Common Names in English:
Clustered Spineflower, Pink Spineflower
, or small trees
, sometimes monoecious or dioecious. Stems erect
, or scandent
, often with swollen nodes, striate
, or prickly. Leaves simple
, alternate, rarely opposite or whorled
; stipules often united
to a sheath
(ocrea) . Inflorescence terminal
, racemose, paniculate
, or capitate. Pedicel occasionally articulate
. Flowers small, actinomorphic
, rarely unisexual
. Perianth 3-6-merous, in 1 or 2 series, herbaceous, often enlarged in fruit or inner tepals enlarged, with wings
, or spines. Stamens usually (3-) 6-9, rarely more; filaments
or united at base
2-loculed, opening lengthwise; disk annular
) . Ovary superior, 1-loculed; styles 2 or 3, rarely 4, free or connate
at lower part. Fruit a trigonous
, or biconcave
achene; seed with straight or curved
embryo and copious
About 50 genera and 1120 species: worldwide, but primarily N temperate with a few species in tropical regions ; 13 genera (two endemic) and 238 species (65 endemic) in China.
Herbs [or subshrubs
slender to stout. Stems prostrate
flowering stems arising [at nodes of caudex
branches, at distal nodes of aerial stems or] directly from the root
, decumbent to erect, slender [to stout and solid, not disarticulating
in ringlike segments], sometimes disarticulating at each node. Leaves persistent
or quickly deciduous, basal and rosulate or basal and cauline, alternate; petiole
, entire apically. Inflorescences terminal
or capitate, uniparous
due to suppression of secondaries; branches open and spreading
or erect, typically trichotomously branched at proximal
node, otherwise dichotomous, sometimes brittle and disarticulating into segments, round
, pubescent [or rarely glabrous
]; bracts mostly 2, opposite, sometimes numerous
, leaflike to subulate
or linear, occasionally awn-tipped, thinly pubescent (sometimes appressed
, or tomentose
, rarely woolly-floccose or minutely glandular
. Peduncles absent. Involucres 1-6+ per node, 3-6-ribbed, tubular
; teeth 3, 5, or 6, awn-tipped. Flowers bisexual
, 1(-2) per involucre, pedicellate
; perianth white to yellow or pink to rose-pink, red, maroon or purple, cylindric, funnelform
, or campanulate when open, cylindric when closed
, glabrous or pubescent abaxially; tepals (5-) 6, connate
3 their length
, entire, emarginate
, or lobed
apically; stamens 3, 6, or 9, or variously 3-9; filaments
distinct or connate into staminal
, sometimes adnate
to floral tube
, glabrous or pubescent; anthers
maroon to red or cream to white or yellow, oval
; styles erect to spreading. Achenes included
, light brown to dark brown or black, not winged
, globose-lenticular, or 3-gonous, glabrous. Seeds: embryo straight or curved
. x = 10.
Species 50: North America (including Mexico), South America.
Like Eriogonum, Chorizanthe is the basal element in its own subtribe , Chorizanthineae Reveal. Nonetheless, recent molecular data indicate that Chorizanthe is embedded within Eriogonum (A. S. Lamb Frye, pers. comm. ), meaning that either all species of the Chorizanthineae should be moved to Eriogonum, or Eriogonum should be fragmented into several genera. Obviously, therefore, all of the segregate genera that follow could be merged into Chorizanthe, and this was common practice until 1989. A key factor still unresolved is the relationship between the perennial species of Chorizanthe (including the type of the genus) and Eriogonum. The traditional assumption is that Eriogonum and Chorizanthe represent independent lines of evolution from a basal, diploid (n = 10) ancestor that is now extinct . A corollary to this assumption is that this divergence occurred during the Eocene and the perennial spineflowers were successfully introduced into southern South America, whereas the wild buckwheats€”lacking a ready means for long-distance dispersal€”failed to make the trip . Thus, it is possible that the perennial members of Chorizanthe represent a genus distinct from the annuals treated here (33 of the 41 annuals occur in the flora area, the rest are in Mexico or in South America). In that case, our annual members (if not submerged into Eriogonum) would be called Acanthogonum Torrey.
The segregate genera allied to Chorizanthe, like those allied to Eriogonum, differ primarily in their involucres. Aristocapsa and Dodecahema, with haploid chromosome numbers of 14 and 17, respectively, are difficult to associate with any extant member of Chorizanthe (mainly n = 19, 20, 38, 40). Centrostegia, Lastarriaea, Mucronea, and Systenotheca all appear much more akin to Chorizanthe. A point of origin can be suggested only for Lastarriaea, namely Chorizanthe interposita Goodman of central Baja California, Mexico. C. D. Hardham (1989) reported a range of gametic numbers from single individuals. Until somatic counts are made, the primary chromosome numbers of some species remain uncertain.
J. L. Reveal and C. B . Hardham (1989b) divided the annual species of Chorizanthe genus into three subgenera : subg. Amphietes (39 species), and subg. Eriogonella and subg. Quintaria (one species each). The first is divided into four sections (Ptelosepala, Acanthogonum, Fragile, and Clastoscapa Reveal & Hardham), all but the last of which are found in our region. Some sections were divided into subsections, which are not treated here.
The approximately nine perennial species of subg. Chorizanthe occur only in arid regions of Chile and Argentina.
Species Chorizanthe membranacea
Plants 1-6(-10) × 0.5-3(-5) dm, woolly-floccose. Leaves
basal and cauline; petiole
0.1-0.5(-0.8) cm; blade
oblance-olate, (1-) 1.5-5 × 0.1-0.3 cm, thinly to densely floccose
adaxially, densely tomentose
abaxially. Inflorescences strict
white to greenish, open; bracts usually 2, opposite, rarely in whorls
of 3-5, short-petiolate, acerose
, similar to proximal
only reduced, 0.3-3 cm × 1-3 mm, awns
straight, 0.5-1 mm.
in small terminal
of 1-3 at node of dichotomies,
basally, 3-angled, 6-ribbed, 3-4 mm, not corrugate,
, white margins
extending across sinuses, tomentose
to floccose or glabrate
with age, greenish to brownish; teeth
6; awns uncinate
, 0.7-1.5 mm. Flowers 1(-2), slightly exserted;
perianth white to rose, subcylindric
, (1.5-) 2.5-3 mm, densely pubescent
abaxially; tepals connate
2/ 3 their length
, slightly dimorphic
entire and rounded
apically, those of outer whorl obovate, those
of inner whorl spatulate; stamens slightly exserted; filaments
pink to red, oval
, 0.2-0.3 mm. Achenes
2.5-3 mm. 2n = 38, 40, (42), 80, 82, 84. [source]
Chorizanthe membranacea has long been considered an isolated element among the spineflowers. The strict, upright habit, numerous basal and cauline leaves, and broad, continuous, membranous margins of the involucre all reflect that isolation . Pink spineflower is widespread and often locally common in the Coast Ranges of southwestern Oregon and California and on the western foothills of the Sierra Nevada southward to the Transverse Ranges and the Tehachapi Mountains of Ventura and Kern counties, California. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: April, May, June, July.
Sandy to gravelly or rocky flats and slopes , mixed grassland and chaparral communities, oak-pine woodlands; 40-1400(-1600) m (Ref. 53210).
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,147 meters (0 to 7,044 feet).
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Perleb, 1826
- Family: Polygonaceae () - A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons. - knotweed, renouées
- Order: Caryophyllales () - Perleb, 1826
- Superorder: Polygonanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Caryophyllidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Eriogonella membranacea (Benth.) Goodman • Eriogonella membranacea (Bentham) Goodman
Publishing author : Benth. Publication : Trans. Linn. Soc. London 17: 419 1836
Members of the genus Chorizanthe
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 54 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
C. angustifolia (Narrowleaf Spine-Flower) · C. biloba (Two-Lobe Spineflower) · C. biloba var. biloba (Twolobe Spineflower) · C. biloba var. immemora (San Benito Spineflower) · C. blakleyi (Blakey's Spine-Flower) · C. brevicornu (Brittle Spineflower) · C. brevicornu var. brevicornu (Brittle Spineflower) · C. brevicornu var. spathulata (Brittle Spineflower) · C. breweri (Brewer's Chorizanthe) · C. clevelandii (Cleveland's Spineflower) · C. corrugata (Wrinkled Chorizanthe) · C. cuspidata (San Francisco Spineflower) · C. cuspidata var. cuspidata (San Francisco Bay Spineflower) · C. cuspidata var. villosa (Coast Spineflower) · C. diffusa (Diffuse Spineflower) · C. douglasii (Douglas Spineflower) · C. douglasii var. albeus (Douglas´s Spineflower) · C. fimbriata (Fringed Spineflower) · C. fimbriata var. fimbriata (Fringed Spineflower) · C. fimbriata var. laciniata (Fringed Spineflower) · C. howellii (Howell Chorizanthe) · C. leptotheca (Peninsular Spineflower) · C. membranacea (Clustered Spineflower) · C. obovata (Spoon-Sepal Spineflower) · C. orcuttiana (Orcutt's Spineflower) · C. palmeri (Palmer's Spineflower) · C. parryi (Orcutt Spine-Flower) · C. parryi parryi var. parryi (San Bernardino Spineflower) · C. parryi var. fernandina (San Fernando Valley Chorizanthe) · C. parryi var. parryi (San Bernardino Spineflower) · C. polygonoides (Knotweed Spineflower) · C. polygonoides longispina (Knotweed Spineflower) · C. polygonoides var. longispina (Long-Awned Spineflower) · C. polygonoides var. polygonoides (Knotweed Spineflower) · C. procumbens (Prostrate Spineflower) · C. pungens (Monterey Spineflower) · C. pungens var. hartwegiana (Ben Lomond Spineflower) · C. pungens var. pungens (Monterey Spineflower) · C. rectispina (One-Awned Chorizanthe) · C. rigida (Devil's Spineflower) · C. robusta (Robust Spineflower) · C. robusta var. hartwegii (Robust Spineflower) · C. robusta var. robusta (Robust Spineflower) · C. spinosa (Mojave Spineflower) · C. staticoides (Statice Spineflower) · C. stellulata (Starlet Spineflower) · C. uniaristata (One-Awn Spineflower) · C. valida (Sonoma Spineflower) · C. ventricosa (Priest Valley Spineflower) · C. watsonii (Five-Tooth Spineflower) · C. wheeleri (Santa Barbara Spineflower) · C. xanti (Pinyon Spineflower) · C. xanti var. leucotheca (Riverside Spineflower) · C. xanti var. xanti (Riverside Spineflower)
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- 1997 IUCN red list of threatened plants Cambridge: IUCN, World Conservation Union, 1998 url p. 461.
- A Yosemite flora; a descriptive account of the ferns and flowering plants, including the trees, of the Yosemite National Park; with simple keys for their identification. .. by Harvey Monroe Hall and Carlotta Case Hall. San Francisco, Elder, 1912. url p. 76.
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- A flora of northwest America, containing brief descriptions of all the known indigenous and naturalized plants growing without cultivation north of California, west of Utah, and south of British Columbia. Portland, Or., 1903. url .
- A flora of northwest America: containing brief descriptions of all the known indigenous and naturalized plants growing without cultivation north of California, west of Utah, and south of British Columbia / by Thomas Howell. Vol. 1, Phanerogamae. Portland, Or.: [s.n.], 1903. url p. 575, p. 575.
- An illustrated flora of the Pacific States: Washington, Oregon, and California. Stanford University, Stanford University Press, 1923- url p. 12, p. 13, p. 4.
- Erythea. a journal of botany, West American and general. 1 1893 Berkeley, Calif., University of California, 1893-1922. url p. 171.
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- Hand-list of herbaceous plants cultivated in the Royal Botanic Gardens. London, Printed for H. M. Stationery Off. by Darling, 1902. url p. 287.
- Hooker, W. J. & G. A. W. Arnott. The botany of Captain Beechey's voyage;comprising an acount of the plants collected by Messrs. Lay and Collie, and other officers of the expedition, during the voyage to the Pacific and Behring's Strait, performed in His Majesty's ship Blossom, under the command of Captain F. W. Beechey. .. in the years 1825, 26, 27, and 28.By Sir William Jackson Hooker. .. and G. A. Walker Arnott. .. 1841 London, H. G. Bohn, 1841. url p. 386.
- Leaflets of western botany. San Fransisco:[J. T. Howell], 1932-1966. url .
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- Muhlenbergia. Chico, Calif. [etc] url p. 22, p. 278, p. 338.
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- Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences. Davenport, Ia., Academy of Natural Sciences [etc.] url p. 47, p. 47.
- Report upon United States Geographical surveys west of the one hundredth meridian, Washington, Govt. print. off., 1875-89. url .
- Reports of explorations and surveys, to ascertain the most practicable and economical route for a railroad from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean. Made under the direction of the secretary of war, in 1853-. .. 4 1856 Washington, A.O.P. Nicholson, Printer [etc.]1855-60. url p. 132.
- Zoe:a biological journal. 3 1892 San Diego, Calif. [etc.]Zoe Publishing Co. url p. 41, p. 41.
- Li Anjen, Kao Tsoching, Mao Zumei & Liu Yulan. 1998. Polygonaceae. In: Li Anjen, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 25(1): 1209.
- Goodman, G. J. 1934. A revision of the North American species of the genus Chorizanthe. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 21: 1-102.
- Reveal, J. L. and C. B. Hardham. 1989b. A revision of the annual species of Chorizanthe (Polygonaceae: Eriogonoideae). Phytologia 66: 98-198.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 18, 2007:
- Berkeley Natural History Museums, University and Jepson Herbaria DiGIR provider
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Oregon State University, Vascular Plant Collection
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- Utah State University, USU-UTC Specimen Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2647119
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-21017
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13740858
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:693499-1
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 21017
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 57275-2
- MoBot NameID: 26000966
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDPGN040E0
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: ERME11
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 30545
- Anjen Li, Bojian Bao, Alisa E. Grabovskaya-Borodina, Suk-pyo Hong, John McNeill, Sergei L. Mosyakin, Hideaki Ohba & Chong-wook Park "Polygonaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 5 Page 277. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- James L. Reveal "Chorizanthe". in Flora of North America Vol. 5. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 575.410 meters (1,887.828 feet), Standard Deviation = 675.170 based on 88 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]