- Buttonbush is found near water. The spherical flower clusters are interesting.
Common Names in English:
Button Willow, Bush Globeflower, Button-Willow, Buttonbush, Common Buttonbush, Honey Bells, Honey-Bells, Honeyball
The Rubiaceae are trees , shrubs , or infrequently herbs comprising about 450 genera and 6,500 species, including some lianous forms. The leaves are simple and usually entire, and are opposite or sometimes whorled ; stipules are present and interpetiolar . The flowers are nearly always bisexual and actinomorphic , often heterostylous, and usually are in cymose inflorescences. The calyx is mostly somewhat reduced and 4-5-lobed or sometimes the lobes are obsolete or rarely one of them greatly expanded and brightly colored . The sympetalous corolla is mostly 4-5-lobed, occasionally with 3 or up to 10 lobes. The androecium consists of as many stamens as corolla lobes and is adnate to the corolla tube or epigynous zone, alternate with the lobes. The gynoecium consists of a single compound pistil of 2 or seldom more carpels, a single style, and a nearly always inferior ovary with the number of locules equaling the number of carpels, each with 1-many axile ovules. An epigynous nectary disk is usually present. The fruit is variable, sometimes forming multiples . -- Gerald Carr.
ID Features: Prominent lenticels on stems. Stems coarse. Simple, glossy leaves. Creamy white flowers throughout the summer. Terminal buds absent. Lateral buds are sessile and found in depressions above each leaf scar. Leaf scars are more or less circular. Pith is solid and light brown.
Habit: Deciduous rounded , spreading , multi-stemmed shrub . Loose and somewhat open.
Flowers: In globular heads about 1" across. Creamy white, somewhat fragrant. Bloom time is June, July, August. Moderately ornamental , but not exceptional. • Bloom Period: June. • Flower Color: near white, white
Foliage: Summer foliage: Deciduous simple leaves. Very late to leaf out in the spring . Opposite or whorled leaf arrangement. Ovate leaves with acute bases and tips . 2" to 6" long and 1" to 3" wide. Medium to dark green color. Glossy. • Fall foliage: Usually greenish-yellow to yellow.
Size: 3' to 6' tall in the northern part of its range , but to 10' to 12' tall in the southern part of its range.
Landscape Uses: Naturalistic areas. Water's edge . Shrub border . • Liabilities: Can be short-lived. Can become coarse , sprawling and ungainly. Needs periodic rejuvenation pruning to maintain form and vigor.
Hardy to zone 5.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,978 meters (0 to 6,490 feet).
Culture: Likes moisture. Full sun to light shade. Easily grown as long as the site is not dry. Requires periodic rejuventation pruning. Relatively pest free .
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Thorne Ex Reveal, 1992
- Lindley, 1833
- Family: Rubiaceae () - A.L. de Jussieu, 1789 - Coffee Family
- Order: Gentianales () - Lindley, 1833
- Superorder: Gentiananae () - Thorne Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Cephalanthus acuminatus Raf. • Cephalanthus angustifolius Dippel • Cephalanthus berlandieri Wernham • Cephalanthus hansenii Wernham • Cephalanthus obtusifolius Raf. • Cephalanthus occidentalis californicus (Benth.) E. Murray • Cephalanthus occidentalis f. angustifolia (André) Rehder • Cephalanthus occidentalis f. lanceolatus Fernald • Cephalanthus occidentalis var. brachypodus Dc. • Cephalanthus occidentalis var. californicus Benth. • Cephalanthus occidentalis var. macrophylla Raf. • Cephalanthus occidentalis var. obtusifolius Raf. • Cephalanthus occidentalis var. pubescens Raf. • Cephalanthus oppositifolius Moench • Cephalanthus pubescens Raf.
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 11-Nov-2003
Members of the genus Cephalanthus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 6 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
C. cephalanthus occidentalis (Common Buttonbush) · C. occidentalis (Button Willow) · C. occidentalis f. lanceolatus (Common Buttonbush) · C. occidentalis 'Angustifolius' (Button Bush 'angustifolius') · C. occidentalis 'Keystone' (Button Willow) · C. salicifolius (Mexican Buttonbush)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 15, 2007:
- Marine Science Institute, UCSB, Paleobiology Database
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Arizona State University Vascular Plant Herbarium
- School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, The Deaver Herbarium, Northern Arizona University
- The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx River Bioblitz
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2656784
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Kew-36721
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13743570
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:746221-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 9854
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 34786
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDRUB09010
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: CEOCC2
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 5