or small trees
, biennial, or perennial
. Stems ascending
, or twining
. Leaves opposite, less often alternate or whorled
; stipules absent. Inflorescences simple or complex
cymes, sometimes reduced to sessile clusters
, often in a thyrse
or 1-flowered. Flowers bisexual
, rarely unisexual
, 4 or 5 (or 6-8) [-12]-merous. Calyx tubular
, obconic, campanulate
, or rotate, lobes
joined at least basally. Corolla tubular, obconic, salverform
, campanulate, or rotate, rarely with basal spurs; lobes overlapping to right
or rarely valvate
in bud; plicae (extensions
of the corolla tube
between the lobes) present or absent. Stamens inserted
on corolla tube or occasionally at sinus
between corolla lobes, alternate with lobes; anthers
, 2-locular. Nectaries absent or attached to ovary base or corolla. Ovary usually 1-locular at least apically, rarely 2-locular due to intrusion of a lamellate
placenta into locular
. Fruit a 2-valved capsule, rarely a berry. Seeds many or rarely few, small; endosperm abundant [scant in saprophytic
About 80 genera and 700 species: worldwide; 20 genera and 419 species in China, of which two genera and 251 species are endemic.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Gentiananae () - Thorne Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : Vent . Publication : Descr. Pl. Nouv. 31
Members of the genus Chironia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 1 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
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- A dictionary of modern gardening / by George William Johnson. .. with one hundred and eighty wood cuts. Edited, with numerous additions, by David Landreth. Philadelphia: Lea and Blanchard, 1847. url p. 145.
- A dictionary of modern gardening. Philadelphia, Lea and Blanchard, 1847. url p. 145.
- A general history of the dichlamydeous plants, comprising complete descriptions of the different orders; together with the characters of the genera and species, and an enumeration of the cultivated varieties. .. the scientific names accentuated, t By George Don. London, J.G. and F. Rivington [etc.]1831-38. url p. 203.
- A general system of gardening and botany. Founded upon Miller's Gardener's dictionary, and arranged according to the natural system. By George Don. London, Printed for C. J. G. and F. Rivington, 1831-38. url p. 203.
- A supplement to the Pharmacopia, and treatise on pharmacology in general: including not only the drugs and preparations used by practitioners of medicine, but also most of those employed in the chemical arts: together with a collection of the most useful medical formulæ. . by Samuel Frederic Gray. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, 1836. url p. 56.
- Illustrations of the natural orders of plants with groups and descriptions. Reduced from the original folio ed. London: Sampson Low, Son, and Marston, 1868. url p. 159.
- In my lady's garden / By Mrs. Richmond. London: T.F. Unwin, 1908. url p. 428.
- The Bradley bibliography; a guide to the literature of the woody plants of the world published before the beginning of the twentieth century; Cambridge, Riverside Press, 1911-18. url p. 721.
- The Gardeners' chronicle and agricultural gazette. 1846 London: published for the proprietors, 1844-1873. url p. 4, p. 679.
- The Gardeners' chronicle. 1841 London: published for the proprietors, 1841-1843. url p. 470.
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url p. 372.
- The Magazine of horticulture, botany, and all useful discoveries and improvements in rural affairs. Boston: Hovey and Co., 1837- url p. 451.
- The effects of cross and self fertilisation in the vegetable kingdom. LondonJ. Murray1916 url p. 481.
- The handbook to the flower garden and greenhouse / by George Glenny. London: W. Kent, 1859. url p. 63.
- Ho Ting-nung; Liu Shang-wu, & Wu Ching-ju in Ho Ting-nung, ed. 1988. Gentianaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 62: 1-411.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 15, 2012.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 10666604
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:366800-1
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 366800-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 1284796