J.G. Ferguson Pub. Co. url p. 328, p. 69.
- The cultivated evergreens; a handbook of the coniferous and most important broad-leaved evergreens planted for ornament in the United States and Canada, edited by L. H. Bailey. London, Macmillan & co., ltd., 1923. url p. 350, p. 384.
- The gardener's companion. With an introduction by Lady Alwyne Compton. London: Mills & Boon,  url p. 102.
- The gardener's third year, trees, vines and shrubs, by Alfred Bates; illustrations by the author. New York, Longmans, Green and co., 1941. url p. 221.
- The greening of Boston: trees and shrubs in the city. 1978. url p. 18.
- The identification of trees & shrubs; how to recognize, without previous knowledge of botany, wild or garden trees and shrubs native to the north temperate zone, with 2, 500 diagrams made by the author. New York, Dutton url p. 198.
- The perfect garden, how to keep it beautiful and fruitful, with practical hints on eonomical management and the culture of all the principal flowers, fruits, and vegetables; Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott company; [etc., etc.]1908. url p. 388.
- The rock garden, London, C. Scribner's sons, 1920. url .
- The standard cyclopedia of horticulture; a discussion, for the amateur, and the professional and commercial grower, of the kinds, characteristics and methods of cultivation of the species of plants grown in the regions of the United States a Illustrated with colored plates, four thousand engravings in the text, and ninety-six full-page cuts. New York, Macmillan, 1919 [c1914] url p. 2690, p. 2698, p. 2700, p. 2703, p. 2704, p. 865.
- Torreya. Burlington, Vt., Torrey Botanical Club, 1901-1945. url p. 134, p. 191, p. 38.
- Transactions and proceedings of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh. [Edinburgh]: The Society, 1891-1970. url p. 289.
- Trees & shrubs for English gardens. [London]"Country life", 1908. url p. 322, p. 93.
- Trees and shrubs hardy in the British Isles / by W. J. Bean. London: J. Murray, 1916. url p. 406, p. 414.
- Trees and shrubs, hardy in the British isles. LondonJ. Murray1914 url p. 406.
- U.S. gardening guide: everything you need to know about how to make things grow / compiled by Jeffery Feinman. New York: Simon and Schuster, c1979. url p. 208.
- Variety in the little garden, by Mrs. Francis King. Boston, Atlantic Monthly Press[c1923] url p. 86, p. 87.
- Wall and water gardens. By Gertrude Jekyll. [London]"Country life" url p. 87.
- Webster's Practical forestry: a popular handbook on the rearing and growth of trees for profit or ornament / by A.D. Webster. London: W. Rider & son, limited,  url p. 134.
- Yü Te-tsun, Lu Ling-ti, Ku Tsue-chih, Li Chao-luan, Kuan Ke-chien & Chiang Wan-fu. 1974, 1985, 1986. Rosaceae. In: Yü Te-tsun, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 36: 1443; 37: 1516; 38: 1133.
- Yü Te-tsun, Lu Ling-ti, Ku Tsue-chih, Li Chao-luan, Kuan Ke-chien & Chiang Wan-fu. 1974, 1985, 1986. Rosaceae. In: Yü Te-tsun, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 36: 1443; 37: 1516; 38: 1133.
- Bisby, F.A., Y.R. Roskov, M.A. Ruggiero, T.M. Orrell, L.E. Paglinawan, P.W. Brewer, N. Bailly, J. van Hertum, eds (2007). Species 2000 and ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2007 Annual Checklist. Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
- "Cotoneaster". in Flora of China Vol. 9 Page 105. Published by Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed October 27, 2007. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from provider.
- IOPI Global Plant Checklist 2005.
- IOPI Global Plant Checklist. Release date: August 1, 2007
- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
- The International Plant Names Index. Accessed Dec 27, 2011.
- USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL (April 27, 2008)
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 21, 2007:
- Australian National Herbarium
- , Australian National Herbarium
- Biologiezentrum der Oberoesterreichischen Landesmuseen, Biologiezentrum Linz
- Bundesamt für Naturschutz / Zentralstelle für Phytodiversität Deutschland, Bundesamt fuer Naturschutz / Zentralstelle fuer Phytodiversitaet Deutschland
- Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien, Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien
- GBIF-Spain, Aranzadi Zientzi Elkartea
- GBIF-Spain, Dirección General de Investigación, Desarrollo Tecnológico e Innovación de la Junta de Extremadura(DGIDTI): HSS
- GBIF-Spain, Jardín Botánico de Córdoba: Herbarium COA
- GBIF-Spain, Real Jardin Botanico
- , Vascular Plant Herbarium
- GBIF-Spain, Universitat de Girona: HGI-Cormophyta
- Harvard University Herbaria, Harvard University Herbaria
- Herbario SANT, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, SANT herbarium vascular plant collection
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- National Herbarium of New South Wales, NSW herbarium collection
- National Institute of Genetics, ROIS, Herbarium Specimens of Museum of Nature and Human Activities, Hyogo Pref., Japan
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plant Herbarium, Oslo
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plants, Field notes, Oslo
- Oregon State University, Vascular Plant Collection
- Taiwan Biodiversity Information Facility, Magnoliophyta
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Lund Botanical Museum
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Plants
- Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Washington Burke Museum, Vascular Plant Collection - University of Washington Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2666304
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Ros-58945
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 4988207
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:722522-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 11749
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 501650
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 722522-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDROS0F030
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: COHO80
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 30807
- Cuizhi Gu, Chaoluan Li, Lingdi Lu, Shunyuan Jiang, Crinan Alexander, Bruce Bartholomew, Anthony R. Brach, David E. Boufford, Hiroshi Ikeda, Hideaki Ohba, Kenneth R. Robertson & Steven A. Spongberg "Rosaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 9 Page 46. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Lu Ling-ti, Anthony R. Brach "Cotoneaster". in Flora of China Vol. 9 Page 85. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 123.550 meters (405.348 feet), Standard Deviation = 279.340 based on 3,287 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]