Common Names in English:
Pretty Betsy, Spur Valerian
herbs or undershrubs. Leaves simple
. Flowers in clusters
. Calyx rolled in flowers. Corolla 5-lobed, spurred
. Ovary unilocular
. Achene pappose.
A genus of c. 12 species, in the Mediterranean region and Europe; locally represented by 1 cultivated species.
Flowers: Bloom Period: March, April, May. • Flower Color: magenta, pink
Size: 12-18" tall.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 991 meters (0 to 3,251 feet).
Culture: Space 6-9" apart.
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Dipsacanae () - (Dumortier, 1829) Takhtajan, 1997
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : Boiss. Publication : Diagn. Pl. Orient. ser. 1, 3: 57 1843 [Nov 1843]
Members of the genus Centranthus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 4 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- A contribution to our knowledge of seedlings; by the Right Hon. Sir John Lubbock. London: K. Paul, Trench, Trübner, & co., ltd., 1892. url , p. 81, p. 82.
- A manual flora of Egypt / by Reno Muschler. With a preface by Paul Ascherson and Georg Schweinfurth. Berlin, R. Friedlaender, 1912. url p. 1204, p. 927.
- A manual of gardening for Bengal and Upper India. By Thomas A. C. Firminger. .. Calcutta, Thacker, Spink and co.; [etc., etc.]1874. url p. 281.
- A practical guide to garden plants, containing descriptions of the hardiest and most beautiful annuals and biennials, hardy herbaceous and bulbous perennials, hardy water and bog plants, flowering and ornamental trees and shrubs, conife London;Longmans, Green, 1901. url , , p. 489, p. 79.
- A year's gardening London, T. Werner Laurie, [1912?] url .
- A year's gardening, New York, C. Scribner's sons[1912?] url p. 189.
- Acta Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica. Helsinki: Societas, 1875-1980. url .
- An illustrated encyclopaedia of gardening, by Walter P. Wright London, J. M. Dent & sons, ltd.; url p. 13.
- Annual and biennial garden plants, their value and uses: with full instructions for their cultivation, by A.E. Speer. .. London, J. Murray, 1911. url p. 76.
- Annual report / Entomological Society of Ontario. Toronto, The Society. url p. 83.
- Beeton's Dictionary of everyday gardening. .. to which is added a monthly calendar of garden work throughout the year. London, Ward, Lock, 1909. url p. 14.
- Brooklyn Botanic Garden record. 18 1929 [Brooklyn]: Brooklyn Botanic Garden, 1912-44. url p. 10, p. 7.
- Bulletin - United States National Museum. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, [etc.];1877-1971. url p. 82.
- Bulletin of miscellaneous information /Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 1910 London: H.M. Stationery Office, 1900-1941. url p. 4, p. 5, p. 5, p. 5, p. 5, p. 5, p. 5, p. 6.
- Bulletin of the New York Botanical Garden. 1 1898 Lancaster, Pa.: Published for the Garden by the New Era Printing Co., url p. 142, p. 360.
- Contributions to the natural history of the Bermudas. Washington, Govt. print. off., 1884. url p. 82.
- Every woman her own flower gardener: a handy manual of flower gardening for ladies / by S.O. Johnson New York: H.T. Williams, 1871. url p. 16.
- Flora of Bermuda. .. by Nathaniel Lord Britton. .. New York, C. Scribner's sons, 1918. url p. 374.
- Flora of Bermuda... by Nathaniel Lord Britton... New York, Scribner, 1918. url p. 374.
- Garden and forest; a journal of horticulture, landscape art and forestry. New York: The Garden and forest publishing co., 1888-97. url p. 333.
- Garden planning, by W. S. Rogers; illustrated by the author. Garden City, New York, Doubleday, Page & company, 1911. url p. 386.
- Gardening for amateurs; a simple, complete, and practical guide for garden lovers, edited by H. H. Thomas. Illustrated by twenty-four coloured plates and many hundreds of photographs and sketches. New York: Funk and Wagnalls company,  url p. 1119, p. 431.
- Hand-list of herbaceous plants cultivated in the Royal Botanic Gardens. London, Printed for H. M. Stationery Off. by Darling, 1902. url p. 269.
- Jenaische Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaft. Jena, Gustav Fischer [etc.]. url p. 234.
- Lindley, J. Paxton's flower garden /by Professor Lindley and Sir Joseph Paxton. 2 1853 London: Bradbury and Evans, -1853. url p. 153.
- Manual of gardening: a practical guide to the making of home grounds and the growing of flowers, fruits, and vegetables for home use / New York: Macmillan Co., 1911. url .
- Manual of gardening; a practical guide to the making of home grounds and the growing of flowers, fruits, and vegetables for home use, New York, The Macmillan Company, 1917. url .
- New book of flowers / New York: Orange Judd & Company, c1866 url .
- New book of flowers. By Joseph Breck. New York, O. Judd & company[c1866] url p. 156, p. 156.
- Nicholson, G. The illustrated dictionary of gardening: a practical and scientific encyclopædia of horticulture for gardeners and botanists /edited by George Nicholson; assisted by J.W.H. Trail. .. and J. Garrett. .. 9 1884 London: L.U. Gill, -88. url p. 415, p. 434.
- Report on the scientific results of the voyage of H.M.S. Challenger during the years 1873-76: under the command of Captain George S. Nares, R.N., F.R.S. and Captain Frank Turle Thomson, R.N. / prepared under the superintendence of Sir C. Wyville Thomson. Edinburgh: Neill, 1880-1895. url p. 39.
- Species and varieties, their origin by mutation; lectures delivered at the University of California Chicago, The Open Court Publishing Company; [etc., etc.]1906. url , .
- Species and varieties: their origin by mutation / lectures delivered at the University of California by Hugo DeVries; edited by Daniel Trembly MacDougal. Chicago: The Open Court; 1906, c1904. url p. 830.
- Species and varieties; their origin by mutation. Lectures delivered at the University of California by Hugo De Vries. Edited by Daniel Trembly MacDougal. Chicago, K. Paul, Trench, Truber, 1906 [c1904] url p. 828.
- Standardized plant names; a catalogue of approved scientific and common names of plants in American commerce. Salem, Mass., 1923. url p. 520, p. 74.
- Sturtevant's notes on edible plants / Edited by U.P. Hedrick. Albany: J.B. Lyon, 1919. url p. 156.
- The American home garden. New York, Harper & brothers, 1860. url p. 456.
- The American journal of horticulture and florist's companion. Boston: J.E. Tilton and Co., 1867-1869. url p. 375.
- The Cottage gardener. [London: W.S. Orr, url , p. 92.
- The English flower garden and home grounds: design and arrangement followed by a description of the plants, shrubs and trees for the open-air garden and their culture / by W. Robinson. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1921. url p. 388.
- The Floral world and garden guide. London, Groombridge and Sons, 1858-1880. url p. 105, p. 281, p. 33, p. 53.
- The Garden: an illustrated weekly journal of gardening in all its branches. London: [s.n., url p. 190, p. 191, p. 24, p. 405, p. 428.
- The Gardener's monthly and horticultural advertiser. Philadelphia [Pa.: s.n.1859-1875] url p. 121.
- The Gardeners' chronicle and agricultural gazette. 1856 London: published for the proprietors, 1844-1873. url p. 110, p. 167, p. 204, p. 37, p. 487, p. 66, p. 99.
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url p. 219, p. 232.
- The Illustrated dictionary of gardening: a practical and scientific encyclopaedia of horticulture for gardeners and botanists / edited by George Nicholson. ..; assisted by J.W.H. Trail. .. and J. Garrett. ... London: L. Upcott Gill; 1887-1889. url p. 434.
- The Journal of horticulture, cottage gardener and country gentlemen. London: George W. Johnson and Robert Hogg, 1861-1877. url , p. 123, p. 247, p. 90, p. 97.
- The Magazine of horticulture, botany, and all useful discoveries and improvements in rural affairs. Boston: Hovey and Co., 1837- url p. 216.
- The amateur's practical garden-book; London, The Macmillan company, 1900. url p. 11, p. 13.
- The encyclopedia of gardening. A dictionary of cultivated plants, etc., giving in alphabetical sequence the culture and propagation of hardy and half-hardy plants, trees and shrubs, orchids, ferns, fruit, vegetables, hothouse and g London, W. H. & L. Collingridge url .
- The mutation theory; experiments and observations on the origin of species in the vegetable kingdom, by Hugo de Vries. .. tr. by Prof. J. B. Farmer and A. D. Darbishire. .. Chicago, Open Court Publishing Company; [etc., etc.]1909-10. url p. 448, p. 450, p. 452, p. 454, p. 458, p. 528, p. 532.
- The practical garden-book, containing the simplest directions for the growing of the commonest things about the house and garden, by C. E. Hunn and L. H. Bailey. New York: Grosset & Dunlap, 1906 [c1898] url p. 11, p. 13.
- The standard cyclopedia of horticulture; a discussion, for the amateur, and the professional and commercial grower, of the kinds, characteristics and methods of cultivation of the species of plants grown in the regions of the United States a Illustrated with colored plates, four thousand engravings in the text, and ninety-six full-page cuts. New York, Macmillan, 1919 [c1914] url p. 298, p. 3427.
- The subtropical garden, or, Beauty of form in the flower garden / by W. Robinson London: J. Murray, 1879 url p. 234.
- The subtropical garden: or, Beauty of form in the flower garden / by W. Robinson. London: J. Murray, 1891. url p. 234.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 14, 2007:
- GBIF-Spain, Botánica, Universidad de León: LEB-Cormo
- GBIF-Spain, Herbario Universidad de Málaga: MGC-Cormófitos
- GBIF-Spain, Institut Botanic de Barcelona, BC
- GBIF-Spain, Universidad de Almería, HUAL
- National Herbarium of New South Wales, NSW herbarium collection
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 5829301
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13749327
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:859266-1
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 859266-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 648456
- "Centranthus". in Flora of Pakistan Vol Page. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 516.910 meters (1,695.899 feet), Standard Deviation = 489.740 based on 45 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]