, biennial, or annual
, less often lianas, shrubs
, or trees
, usually bristly
or scabrous-pubescent. Leaves simple
, alternate, rarely opposite, entire or serrate at margin
. Inflorescences often double
scorpioid cymes, rarely solitary; bracts present or absent. Flowers bisexual
, rarely zygomorphic. Calyx usually 5-parted or lobed
, mostly persistent
. Corolla tubular
, rotate, funnelform
, or salverform
5, rarely more, mostly trapeziform, rarely absent, sometimes a ring
present; limb usually 5-parted; lobes
overlapping, rarely twisted in bud. Stamens 5, inserted
on corolla tube or rarely at throat
or rarely exserted; anthers
, 2-loculed, usually dorsifixed
, less often medifixed
, dehiscence longitudinal
. Nectaries at base of corolla tube or on disc below ovary. Ovary superior, 2-carpellate; locules 2 and each with 2 ovules, or 4 and each with 1 ovule; ovules nearly atropous
, semianatropous, or anatropous
. Style terminal
, branched or not. Gynobase
, or subulate
. Fruit 1-4-seeded drupes or nutlets
(mericarps) ; nutlets mostly dry, often ornamented with wings
, prickles and/or glochids (stiff bristles
or anchorlike tips
) . Seeds vertical
membranous; embryo straight, less often curved
; cotyledons flat, fleshy
About 156 genera and 2500 species: temperate and tropical regions , centered in the Mediterranean region; 47 genera and 294 species in China, of which four genera and 156 species are endemic.
. Leaves alternate, margin
; secondary veins ending in sinuses. Inflorescences generally extra-axillary
on leafy twigs
or in forks of branches, sometimes glomerate
. Flowers sessile or on short pedicels, 4-merous. Calyx 4-lobed. Corolla throat
, naked or with 4 scaly
, overlapping in bud. Ovary ovoid
, somewhat 4-lobed, 2-loculed and with 2 ovules per locule, or falsely 4-loculed and with 1 ovule per locule; ovules anatropous
. Styles 2, terminal
; stigmas 2, usually divided. Fruit fleshy
or dry, fastigiate
or semiglobose, endocarp bony, divided into 4 1-seeded achenelike mericarps; mericarps ± united ventrally or joined to a central extension
of receptacle. Seeds with little or no endosperm or not; embryo straight or curved
For a discussion on the generic limits of Coldenia, see Richardson (Rhodora 79: 476. 1977).
One species: Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam; Africa, Australia, North America, South America.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Coldenia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 0 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
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- A flora of California, by Willis Linn Jepson. San Francisco, Calif., Cunningham, Curtis & Welch, 1909- url p. 302.
- American plants. .. [Descriptions, bibliographical notes, synonymy, and other information, comp. from many sources] Charles Russell Orcutt, editor. San Diego, Calif., -1910. url p. 807.
- Bionomics, systematics, and phylogeny of Lytta, a genus of blister beetles (Coleoptera, Meloidae) Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 1960. url p. 130.
- Carnegie Institution of Washington publication. Washington, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1902- url , p. 111.
- Catalog of hymenoptera in America north of Mexico / prepared cooperatively by specialists on the various groups of Hymenoptera under the direction of Karl V. Krombein. .. [et al.]. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1979- url p. 1881, p. 2024.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 4 1893 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 163, p. 452.
- Proceedings - California Academy of Sciences, 4th series. San Francisco, California Academy of Sciences. url p. 1141, p. 1142, p. 405.
- Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, 4th series. San Francisco, California Academy of Sciences. url p. 1141, p. 1142, p. 1143, p. 405, p. 45, p. 593, p. 959.
- Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. Washington, etc.: Entomological Society of Washington url p. 139.
- The Great Basin naturalist. 35 1975 Provo, Utah: M.L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University, 1939-1999. url tinkham, page 113, p. 114, p. 115, p. 117, p. 300.
- The Salton Sea; a study of the geography, the geology, the floristics, and the ecology of a desert basin, Washington, D.C.Carnegie Institution of Washington1914 url .
- Wang Wen-tsai, Liu Yu-lan, Zhu Ge-ling, Lian Yong-shan, Wang Jing-quan & Wang Qing-rui in Kung Xian-wu & Wang Wen-tsai, eds. 1989. Boraginaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 64(2): 1-253.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
- Gelin Zhu, Harald Riedl & Rudolf V. Kamelin "Boraginaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 329. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Coldenia". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 337. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]