Common Names in English:
Brittle Spineflower, Sagebrush Chorizanthe
, or small trees
, sometimes monoecious or dioecious. Stems erect
, or scandent
, often with swollen nodes, striate
, or prickly. Leaves simple
, alternate, rarely opposite or whorled
; stipules often united
to a sheath
(ocrea) . Inflorescence terminal
, racemose, paniculate
, or capitate. Pedicel occasionally articulate
. Flowers small, actinomorphic
, rarely unisexual
. Perianth 3-6-merous, in 1 or 2 series, herbaceous, often enlarged in fruit or inner tepals enlarged, with wings
, or spines. Stamens usually (3-) 6-9, rarely more; filaments
or united at base
2-loculed, opening lengthwise; disk annular
) . Ovary superior, 1-loculed; styles 2 or 3, rarely 4, free or connate
at lower part. Fruit a trigonous
, or biconcave
achene; seed with straight or curved
embryo and copious
About 50 genera and 1120 species: worldwide, but primarily N temperate with a few species in tropical regions ; 13 genera (two endemic) and 238 species (65 endemic) in China.
Herbs [or subshrubs
slender to stout. Stems prostrate
flowering stems arising [at nodes of caudex
branches, at distal nodes of aerial stems or] directly from the root
, decumbent to erect, slender [to stout and solid, not disarticulating
in ringlike segments], sometimes disarticulating at each node. Leaves persistent
or quickly deciduous, basal and rosulate or basal and cauline, alternate; petiole
, entire apically. Inflorescences terminal
or capitate, uniparous
due to suppression of secondaries; branches open and spreading
or erect, typically trichotomously branched at proximal
node, otherwise dichotomous, sometimes brittle and disarticulating into segments, round
, pubescent [or rarely glabrous
]; bracts mostly 2, opposite, sometimes numerous
, leaflike to subulate
or linear, occasionally awn-tipped, thinly pubescent (sometimes appressed
, or tomentose
, rarely woolly-floccose or minutely glandular
. Peduncles absent. Involucres 1-6+ per node, 3-6-ribbed, tubular
; teeth 3, 5, or 6, awn-tipped. Flowers bisexual
, 1(-2) per involucre, pedicellate
; perianth white to yellow or pink to rose-pink, red, maroon or purple, cylindric, funnelform
, or campanulate when open, cylindric when closed
, glabrous or pubescent abaxially; tepals (5-) 6, connate
3 their length
, entire, emarginate
, or lobed
apically; stamens 3, 6, or 9, or variously 3-9; filaments
distinct or connate into staminal
, sometimes adnate
to floral tube
, glabrous or pubescent; anthers
maroon to red or cream to white or yellow, oval
; styles erect to spreading. Achenes included
, light brown to dark brown or black, not winged
, globose-lenticular, or 3-gonous, glabrous. Seeds: embryo straight or curved
. x = 10.
Species 50: North America (including Mexico), South America.
Like Eriogonum, Chorizanthe is the basal element in its own subtribe , Chorizanthineae Reveal. Nonetheless, recent molecular data indicate that Chorizanthe is embedded within Eriogonum (A. S. Lamb Frye, pers. comm. ), meaning that either all species of the Chorizanthineae should be moved to Eriogonum, or Eriogonum should be fragmented into several genera. Obviously, therefore, all of the segregate genera that follow could be merged into Chorizanthe, and this was common practice until 1989. A key factor still unresolved is the relationship between the perennial species of Chorizanthe (including the type of the genus) and Eriogonum. The traditional assumption is that Eriogonum and Chorizanthe represent independent lines of evolution from a basal, diploid (n = 10) ancestor that is now extinct . A corollary to this assumption is that this divergence occurred during the Eocene and the perennial spineflowers were successfully introduced into southern South America, whereas the wild buckwheats€”lacking a ready means for long-distance dispersal€”failed to make the trip . Thus, it is possible that the perennial members of Chorizanthe represent a genus distinct from the annuals treated here (33 of the 41 annuals occur in the flora area, the rest are in Mexico or in South America). In that case, our annual members (if not submerged into Eriogonum) would be called Acanthogonum Torrey.
The segregate genera allied to Chorizanthe, like those allied to Eriogonum, differ primarily in their involucres. Aristocapsa and Dodecahema, with haploid chromosome numbers of 14 and 17, respectively, are difficult to associate with any extant member of Chorizanthe (mainly n = 19, 20, 38, 40). Centrostegia, Lastarriaea, Mucronea, and Systenotheca all appear much more akin to Chorizanthe. A point of origin can be suggested only for Lastarriaea, namely Chorizanthe interposita Goodman of central Baja California, Mexico. C. D. Hardham (1989) reported a range of gametic numbers from single individuals. Until somatic counts are made, the primary chromosome numbers of some species remain uncertain.
J. L. Reveal and C. B . Hardham (1989b) divided the annual species of Chorizanthe genus into three subgenera : subg. Amphietes (39 species), and subg. Eriogonella and subg. Quintaria (one species each). The first is divided into four sections (Ptelosepala, Acanthogonum, Fragile, and Clastoscapa Reveal & Hardham), all but the last of which are found in our region. Some sections were divided into subsections, which are not treated here.
The approximately nine perennial species of subg. Chorizanthe occur only in arid regions of Chile and Argentina.
Species Chorizanthe brevicornu
, 0.5-3(-5) × 0.5-3 dm, thinly
, often with appressed
, infrequently somewhat strigose
. Leaves basal; petiole
0.5-2 cm; blade
to narrowly elliptic
, (1-) 1.5-3(-4) × 0.1-1 cm,
pubescent. Inflorescences green; bracts 2, similar to proximal
leaf blades only more reduced, 0.3-1(-1.5) cm × 1-2.5 mm, becoming
sessile and scalelike at distal nodes, linear
Involucres 1, green, 3-5 mm, not corrugate, thinly strigose;
teeth divergent, 0.4-1.2 mm; awns uncinate
, 0.2-0.5 mm. Flowers
; perianth greenish white to white or pale
, 2-4 mm; tepals connate
3/ 4 their length
linear to narrowly oblanceolate, acute, entire apically; stamens
slightly exserted; filaments
, 2-3.5 mm, glabrous
white to pale yellow, ovate
, 0.3-0.4 mm. Achenes dark brown,
, 3-4 mm. [source]
Chorizanthe brevicornu has stems and branches that easily disarticulate at the nodes. Dried specimens often are reduced to a mere jumble without careful handling . The vegetative fragments will not regenerate new plants , but the involucres (each with a single flower bearing a single achene) easily disarticulate from the parent plant, and with the aid of the awns on the teeth of the involucre, may be readily distributed. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: March, April, May. • Flower Color: chartreuse, near white, white, yellow-green
Size: under 6" tall.
Culture: Space 18-24" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.6 • Maximum pH: 8.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: High
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Perleb, 1826
- Family: Polygonaceae () - A.L. de Jussieu, 1789, nom. cons. - knotweed, renouées
- Order: Caryophyllales () - Perleb, 1826
- Superorder: Polygonanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Caryophyllidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : Torr. Publication : Rep. U.S. Mex. Bound., Bot. [Emory] 177 1859
Members of the genus Chorizanthe
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 54 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
C. angustifolia (Narrowleaf Spine-Flower) · C. biloba (Two-Lobe Spineflower) · C. biloba var. biloba (Twolobe Spineflower) · C. biloba var. immemora (San Benito Spineflower) · C. blakleyi (Blakey's Spine-Flower) · C. brevicornu (Brittle Spineflower) · C. brevicornu var. brevicornu (Brittle Spineflower) · C. brevicornu var. spathulata (Brittle Spineflower) · C. breweri (Brewer's Chorizanthe) · C. clevelandii (Cleveland's Spineflower) · C. corrugata (Wrinkled Chorizanthe) · C. cuspidata (San Francisco Spineflower) · C. cuspidata var. cuspidata (San Francisco Bay Spineflower) · C. cuspidata var. villosa (Coast Spineflower) · C. diffusa (Diffuse Spineflower) · C. douglasii (Douglas Spineflower) · C. douglasii var. albeus (Douglas´s Spineflower) · C. fimbriata (Fringed Spineflower) · C. fimbriata var. fimbriata (Fringed Spineflower) · C. fimbriata var. laciniata (Fringed Spineflower) · C. howellii (Howell Chorizanthe) · C. leptotheca (Peninsular Spineflower) · C. membranacea (Clustered Spineflower) · C. obovata (Spoon-Sepal Spineflower) · C. orcuttiana (Orcutt's Spineflower) · C. palmeri (Palmer's Spineflower) · C. parryi (Orcutt Spine-Flower) · C. parryi parryi var. parryi (San Bernardino Spineflower) · C. parryi var. fernandina (San Fernando Valley Chorizanthe) · C. parryi var. parryi (San Bernardino Spineflower) · C. polygonoides (Knotweed Spineflower) · C. polygonoides longispina (Knotweed Spineflower) · C. polygonoides var. longispina (Long-Awned Spineflower) · C. polygonoides var. polygonoides (Knotweed Spineflower) · C. procumbens (Prostrate Spineflower) · C. pungens (Monterey Spineflower) · C. pungens var. hartwegiana (Ben Lomond Spineflower) · C. pungens var. pungens (Monterey Spineflower) · C. rectispina (One-Awned Chorizanthe) · C. rigida (Devil's Spineflower) · C. robusta (Robust Spineflower) · C. robusta var. hartwegii (Robust Spineflower) · C. robusta var. robusta (Robust Spineflower) · C. spinosa (Mojave Spineflower) · C. staticoides (Statice Spineflower) · C. stellulata (Starlet Spineflower) · C. uniaristata (One-Awn Spineflower) · C. valida (Sonoma Spineflower) · C. ventricosa (Priest Valley Spineflower) · C. watsonii (Five-Tooth Spineflower) · C. wheeleri (Santa Barbara Spineflower) · C. xanti (Pinyon Spineflower) · C. xanti var. leucotheca (Riverside Spineflower) · C. xanti var. xanti (Riverside Spineflower)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- A flora of California, by Willis Linn Jepson. San Francisco, Calif., Cunningham, Curtis & Welch, 1909- url p. 390, p. 393, p. 393.
- American plants. .. [Descriptions, bibliographical notes, synonymy, and other information, comp. from many sources] Charles Russell Orcutt, editor. San Diego, Calif., -1910. url p. 567.
- An illustrated flora of the Pacific States: Washington, Oregon, and California. Stanford University, Stanford University Press, 1923- url p. 4, p. 5, p. 8.
- Botany Cambridge, Mass., John Wilson and Son, 1880 url p. 38, p. 481.
- Botany. By W. H. Brewer, Sereno Watson, and Asa Gray. Boston, Little, Brown, 1880. url p. 481.
- Botany. Cambridge, Mass.Welch, Bigelow, University Press, 1876-80. url p. 481.
- Botany. Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1871. url .
- Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences Los Angeles, Calif.: The Academy, 1971- url p. 101.
- Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 39 1912 New York: Torrey Botanical Club, 1870-1996 url p. 623.
- California desert trails, by J. Smeaton Chase, with illustrations from photographs by the author, and an appendix of plants, also hints on desert travelling. Boston, Houghton Mifflin company, 1919. url p. 369.
- Carnegie Institution of Washington publication. Washington, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1902- url p. 19.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 25 1925 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 144, p. 145, p. 189, p. 305, p. 40.
- Erythea. a journal of botany, West American and general. 3 1895 Berkeley, Calif., University of California, 1893-1922. url p. 158.
- Flora of the Rocky Mountains and adjacent plains, Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, Idaho, Montana, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and neighboring parts of Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota, and British Columbia / by P.A. Rydberg. New York: The author, 1922. url p. 229.
- Great Basin naturalist memoirs. 1987 [Provo, Utah]Brigham Young University, 1976-1992. url p. 471.
- Journal of botany, British and foreign. London: Robert Hardwicke, 1863-1942. url p. 347.
- Key to the Rocky Mountain flora. Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, Idaho, Montana, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and parts of Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota, and British Columbia. New York, [c1919] url .
- Key to the Rocky Mountain flora; Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, Idaho, Montana, Saskatchewan, Alberta, and parts of Nebraska, South Dakota, North Dakota, and British Columbia. New York, 1919. url p. 72.
- National list of scientific plant names. [Washington, D.C.]: U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, 1982- url p. 97.
- Occasional papers - San Diego Society of Natural History. San Diego, The Society. url p. 40.
- Our Araby: Palm Springs and the Garden of the sun, by J. Smeaton Chase. Illustrated from photographs by the author: with a descriptive list of desert plants, etc., and Hints to desert motorists: also a new map of the region by the U. S. Geological sur Pasadena, Calif.: Printed for J. S. Chase by Star-news publishing company, 1920. url p. 60.
- Our Araby: Palm Springs and the the Garden of the sun, by J. Smeaton Chase. Illustrated from photographs by the author: with a descriptive list of desert plants, etc., and Hints to desert motorists: also a new map of the region by the U. S. Geological sur Pasadena, Calif., Printed for J. S. Chase by Star-news publishing company, 1920. url p. 60.
- Phytologia. Bronx Park, New York, H.A. Gleason and H.N. Moldenke, url p. 189, p. 191, p. 407, p. 91, p. 98.
- Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences. Davenport, Ia., Academy of Natural Sciences [etc.] url p. 63.
- Proceedings of the San Diego Society of Natural History. 1992 [San Diego, Calif.]: San Diego Society of Natural History, 1990- url p. 30.
- Report of the geological exploration of the fortieth parallel / Washington, D.C.: G.P.O., 1870-80 url .
- The Great Basin naturalist. 38 1978 Provo, Utah: M.L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University, 1939-1999. url p. 167, p. 20, p. 521.
- The effects of water development upon populations of Gambel's Quail in southwestern Utah / [Salt Lake City]: Utah State Department of Fish and Game, 1964. url p. 132, p. 75.
- The vegetation of a desert mountain range as conditioned by climatic factors, Washington, D. C., Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1915. url , .
- Watson, S. Botany /by Sereno Watson, aided by Daniel C. Eaton, and others. 5 1871 Washington, D.C.: G.P.O., 1871. url p. 484, p.
- Li Anjen, Kao Tsoching, Mao Zumei & Liu Yulan. 1998. Polygonaceae. In: Li Anjen, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 25(1): 1209.
- Goodman, G. J. 1934. A revision of the North American species of the genus Chorizanthe. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 21: 1-102.
- Reveal, J. L. and C. B. Hardham. 1989b. A revision of the annual species of Chorizanthe (Polygonaceae: Eriogonoideae). Phytologia 66: 98-198.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 19, 2007:
- Berkeley Natural History Museums, University and Jepson Herbaria DiGIR provider
- Oregon State University, Vascular Plant Collection
- School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Arizona State University Vascular Plant Herbarium
- School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, The Deaver Herbarium, Northern Arizona University
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- Utah State University, USU-UTC Specimen Database
- Utah Valley State College
- , Utah Valley State College Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2647109
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-21007
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13741645
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:693456-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 453285
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 21007
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 693456-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDPGN04040
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 166056
- Anjen Li, Bojian Bao, Alisa E. Grabovskaya-Borodina, Suk-pyo Hong, John McNeill, Sergei L. Mosyakin, Hideaki Ohba & Chong-wook Park "Polygonaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 5 Page 277. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- James L. Reveal "Chorizanthe". in Flora of North America Vol. 5. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]