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Common Names in English:
Common Hornwort, Rigid Hornwort, Coon's Tail, Coon's-Tail, Coontail, Hornwort, Hornwort Ceratophyllum Demersum
Common Names in French:
Ceratophylle ?merg?, Cornifle Nageant, Cornille, Herbe ? cornes
Common Names in Romanian:
, hydrophilous, monoecious. Roots
absent. Stems glabrous
, branched, free
or attached by slender shoots
. Stipules absent. Leaves cauline, 3--11 in a whorl; petiole
inconspicuous; leaf blade
dichotomously into filiform
segments; segments with 2 rows
. Inflorescences reduced, solitary or with vestigial branches, 1-several at a node, extra-axillary
, alternating with leaves, sessile or peduncles lengthening in fruit; involucre of 8--15 foliaceous
bracts; bracts 1.5--2 mm, apex terminated by 2 denticles and a medial
. Flowers naked, subsessile
. Staminate flower
: stamens 3--50, spiral
2-celled, dehiscing by longitudinal
flower: pistil 1, simple
; ovary 1-loculed, placentation laminar
; ovule 1, pendulous; style persistent
, short or elongate
; stigma decurrent. Achene leathery, indehiscent, ellipsoid
, basal spines 0--2, facial spines 0--2, marginal
present or absent, marginal spines 1--8. Seed 1, unitegmic
, endosperm and perisperm
absent; cotyledons fleshy
One genus and six species: cosmopolitan ; three species in China.
. Stems suspended or anchored by branches buried in substrate; branches 0-3 per node. Leaves 3-11 per whorl, cauline; petiole
inconspicuous. Leaf blade
into linear-filiform, denticulate
segments. Inflorescences extra-axillary
, alternating with leaves. Flowers: bracts basally connate
; pedicel less than 1 mm or essentially absent. Staminate flowers
as apical appendage
flowers: ovary tapering to persistent
, spinelike style; ovule pendulous. Achene ellipsoid
, moderately compressed
, surface smooth
, basal or marginal
spines (or both) present or absent, terminal
spine present, marginal wing present or absent. x
= 12, 19, 20.
Useful in identification of species of Ceratophyllum are leaf-forking characteristics. Leaves with no forking are "0-order"; they consist only of a primary segment. Those forking once are "1st-order"; their ultimate segments are secondary. Those in which at least one secondary segment forks are "2d-order"; their ultimate segments are tertiary. Those in which at least one tertiary segment forks are "3d-order"; their ultimate segments are quaternary . Those in which at least one quaternary segment forks are "4th order ."
Plumule features used in the key below are observable through dissection of softened (soaked) seeds removed from achenes.
Flowers: Flower Color: green, near white, white
Typically found in a lake at a mean distance from sea level of 310 meters (1,018 feet).
This species typically occurs in nutrient-rich standing or very slow-moving waters. Its apparent capability to tolerate elevated anthropogenic nutrient levels means that it can become very abundant or even dominant to the exclusion of most other species in canals, gravel pits , reservoirs and urban lakes .
List of Habitats :
- 5 Wetlands (inland)
- 5.1 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls )
- 5.5 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha)
- 5.7 Wetlands (inland) - Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha)
- 15 Artificial/Aquatic & Marine
- 15.1 Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha)
- 15.2 Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha)
- 15.3 Artificial/Aquatic - Aquaculture Ponds
- 15.6 Artificial/Aquatic - Wastewater Treatment Areas
- 15.9 Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels , Ditches [more info]
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- (Horan., 1834) J.w. Walker Ex Takhtajan, 1997
- Superorder: Ceratophyllanae () - (Bischoff, 1839) Takhtajan, 1997 Ex Reveal & Doweld, 1999
- Subclass: Nymphaeidae () - (Horan., 1834) J.w. Walker Ex Takhtajan, 1997
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Ceratophyllum apiculatum Cham. • Ceratophyllum demersum var. apiculatum (Cham.) Aschers. • Dichotophyllum Demersum
: L. Publication
Pl. 2: 992 1753 [1 May 1753]
Ceratophyllum is a complicated genus with a range of taxa named but inconsistently recognised. Cook (1970) states that the genus includes four polymorphic species, but in parts of Europe some of the morphological variants are recognised as species or at a subordinate level. Whilst at least in the west, C. demersum s.s. is so widespread and abundant that it is unlikely that taxonomic issues will affect its conservation or Red List assessment , inconsistent recording within the C. demersum complex is likely to affect the red list assessments of any subordinate taxa assessed.
Members of the genus Ceratophyllum
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 5 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 11, 2007:
- Biologiezentrum der Oberoesterreichischen Landesmuseen, Biologiezentrum Linz
- Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin-Dahlem, GEO Biodiversity Day
- Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien, Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien
- GBIF-Spain, Departamento de Biolog. Veg. II, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad Complutense, Madrid: MAF
- Jyväskylä University Museum - The Section of Natural Sciences, Vascular plant collection of Jyvaskyla University Museum
- Marine Science Institute, UCSB, Paleobiology Database
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plant Herbarium, Oslo
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plants, Field notes, Oslo
- Oregon State University, Vascular Plant Collection
- School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Arizona State University Vascular Plant Herbarium
- School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, The Deaver Herbarium, Northern Arizona University
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Botany
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Lund Botanical Museum
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Plants
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Environment and Heritage Service - EHS Species Datasets
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- University of Alaska Museum of the North, University of Alaska Museum of the North Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2645283
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-18403
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13296476
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:indexfungorum.org:names:454241
- GRIN Nomen Number: 310925
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 18403
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 60392-3
- IUCN ID: 198791
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDCER01010
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: CEDEA
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 28399
- Dezhi Fu & Donald H. Les "Ceratophyllaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 6 Page 121. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Ceratophyllum". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Standard Deviation = 585.390 based on 36,057 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]
- Zhuang, X. 2011. Ceratophyllum demersum. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 31 January 2012. [back]