Grass . Cortaderia jubata is a large tussock grass which is a substantial threat to the ecological quality of preserves, particularly in coastal and grassland sites. It has broad habitat requirements and grows vigorously, but the chief reason for its success as an invader is its prolific production of seed. Even a few plants have a large potential impact because the seeds are light and wind-dispersed. Seeds may also be dispersed by water and machinery. Peterson (1988) states that the attractive plumes of Cortaderia have made it a popular landscaping plant for many years. It has also been used as a forage plant for cattle in California (Lemon and Taylor 1949, in Peterson, 1988) and New Zealand (Pleasants and Whitehead 1977, in Peterson, 1988). It provides green forage during dry summer months and can be used as a substitute for hay. It can be grazed to within 0.3 to 0.5 m of the base of the plant without severe damage.
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Common Names in Afrikaans:
Common Names in English:
Andean Pampas Grass, Andes Grass, Cutty Grass, Jubata Grass, Pampas Grass, Pampas Grass Cortaderia Jubata, Pampasgrass, Pink Pampas Grass, Purple Pampas Grass, Purple Pampasgrass, Selloa Pampas Grass, Selloa Pampasgrass
Common Names in Spanish:
Common Names in Spanish (Peru):
Species Cortaderia jubata
Peterson (1988) states that C. jubata is a large tussock grass (tussock grasses grows in mounded tufts) with most of its leaves near the base and narrow, attenuated blades . The panicles (loosely branched, pyramidal flower clusters ) are large, terminal , and plume-like. Spikelets are several-flowered, with internodes of the rachilla jointed , the lower part glabrous (smooth ), and the upper part bearded . Glumes (the empty bract at the base of a grass spikelet) extend beyond the lower florets . C. jubata possesses a breeding system termed agamospermous apomixis which allows plants to asexually produce seeds, i.e. without fertilization, despite the fact that all plants are female (Costas-Lippmann 1979, in Chimera, 1997). Distinctive features of C. jubata are huge, nodding pinkish or purplish flower plumes (later turning creamy white), and dark green, 1-cm-wide, drooping leaves with razor-like margins . Flower stems rise up to 3 times higher than the clump of foliage .
Flowers: Flower Color: mauve , rose
Size: 12-15' tall.
Peterson (1988) states that C. jubata becomes established most easily in wet, sandy soil without existing vegetation. However, it has broad habitat requirements and will grow vigorously in nearly any soil, under low or high moisture regimes, and in full sun or dense shade (Cowan 1976, in Peterson, 1988). Cortaderia flourishes mostly in coastal areas and probably needs at least some summer moisture from fogs and freedom from freezing temperatures . Several consecutive nights of frost will generally not kill the plant, but can severely damage it. It colonizes on foreshores, roadsides and wet areas. It grows best in full sunshine with adequate water, but can tolerate rather severe drought conditions once established (Potter 1970, in Peterson, 1988).
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 5,107 meters (0 to 16,755 feet).
Ecology: Peterson (1988) states that C. jubata is highly competitive with native plants once seedlings become established and is a substantial threat to the ecological quality of preserves, particularly in coastal and grassland sites. Its rapid growth and accumulation of aboveground and belowground biomass allow it to acquire light, moisture, and nutrients that would be used by other plants. It can be damaging even at low densities because of the amount of cover it can occupy. Particularly threatened habitats include coastal sand dunes and inland sand hills that contain a number of rare and endangered plant species. PPC (1998) cites that on roadsides, C. jubata can seriously hamper visibility , while its sharp leaves can cause serious cuts to humans. It is also a fire hazard because of the large amount of dry matter it produces , and it harbors vermin such as rats , mice, possums, and rabbits. Additionally, C. jubata seeds stick to fruit such as kiwifruit, seriously degrading fruit quality.
populations consist entirely of pistillate
seed without the necessity of pollination (apomixis) (Costas Lippmann
1976, in Peterson, 1988). Nearly all the ovules produced
develop into viable seeds (caryopses) (Costas Lippmann 1979, in Peterson,
1988). This results in a huge seed output of up to millions of seeds
per plant (Cowan 1976, in Peterson, 1988). Much of the invasive potential
of pampas grasse arises from its ability to produce
millions of wind-borne seeds per year over 10–15 years (Chimera 1997).
Optimal seed germination is obtained with high soil moisture, temperatures of around 10 degrees C, and at least some light exposure (Costas Lippmann 1976, in Peterson, 1988). Seedlings can germinate and become established in a variety of different soil types, including those derived from serpentine rock (Peterson, 1988). The normal lifespan of the plant is 10 to 15 years (Pleasants and Whitehead 1977, in Peterson, 1988).
Culture: Space 36-48" apart.
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- (Auct.) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Small, 1903
- Series: http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/title/58018" ta ()
- Order: Poales () - Small, 1903
- Superorder: Juncanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Commelinidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Angiospermae () - Auct.
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina () - (Auct.) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Bryonia grandis L. • Coccinia cordifolia auct. non (L.) Cogn. • Coccinia indica Wight & Arn.
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Cortaderia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 13 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
C. fulvida (Kakaho) · C. jubata (Andean Pampas Grass) · C. rudiuscula (Cola De Zorro) · C. selloana (Gray Clubawn Grass) · C. selloana'Andes Silver' (Andes Silver Pampas Grass) · C. selloana 'Icalma' (Pampas Grass) · C. selloana 'Monvin' (Pampas Grass) · C. selloana 'Patagonia' (Patagonia Pampas Grass) · C. selloana 'Pumila' (Compact Pampas Grass) · C. selloana 'Rosea' (Pampas Grass) · C. selloana 'Silver Comet' (Pampas Grass) · C. selloana 'Sunningdale Silver' (Pampas Grass) · C. toetoe (Toetoe)
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- A text-book of grasses with especial reference to the economic species of the United States, by A.S. Hitchcock. .. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1914. url p. 224, p. 224.
- A text-book of grasses: with especial reference to the economic species of the United States / by A.S. Hitchock. New York: Macmillan, 1914. url p. 224.
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- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 46 2003 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 164, p. 245.
- Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants sold in the United by L. H. Bailey. .. assisted by William Miller. .. and many expert cultivators and botanists. London: The Macmillan company, 1909. url p. 703.
- Hand-list of herbaceous plants cultivated in the Royal Botanic Gardens. London, Printed for H. M. Stationery Off. by Darling, 1902. url p. 333, p. 533.
- Handy book of horticulture; an introduction to the theory and practice of gardening. London, Murray, 1901. url , p. 102.
- Johnson's Gardeners' dictionary and cultural instructor. London, A. T. De La Mare printing and publishing co., ltd. url p. 406.
- Sourcebook on Remote Sensing and Biodiversity Indicators. Convention on Biological Diversity Technical Series 32 CBD url p. 162, p. 168, p. 171.
- The Garden: an illustrated weekly journal of gardening in all its branches. London: [s.n., url , p. 294, p. 93.
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- The ethnobotany of Chinchero, an Andean community in southern Peru / Christine Franquemont. .. [et al.]. 24 1990 Chicago, Ill.: Field Museum of Natural History, c1990. url fig. 28 , p. 115, p. 71.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed March 27, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 11, 2007:
- Australian National Herbarium
- , Australian National Herbarium
- Berkeley Natural History Museums, University and Jepson Herbaria DiGIR provider
- Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Bishop Museum Natural History Specimen Data
- Herbarium of the University of Aarhus, The AAU Herbarium Database
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- National Herbarium of New South Wales, NSW herbarium collection
- Oregon State University, Vascular Plant Collection
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Washington Burke Museum, Vascular Plant Collection - University of Washington Herbarium
- Utah State University, USU-UTC Specimen Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2666295
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-501640
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13758682
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:101315-3
- GRIN Nomen Number: 403448
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 501640
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PMPOA1P040
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: COAT2
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 16811