Herbs or shrubs
, usually with twining
stems or erect
, often with milky
juice. Leaves alternate, simple
, entire, dissected
, or compound
, absent in parasitic species. Flowers solitary, axillary
or in cymes, racemes
, panicles, umbels, or capitula, bisexual
, usually 5-merous, often showy. Sepals free
, often persistent
, sometimes enlarged in fruit. Corolla sympetalous
, or urceolate
; limb subentire
or deeply lobed
. Stamens alternating with corolla lobes
to corolla; filaments
, equal or unequal in length
, laterally and longitudinally dehiscing; pollen smooth
or finely spiny
. Disc ringlike or cupular. Ovary superior, mostly 2-carpellate, 1- or 2-loculed, rarely 3- or 4-loculed; ovules basal, erect. Styles 1 or 2, terminal
in Dichondra) or very short or absent; stigma entire or 2- (or 3) -lobed, rarely peltate. Fruit a capsule, dehiscing by valves
, circumscissile, or irregularly shattering, less often a berry or nutlike. Seeds usually trigonous
, smooth or pubescent
About 58 genera and 1650 species: widely distributed in tropical , subtropical , and temperate regions ; 20 genera and 129 species in China.
Aniseia biflora (Linnaeus) Choisy and A. stenantha (Dunn) Ling, recognized in the Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin., are here treated as Ipomoea biflora and I. fimbriosepala, respectively, because both have pantoporate and spinulose pollen. Strictly speaking, Aniseia is a neotropical genus of about five species, of which A. martinicensis (Jacquin) Choisy is widely naturalized as a common weed in rice paddies in Thailand and other southeast Asian countries. It will probably be found in S China eventually.
The family is important in China for food plants (Ipomoea batatas (Linnaeus) Lamarck and I. aquatica Forsskål), several ornamentals (Ipomoea), several medicinal plants (Erycibe, Ipomoea, Cuscuta, Merremia, Dichondra, Evolvulus), and numerous noxious weeds (Cuscuta, Calystegia, Convolvulus) .
Pollen aperture type and surface ornamentation are important characters in the classification of Convolvulaceae at the generic level and above. The most critical feature of the pollen is whether the grain surface is spiny or not. This distinction separates the eight tribes recognized by Austin (Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60: 306-412. 1973) into two rather cohesive groups. A low magnification (20 ) is adequate for discerning the presence or absence of minute spines on the surface.
For the successful identification of Convolvulaceae, both flowering and fruiting material should be collected. The first key to genera requires adequate fertile material with both flowers and fruit, and requires use of a pollen character. The second key may be used as an aid to identification where material is lacking flowers or fruit, but in some instances it is still partially dependent upon having both flowers and fruit.
, or strangling or twining
herbs, or cushionlike or erect shrubs; axial parts usually pubescent
or 2-armed. Leaves simple, petiolate
or sessile, margin
entire or ± lobed
. Flowers axillary
, peduncled, solitary or in various kinds of inflorescences. Sepals equal or unequal, middle
sepal asymmetric (exposed 1/2 similar to outer 2 sepals, enclosed 1/2 similar to inner 2 sepals), persistent
, not enlarged. Corolla funnelform
; limb shallowly lobed or entire, with 5 ± distinct
. Stamens included
at corolla base
apically; pollen ellipsoid
, 3- (or 4) -colpate, not spiny
. Disc ringlike or cupular. Pistil included; ovary 2-loculed; ovules 2 per locule. Style 1, filiform; stigmas 2, linear
, or clavate
. Capsule 2-loculed, 4-valved or irregularly dehiscent
. Seeds 1-4, black or brown, often verruculose
, pubescent, rarely glabrous
Approximately 250 species: widely distributed; eight species in China.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Solananae () - R. Dahlgren Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : Boiss. Publication : Diagn. Pl. Orient. ser. 2, 3: 123 1856 [Nov-Dec 1856]
Members of the genus Convolvulus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 36 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
C. althaeoides (Convolvulus) · C. angustissimus (Bindweed) · C. arvensis (Bindweed) · C. assyricus (Convolvulus) · C. cairicus (Mile-A-Minute Vine) · C. cantabricus (Convolvulus) · C. chilensis (Convolvulus) · C. clementii (Bindweed) · C. cneorum (Bush Morning Glory) · C. coccineus (Mexican Morningglory) · C. compactus (Convolvulus) · C. equitans (Gray Bindweed) · C. eriocarpus (Morningglory) · C. erubescens (Australian Bindweed) · C. floridus (Rhodium Wood) · C. gortschakovii (Convolvulus) · C. hederifolius (Scarlet Creeper) · C. libanoticus (Convolvulus) · C. lineatus (Pygmy Bindweed) · C. mauritanicus (Ground Morning Glory) · C. nodiflorus (Aguinaldo Blanco) · C. patens (Coastal Plain Dawnflower) · C. pilosellifolius (Soft Bindweed) · C. pseudocantabrica (Convolvulus) · C. remotus (Bindweed) · C. scammonia (Scammony) · C. tamnifolius (Hairy Clustervine) · C. tricolor (Dwarf Morning Glory) · C. tricolor 'Blue Enchantment' (Dwarf Morning Glory) · C. tricolor 'Enchantment Mix' (Dwarf Morning Glory) · C. tricolor 'Ensign Blue' (Dwarf Morning Glory) · C. tricolor 'Ensign Mix' (Dwarf Morning Glory) · C. tricolor 'Ensign Pink' (Dwarf Morning Glory) · C. tricolor 'Ensign Red' (Dwarf Morning Glory) · C. tricolor 'Royal Ensign' (Dwarf Morning Glory) · C. wallichianus (Wallich's Bindweed)
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- A manual flora of Egypt / by Reno Muschler. With a preface by Paul Ascherson and Georg Schweinfurth. Berlin, R. Friedlaender, 1912. url p. 766.
- Oliver, D. Flora of tropical Africa /by Daniel Oliver. .. assisted by other botanists. 4 1905-1906 London: L. Reeve and co., 1868-1999. url p. 91.
- The flora of British India /By J. D. Hooker assisted by various botanists. Published under the authority of the secretary of state for India in council. London: L. Reeve, 1875-97. url p. 217, p. 218.
- The flora of British India. London, L. Reeve & Co., 1875-97. url .
- The flora of the presidency of Bombay / By Theodore Cooke. London: Taylor and Francis, 1903-08. url p. 232.
- World Plant Conservation Bibliography WCMC, Royal Botanic Gardens url p. 624.
- Fang Rhui-cheng & Huang Shu-hua in Wu Cheng-yih, ed. 1979. Convolvulaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 64(1): 1-153.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed March 1, 2012.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 9477325
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:266941-1
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 266941-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 1241743
- Ruizheng Fang & George Staples "Convolvulaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 271. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Convolvulus". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 289. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]