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Corylus colurna

(Hazel)

Common Names

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Click on the language to view common names.

Common Names in Arabic:

بندق تركي

Common Names in Azerbaijani:

Ayı fındığı

Common Names in Czech:

Líska turecká

Common Names in Danish:

Tyrkisk Hassel, Tyrkisk Hasselnød, Tyrkiske Træhassel

Common Names in Dutch:

Boomhazelaar, Bosnoot, Hazelnoot Van De Levant, Turkse Hazelaar

Common Names in English:

Hazel, Constantinople-Nut, Hazelnut, Hazelnut of Bisanzio, Hazelnut of Costantinopoli, Mediterranean Hazel, Turkish Filbert, Turkish Hazel, Turkish Hazelnut, Turkish Tree Hazel

Common Names in Finnish:

Turkinpähkinä, Turkinpähkinä

Common Names in French:

Coudrier De Byzance, Coudrier Du Levant, Noisetier De Byzance, Noisetier De Turquie, Noisette Du Levant

Common Names in German:

Baum Hasel, Baumhasel, Dicknuss, Türkische Baumhasel, Türkische Hasel, Türkische Nuss, Zellernuß

Common Names in Hungarian:

Törökmogyoró

Common Names in Italian:

Nocciola Del Levante, Nocciolo Di Costantinopoli, Nocciolo Mediterraneo, Nocciuolo Sugheroso

Common Names in Japanese:

Toruko No Heezeru

Common Names in Latvian:

Kokveida lazda

Common Names in Polish:

Leszczyna turecka

Common Names in Portuguese:

Avelã-Do-Levante

Common Names in Russian:

Leščina Drevovidnaja, Leshchina Drevovidnaia (Leina Drevovidnaja), Medvezhnii Orekh (Medvenij Orech), Medvežnij Orech, Orekh Medvezhnii, лещина древовидная, медвежний орецх

Common Names in Spanish:

Avellana De Turquía, Avellano De Turquía, Avellano Mediterráneo, Nochizo

Common Names in Swedish:

Bysantisk Hassel, Turkisk Hassel, Turkisk Nöt

Common Names in Turkish:

Ağaç fındığı

Description

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Family Betulaceae

Trees or shrubs deciduous, monoecious. Stipules present, free , often deciduous, rarely persistent . Leaves alternate, simple , petiolate , usually doubly serrate, rarely simply serrate, lobulate , or entire; veins pinnate. Flowers unisexual . Male inflorescence precocious , elongate , pendulous, with numerous overlapping bracts; each bract usually subtending a small dichasium with 1-3 male flowers; stamens as many as and opposite sepals or, if sepals obsolete , then stamens of inflorescence to 20; filaments very short, connate or nearly so; anthers 2-loculed, thecae connate or separate, opening by longitudinal slits. Female inflorescence pendulous or erect , with numerous overlapping bracts; each bract subtending a small dichasium with 2 or 3 flowers; calyx with 1-6 scalelike lobes , or obsolete; petals absent; ovary inferior, 2-loculed; styles 2, free; ovules 2, or 1 by abortion , pendulous from near apex of each locule. Fruit a nut or nutlet , winged or not. Seed 1, with straight embryo and flat or thickened cotyledons, without endosperm.

Six genera and 150-200 species: mainly in Asia, Europe, and North and South America; six genera (one endemic) and 89 species (56 endemic) in China.

Because of evolutionary divergence within the Betulaceae, the family has often been divided into tribes (i.e. , Betuleae, Carpineae, and Coryleae) or more recently into subfamilies (J. J. Furlow, J. Arnold Arbor . 71: 1-67. 1990) .[1]

Genus Corylus

Shrubs and trees , 3--15 m ; tree trunks usually 1, branching mostly deliquescent, trunks and branches terete . Bark grayish brown, thin, smooth , close, breaking into vertical strips and scales in age; prominent lenticels absent. Wood nearly white to light brown, moderately hard, heavy, texture fine. Branches, branchlets , and twigs nearly 2-ranked to diffuse ; young twigs differentiated into long and short shoots . Winter buds sessile, broadly ovoid , apex acute; scales several, imbricate, smooth. Leaves on long and short shoots, 2-ranked. Leaf blade broadly ovate with 8 or fewer pairs of lateral veins, 4--12 × 3.5--12 cm, thin, bases often cordate, margins doubly serrate, apex occasionally nearly lobed ; surfaces abaxially usually pubescent , sometimes glandular . Inflorescences: staminate catkins on short shoots lateral on branchlets, in numerous racemose clusters , formed previous growing season and exposed during winter, expanding well before leaves; pistillate catkins distal to staminate catkins, in small clusters of flowers and bracts, reduced, only styles protruding from buds containing them at anthesis , expanding at same time as staminate. Staminate flowers in catkins 3 per scale, congested ; stamens 4, divided nearly to base to form 8 half-stamens; filaments very short, adnate with 2 bractlets to bract. Pistillate flowers 2 per bract. Infructescences compact clusters of several fruits, each subtended and surrounded by involucre of bracts, bracts 2, hairy [spiny ], expanded, foliaceous , sometimes connate into short to elongate tube . Fruits relatively thin-walled nuts, nearly globose to ovoid, somewhat laterally compressed , longitudinally ribbed . x = 11.

Species ca. 15: throughout north temperate zone; North America, Europe, Asia.

Corylus differs from other Betulaceae in various features, most notably in the infructescences, which consist of small clusters of well-developed nuts, each enclosed by a loose involucre of leaflike bracts. As in Ostrya, the staminate catkins are formed during the summer and are exposed through the winter prior to anthesis. In Corylus, however, pistillate catkins develop at the same time as the staminate, and they consist of only a few flowers, protected by the scales of special buds rather than being arranged in elongate pistillate catkins. The staminate flowers are unique in the family in that well-developed sepals are occasionally present, clearly defining the three individual flowers that make up each cymule .

A longstanding disparity occurs in the literature regarding the diploid chromosome number found in Corylus species, with both 2 n = 22 and 2 n = 28 being cited. J. G. Packer (pers. comm. ) believes that the 2 n = 28 for several species (R. H. Woodworth 1929c) was in error because of a misinterpretation of Woodworth's meiotic preparations, a number of which actually indicate eleven haploid chromosomes. Woodworth's count may be largely, if not entirely responsible for the persistence of this number in the literature.

The genus consists of three major subgroups, the first composed of shrubby plants having a short, open involucre of two bracts surrounding the fruits ( Corylus sect. Corylus ). Members of Corylus sect. Tuboavellana Spach are of similar habit but have the involucre modified into a tubular beak , and Corylus sect. Acanthochlamnys Spach is characterized by densely spiny bracts. Recent treatments have avoided applying sectional names . The genus as a whole should be considered for taxonomic revision .

Corylus is the source of hazelnuts and filberts. Commercial filberts ( C. colurna Linnaeus and C. maxima Miller) are cultivated in various parts of the world, particularly Turkey, Italy, Spain, China, and the United States. Wild hazelnuts ( C. americana and C. cornuta ) are smaller but similar in flavor to those of the cultivated species.[2]

Physical Description

ID Features: Alternate leaf arrangement. Pubescent petioles. Pubescent, large, green-brown buds. Nut with an involucre covering. Large male catkins in spring. Pubescent, young, grayish stems.

Habit: A deciduous tree with a pyramidal crown.

Flowers: Monoecious. 2" to 3" long catkins. Blooms early spring .

Seeds: Fruit: Nut, 0.5" across. Nut enclosed in involucre. Matures in September. Edible.

Foliage: Summer foliage: Alternate leaf arrangement . Simple , deciduous leaves. Obovate leaf shape with a cordate leaf base. Up to 6" long. Doubly serrated leaf margin. Pubescence on petiole and leaf veins. Dark green leaf color. • Fall foliage: Yellow to purplish-red fall color.

Size/Age/Growth

Growth Rate: Moderate. • Size: 40' to 50' tall, 20' to 25' wide.

Landscaping

Landscape Uses: For naturalized areas. For fruit. For difficult, dry sites. As a barrier . For naturalistic areas. For form. Street tree . Urban tolerant . • Liabilities: Difficult to find. Hard to propagate and transplant. No serious pest problems.

Habitat

Zone 4.

Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,303 meters (0 to 4,275 feet).[3]

Biology

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Growth

Culture: Tolerant of extreme conditions. A well-drained, loamy soil. Full sun .

Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .

Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b. (map)

Taxonomy

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Synonyms

Corylus abchasica Kem. -Nath. • Corylus arborescens Münchh. • Corylus bizantina Desf. • Corylus cervorum Petrov • Corylus colurna var. glandulifera A. Dc. • Corylus eggrissiensis Kem. -Nath. • Corylus kachetuca Kem. -Nath.

Notes

Publishing author : L. Publication : Sp. Pl. 2: 999 1753 [1 May 1753]

Name Status: Accepted Name .

Last scrutiny: 11-Nov-2003

Similar Species

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Members of the genus Corylus

ZipcodeZoo has pages for 189 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:

C. americana (American Filbert) · C. avellana (Common Filbert) · C. avellana var. avellana (Wild Hazelnut) · C. avellana 'Alcover 236' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Amandi' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Anglais' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Apolda' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Artellet' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Artell De Palma' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Ashrafi' (Filbert) · C. avellana 'Ata Baba' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Atlas' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Aurea' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Aveline D'angleterre' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Aveline Rouge' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Avellana Speciale' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Bandnuss' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Barbarella' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Barcelloner Zellernuss' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Barcelona' (Filbert) · C. avellana 'Bard' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Barrettona' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Barr's Zellernuss' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Bearn' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Bella De Giubilino' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Bergeri' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Bianca' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Blumberger Zellernuss' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Brixley's New' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Brixnut' (Filbert) · C. avellana 'Bulgaria Xi-8' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Burchardt's Zellernuss' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Butler' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Buttner's Zellernuss' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Camponica' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Cannon Ball' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Carrello' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Casina' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Ceret' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Cherkesskii Ii' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Clark' (Filbert) · C. avellana 'Closca Molla' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Comen' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Comune Di Sicilia' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Comun' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Comun Aleva' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Contorta' (Contorted Filbert) · C. avellana 'Corabel' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Cosford' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Cozia' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Creswell' (Filbert) · C. avellana 'Culpla' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Daviana' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Dowton' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Dowton Long' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Du Chilly' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Early Long Zeller' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Ennis' (Filbert) · C. avellana 'Espinaredo' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Fitzgerald' (Filbert) · C. avellana 'Francoli' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Freehusker' (Filbert) · C. avellana 'Frizzled Filbert' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Fructo Albo' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Fuscorubra' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Ganja' (Filbert) · C. avellana 'Garibaldi' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Garrofi' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Gem' (Filbert) · C. avellana 'Ghirara' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Gosse Kugelness' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Gubener Barcelloner' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Gunslebener Zellernuss' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Hall's Giant' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Hempelov Zellsky' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Heterophylla' (Contorted Filbert) · C. avellana 'Heynick's Zellernuss' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Iannusa Racinante' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Imperatrice Eugenie' (Filbert) · C. avellana 'Imperial De Trebizonde' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Italian Red' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Izyum Shakar' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Jean's' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Kadetten Zellernuss' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Kalinkara' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Karidaty' (Filbert) · C. avellana 'Kerasund Dlinnyi' (Filbert) · C. avellana 'Kruse' (Filbert) · C. avellana 'Kudryavchik' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Lange Landsberger' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Lewis' (Filbert) · C. avellana 'Liegel's Zellernuss' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Lluenta' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Ludolph's Zellernuss' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Lyons' (Filbert) · C. avellana 'Macrocarpa' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Mansa' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Minnolara' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Montebello' (European Filbert) · C. avellana 'Morell' (European Filbert)

More Info

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Further Reading

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Notes

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Contributors

Data Sources

Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 21, 2007:

Identifiers

Footnotes

  1. Pei-chun Li & Alexei K. Skvortsov "Betulaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 4 Page 286. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
  2. "Corylus". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
  3. Mean = 229.780 meters (753.871 feet), Standard Deviation = 338.030 based on 37 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
Last Revised: 2014-11-20