Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
Mountain Bluet, Mountain Cornflower, Mountain Knapweed, Mountain Starthistle, Mountain-Bluet, Perennial Cornflower
Common Names in French:
Centaurée Des Montagnes
Common Names in German:
The largest family of flowering plants , the Compositae (Asteraceae), comprising about 1,100 genera and more than 20,000 species and characterized by many small flowers arranged in a head looking like a single flower and subtended by an involucre of bracts. A head may consist of both ray flowers and disk flowers, as in the sunflower, of disk flowers only, as in the burdock, or of ray flowers only, as in the dandelion.
, biennials, or perennials, 20-300 cm, glabrous
. Stems erect
, or spreading
or branched. Leaves basal and cauline; petiolate
or sessile; proximal
often ± deeply lobed
in C. benedicta ), distal ± smaller, often entire, faces
glabrous or ± tomentose, sometimes also villous
, or puberulent
, often glandular-punctate. Heads discoid
, or radiant, borne singly or in corymbiform
arrays. Involucres cylindric
. Phyllaries many in 6-many series, unequal, proximal part appressed
, body margins entire. distal parts expanded into erect to spreading, usually ± dentate
, spine. tipped or spineless. Receptacles flat, epaleate, bristly
. Florets 10-many; outer usually sterile
, corollas slender and inconspicuous to much expanded, ± bilateral
; inner fertile
, corollas white to blue, pink, purple, or yellow, bilateral or radial
, often bent at junction of tubes
linear-oblong, acute; anther
, apical appendages oblong
; style branches: fused portions with minutely hairy
portions minute. Cypselae ± barrel-shaped, ± compressed
, apices entire (denticulate
benedicta ), glabrous or with fine, 1-celled hairs
, attachment scar
(with or without elaiosomes) ; pappi 0 or ± persistent
, of 1-3 series of smooth or minutely barbed
, stiff bristles
or narrow scales
. x = 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 15.
Species ca. 500: introduced ; Eurasia , n Africa, widely introduced worldwide.
Taxonomic limits of Centaurea have been controversial. The genus has great morphologic diversity , and studies have revealed much cytologic (e.g. , N. Garcia-Jacas et al. 1996) and palynologic (e.g., G. Wagenitz 1955) variation as well. During the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, various taxonomists attempted, with limited success, to divide Centaurea into smaller genera or workable infrageneric taxa. The relations of several satellite genera have been controversial as well.
Recent molecular phylogenetic studies (A. Susanna et al. 1995; N. Garcia-Jacas et al. 2000, 2001) have begun to clarify relationships within Centaurea and between Centaurea and other genera. These studies make it clear that Centaurea as traditionally defined is polyphyletic, and that generic boundaries should be realigned if monophyletic taxa are to be recognized. Some taxa traditionally included within Centaurea (e.g., the two native North American species, Centaurea americana and C. rothrockii) fall outside the redefined generic boundaries and are here treated in Plectocephalus. Others usually placed into segregate genera (e.g., Cnicus benedictus) are firmly nested within Centaurea. Because the type species of Centaurea (C. centaurium Linnaeus, an African species) falls outside the main lineage of the genus, a proposal has been made to conserve Centaurea with a different type species (W. Greuter et al. 2001), thereby maintaining the nomenclatural stability of most of the numerous species that do fall within the principal Centaurea clade.
Although several Centaurea species are widely established as members of the North American flora , and some of these are widely distributed invasive weeds , some of the taxa listed by J. T. Kartesz and C. A. Meacham (1999) are apparently waifs and not permanent members of the flora. These taxa are discussed informally immediately below.
Although Cnicus has usually been recognized as a distinctive monotypic genus, it has been merged into Centaurea by various authors (e.g., K . Bremer 1994; G. Wagenitz and F. H. Hellwig 1996) . Recent molecular systematic studies (N. Garcia-Jacas et al. 2000) provide additional evidence that it is nested within Centaurea.
Species Centaurea montana
Perennials , 25-80 cm, from rhizomes or stolons. Stems 1-several, erect , simple or sparingly branched, villous with septate hairs and thinly arachnoid-tomentose with long, simple hairs. Leaves thinly villous and ± tomentose , glabrate ; proximal leaves winged-petiolate, blades 10-30 cm, margins entire or remotely dentate to pinnately lobed ; mid and distal leaves sessile, blades decurrent, ovate to oblong or lanceolate, entire or remotely denticulate . Heads radiant, borne singly or in few-headed corymbiform arrays; (peduncles to 7 cm). Involucres ovoid to ± campanulate , 20-25 mm. Principal phyllaries: bodies greenish, ovate to lanceolate, scarious-margined, appendages appressed , brown to black, unarmed , decurrent on phyllary margins, pectinate-fringed, puberulent ; innermost phyllaries sometimes unappendaged. Florets 35-60+; sterile florets 10-20, corollas blue (white, purple, or pink), 2.5-4.5 cm, corolla tube elongate . Disc florets 25-40+; corollas purple, ca. 20 mm; anthers dark blue-purple. Cypselae ± brown, 5-6 mm, sericeous ; pappi of bristles 0.5-1.5 mm. 2n = 24 (Germany), 40 (Russia), 44 (France). [source]
Flowers: Deep blue daisy-like flower with reddish center. Long bloomer. Blooms early summer. • Bloom Period: May, June, July, August. • Flower Color: medium blue
Size: 20-24" tall.
Landscape Uses: Borders . Cut flowers. • Care: Follow a regular watering schedule during the first growing season to establish a deep, extensive root system . For a neat appearance , remove old foliage before new leaves emerge . Divide clumps every 2 to 3 years in early spring .
Escaped from cultivation, roadsides, woodlands, sagebrush scrub ; 0-1400 m .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,500 meters (0 to 8,202 feet).
Culture: Space 12-18" apart. Spread by stolons. May be invasive in rich soils or cooler climates.
Soil: Organic , well-drained, alkaline soil . • Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full sun
Moisture: Water Requirements: Water regularly, when top 3 in. of soil is dry.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Lindley, 1833
- Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- Tribe: Cardueae ()
- Subfamily: Carduoideae ()
- Family: Compositae () - Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- Order: Asterales () - Lindley, 1833
- Superorder: Campanulanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 11-Aug-09
Members of the genus Centaurea
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 82 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
C. akamantis (Akamas Centaury) · C. alpestris (Greater Centaury) · C. americana (American Basketflower) · C. americana 'Aloha' (American Knapweed) · C. americana 'Jolly Joker' (American Knapweed) · C. aspera (Rough Star-Thistle) · C. atropurpurea (Centaurea) · C. bella (Knapweed) · C. benoistii (Maroon Cornflower) · C. biebersteinii (Ballast Waif Centaurea Biebersteinii) · C. bovina (Pasture Knapweed) · C. cachinalensis (Flor Del Minero) · C. calcitrapa (Big-Head Purple Starthistle) · C. calcitrapoides (Smallhead Star-Thistle) · C. cineraria (Dusty Miller) · C. cineraria 'Colchester White' (Dusty Miller) · C. crupina (Crupina) · C. cyanoides 'Blue Carpet' (Cornflower) · C. cyanus (Bachelor's Button) · C. cyanus nana 'Jubilee Gem' (Bachelors Button) · C. cyanus 'Black Ball' (Bachelors Button) · C. cyanus 'Black Boy' (Bachelors Button) · C. cyanus 'Black Gem' (Bachelors Button) · C. cyanus 'Black Magic' (Bachelors Button) · C. cyanus 'Blue Boy' (Bachelors Button) · C. cyanus 'Blue Diadem' (Bachelors Button) · C. cyanus 'Classic Blue' (Bachelors Button) · C. cyanus 'Dwarf Blue Midget' (Bachelors Button) · C. cyanus 'Frosted Queen Mix' (Bachelors Button) · C. cyanus 'Frosty Mix' (Bachelors Button) · C. cyanus 'Mauve Queen' (Bachelors Button) · C. cyanus 'Polka Dot Mix' (Bachelors Button) · C. dealbata (Knapweed Centaurea Dealbata) · C. dealbata 'Rosea' (Knapweed) · C. debeauxii (Meadow Knapweed) · C. debeauxii thuillieri (Meadow Knapweed) · C. debeauxii subsp. thuillieri (Meadow Knapweed) · C. depressa (Centaurea) · C. diffusa (Diffuse Knapweed) · C. diluta (North African Knapweed) · C. eriophora (Sand-Heath) · C. gymnocarpa (Velvet Centaurea) · C. hypoleuca DC. 'John Coutts' (Knapweed) · C. iberica (Iberian Knapweed) · C. jacea (Brown Knapweed) · C. jacea x nigra (Hybrid Knapweed Centaurea Jacea X Nigra) · C. macrocephala (Armenian Basketflower) · C. melitensis (Cockspur Thistle) · C. moncktonii (Meadow Knapweed) · C. montana (Mountain Bluet) · C. montana 'Alba' (Mountain Bluet) · C. montana 'Amethyst in Snow' (Mountain Bluet) · C. montana 'Dot Purple' (Mountain Bluet) · C. montana 'Gold Bullion' (Batchelor's Button) · C. moschata 'Dairy Maid' (Sweet Sultan) · C. moschata 'Imperialis' (Sweet Sultan) · C. moschata 'The Bride' (Sweet Sultan) · C. nigra (Black Knapweed) · C. nigrescens (Short-Fringe Starthistle) · C. orientalis (Centaurea) · C. ovina (Lilac Knapweed) · C. paniculata (Jersey Knapweed) · C. phrygia (Scandinavian Starthistle) · C. pindicola (Centaurea) · C. pulcherrima (Pink Bachelors Button) · C. 'Pulchra Major' (Bachelor's Button) · C. ragusina (Dubrovacka Zecina) · C. rothrockii (Basket Flower) · C. scabiosa (Great Starthistle) · C. solstitialis (Barnaby Star-Thistle) · C. solstitialis solstitialis (St. Barnaby's Thistle) · C. stoebe (Spotted Knapweed) · C. sulphurea (Sicilian Starthistle) · C. thuillieri (Meadow Knapweed) · C. transalpina (Alpine Knapweed) · C. trichocephala (Feather-Head Knapweed) · C. triumfetti (Squarrose Knapweed Centaurea Triumfetti) · C. triumfettii (Spreading Thistle) · C. uniflora (Single-Flower Knapweed) · C. uniflora nervosa (Singleflower Knapweed) · C. xpratensis (Meadow Knapweed) · C.'Nigra' (Bachelor Buttons)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- A catalogue of plants cultivated in the garden of John Gerard, in the years 1596-1599 /edited with notes, references to Gerard's Herball, the addition of modern names, and a life of the author, by Benjamin Daydon Jackson. 1876 London: Privately printed, 1876 url p. 32.
- A compendium of the Cybele britannica; or British plants in their geographical relations. London, Longmans, Green, Reader & Dyer, 1870. url .
- A dictionary of English names of plants applied in England and among English-speaking people to cultivated and wild plants, trees, and shrubs, by William Miller; in two parts, English-Latin and Latin-English. London, J. Murray, 1884. url p. 24.
- A dictionary of the flowering plants and ferns, by J. C. Willis. CambridgeThe University Press, 1919 url p. 129.
- A first report on the relations between climates and crops. By Cleveland Abbe. Washington [D.C.]: Govt. Print. Off., 1905. url p. 198.
- A little book of perennials, by Alfred C. Hottes. New York, N. Y., The A. T. De La Mare1923. url p. 165.
- A practical guide to garden plants, containing descriptions of the hardiest and most beautiful annuals and biennials, hardy herbaceous and bulbous perennials, hardy water and bog plants, flowering and ornamental trees and shrubs, conife London;Longmans, Green, 1901. url , , p. 88.
- A supplement to the Pharmacopia, and treatise on pharmacology in general: including not only the drugs and preparations used by practitioners of medicine, but also most of those employed in the chemical arts: together with a collection of the most useful medical formulæ. . by Samuel Frederic Gray. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, 1836. url p. 66.
- Acta Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica. Helsinki: Societas, 1875-1980. url p. 102, p. 58.
- Addisonia: colored illustrations and popular descriptions of plants. New York: New York Botanical Garden, 1916-. url , , , , , p. 57, p. 81.
- Alien flora of Britain. London, West, Newman, 1905. url p. 109.
- Alpine flowers and gardens, painted and described by G. Flemwell. London, A. & C. Black, 1910. url p. 164, p. 164.
- An encyclopaedia of gardening; comprising the theory and practice of horticulture, floriculture, arboriculture, and landscape-gardening, including all the latest improvements; a general history of gardening in all countries; and a By J.C. Loudon. London, Printed for Longman, Ross, Orme, Brown, and Green, 1828. url p. 871, p. 884.
- An encyclopædia of gardening; comprising the theory and practice of horticulture, floriculture, arboriculture, and landscape-gardening, including all the latest improvements; a general history of gardening in all countries; and a By J.C. Loudon. .. illustrated with many hundred engravings on wood by Branston. London: Printed for Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, 1827. url p. 884.
- An illustrated encyclopaedia of gardening, by Walter P. Wright London, J. M. Dent & sons, ltd.; url p. 119.
- Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural. Madrid: La Sociedad, url p. 526, p. 526, p. 80, p. 80.
- And the wilderness blossomed, Philadelphia, H.W. Fisher & company, 1901. url .
- Andorra hand-book [of trees and shrubs] Philadelphia url p. 140.
- Annales du Jardin botanique de Buitenzorg. Leiden [etc.]: E. J. Brill [etc.] url p. 213, p. 79, p. 80.
- Ants; their structure, development and behavior, by William Morton Wheeler. .. New York, Columbia university press, 1910. url .
- Beautiful flowers and how to grow them, by Horace J. Wright & Walter P. Wright. Illustrated with 32 plates in full colours from paintings by Beatrice Parsons, Eleanor Fortesque Brickdale, Hugh L. Norris, Margaret Waterfield, A. Fairfax Muck 1922 Edinburgh, T.C. & E.C. Jack, ltd., 1922. url p. 122, p. 400.
- Botanical abstracts. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Co. url p. 279.
- Botany of the living plant, London, Macmillan and co., limited, 1919. url .
- Botany of the living plant, by F. O. Bower. London, Macmillan, 1919. url p. 537, p. 537.
- Botany of the living plant, by F.O. Bower. In the third edition he was assisted by J.M.F. Drummond, and George Bond, in this fourth edition by C.W. Wardlaw. London, Macmillan and Co., ltd., 1947. url p. 650.
- Botany of the living plant. London, Macmillan, 1919. url p. 537.
- British bee journal & bee-keepers adviser. London. url p. 106, p. 26, p. 458, p. 479.
- Bulletin - Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station. Amherst, : Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station, 1907-1974. url p. 47, p. 51.
- Bulletin of miscellaneous information /Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 1908 London: H.M. Stationery Office, 1900-1941. url p. 41, p. 430.
- Colour in my garden, by Louise Beebe Wilder. Illustrated in colour, by Anna Winegar. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, Page, 1918. url p. 384, p. 385, p. 388, p. 390, p. 392, p. 394, p. 396.
- Curtis's botanical magazine. 1-20 1805 London; New York [etc.]: Academic Press [etc.] url p. 23, p. 53, p. 70, p. 8.
- Cybele Britannica: or British Plants and their geographical relations. London, 1847-59. url p. 101, p. 114.
- Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants sold in the United by L. H. Bailey. .. assisted by William Miller. .. and many expert cultivators and botanists. London: The Macmillan company, 1909. url p. 738.
- Danish fungi as represented in the herbarium of E. Rostrup / revised by J. Lind. Copenhagen: Gyldendalske boghandel, 1913. url p. 302, p. 428.
- Dedication papers: scientific papers presented at the dedication of the laboratory building and plant houses, April 19-21, 1917. Brooklyn, N.Y.: Brooklyn Botanic Garden, 1918. url p. 366.
- Diseases of plants induced by cryptogamic parasites: introduction to the study of pathogenic Fungi, slime-Fungi, bacteria, & Algae / London; Longmans, Green & co., 1897. url .
- English botany, or, Coloured figures of British plants / edited by John T. Boswell Syme; the popular portion by Mrs. Lankester; the figures by J. Sowerby, J. de C. Sowerby, J.W. Salter, and John Edward Sowerby. London: R. Hardwicke, 1863-1886. url p. 932.
- English botany, or, coloured figures of British plants / edited by John T. Boswell Syme; the popular portion by Mrs. Lankester; the figures by J. Sowerby, J. de C. Sowerby, J.W. Salter, and John Edward Sowerby. London: G. Bell, 1873. url p. 216.
- Entomological news. [Philadelphia]American Entomological Society, 1925- url p. 325.
- Every woman's flower garden: how to make and keep it beautiful / by Mary Hampden; with five colour plates by Mary S. Reeve and 83 designs by the author. New York: Duffield & Company, 1915. url p. 137.
- Favourite flowers of garden and greenhouse /by Edward Step. ..; the cultural directions edited by William Watson. ..; illustrated with three hundred and sixteen coloured plates, selected and arranged by D. Bois. 3 1897 London and New York: Frederick Warne & co., 1896-97. url pl. 157.
- Fern growing. Fifty years' experience in crossing and cultivation, with a list of the most important varieties and a history of the discovery of multiple parentage, etc., New York, Truslove & Comba, 1898. url .
- Flora's dictionary / by a lady. Baltimore: Published by Fielding Lucas Jr., 1832. url .
- Florists' review Chicago: Florists' Pub. Co. url , , .
- Flower gardening, New York, bMcBride, Nast & company, 1913. url , , .
- Flower gardening, by H. S. Adams. New York, McBride, Nast & Company, 1913. url p. 163, p. 183, p. 192.
- Flowering plants of the Riviera: a sescriptive account of 1800 of the more interesting species / by H. Stuart Thompson; with an introduction on Riviera vegetation by A. G. Tansley London; New York: Longmans, Green, 1914. url p. 140.
- Garden and forest; a journal of horticulture, landscape art and forestry. New York: The Garden and forest publishing co., 1888-97. url p. 216, p. 79.
- Garden guide, the amateur gardener's handbook; how to plan, plant and maintain the home grounds, the suburban garden, the city lot. How to grow gook vegetables and fruit. How to care for roses and other favorite flowers, hardy plants, trees, shrub ed. by J. Harrison Dick... New York, A. T. De La Mare company, inc.1917 url p. 68.
- Garden guide, the amateur gardeners' handbook; how to plan, plant and maintain the home grounds, the suburban garden, the city lot. How to grow good vegetables and fruit. How to care for roses and other favorite flowers, hardy plants, trees, shrub New York, A. T. De La Mare company, inc.[c1917] url .
- Gardeners' chronicle of America. New York: Chronicle Press, 1905-1950. url p. 109.
- Gardening for amateurs; a simple, complete, and practical guide for garden lovers, edited by H. H. Thomas. Illustrated by twenty-four coloured plates and many hundreds of photographs and sketches. New York: Funk and Wagnalls company,  url p. 381.
- Gardening. Chicago, the Gardening Co., 1892-1925. url p. 277, p. 296.
- Great Basin naturalist memoirs. 1987 [Provo, Utah]Brigham Young University, 1976-1992. url p. 162.
- Hand-list of herbaceous plants cultivated in the Royal Botanic Gardens. London, Printed for H. M. Stationery Off. by Darling, 1902. url p. 267.
- Handbook of flower pollination based upon Hermann Müller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects'; tr. by J.R. Ainsworth Davis. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1906. url , , p. 569.
- Handbook of flower pollination: based upon Hermann Mu?ller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects' / Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1906-09. url , .
- Handbook of the British flora: a description of the flowering plants and ferns indigenous to, or naturalized in, the British Isles. For the use of beginners and amateurs. By George Bentham. London: L. Reeve & Co., 1920. url p. 254.
- Hardy flowers. Descriptions of upwards of thirteen hundred of the most ornamental species, with directions for their arrangement, culture, etc.. .. By W. Robinson. London, Macmillan, 1878. url p. 88.
- Hardy perennials and old-fashioned garden flowers. Describing the most desirable plants for borders, rockcries, and shrubberies, and including both foliage and flowering plants. By John Wood. London, L.U. Gill, 1884. url p. 313, p. 314, p. 315, p. 317, p. 318, p. 319, p. 322.
- Hardy plants for cottage gardens, New York, H. Holt and company, 1910. url , .
- Hardy plants for cottage gardens, by Helen R. Albee; illustrated from photographs. New York, H. Holt and company, 1910. url , p. 60.
- Henderson's Handbook of plants and general horticulture / By Peter Henderson. New York, P. Henderson & Co., 1910. url p. 187.
- Horticulture. Boston, Mass.: Horticulture Pub. Co., c1904- url p. 451, p. 86.
- Humboldt; Monatsschrift für die gesamten Naturwissenschaften. Stuttgart, F. Enke, 1882-90. url p. 117, p. 381.
- Insect miscellanies. London: C. Knight, 1831. url p. 397, p. 397, p. 403.
- International catalogue of scientific literature. London: Published for the International Council by the Royal Society of London, 1902-1919. url p. 539.
- Journal of botany, British and foreign. 22 1884 London: Robert Hardwicke, 1863-1942. url p. 30, p. 339.
- Journal of the New York Botanical Garden. 18 1917 Lancaster, Pa.: Published for the Garden by the New Era Printing Co., 1900- url p. 264, p. 65.
- Lawns and gardens. How to plant and beautify the home lot, the pleasure ground and garden, by N. Jönsson-Rose. With numerous plans and illustrations by the author. New York: G. P. Putnam, 1897. url p. 320.
- Letters on the elements of botany, addressed to a lady, by the celebrated J.J. Rousseau. Translated into English, with notes, and twenty-four additional letters, fully explaining the system of Linnaeus, by Thomas Martyn. London, B. and J. White, 1796. url p. 402.
- Letters on the elements of botany. Addressed to a lady. By the celebrated J.J. Rousseau. Translated into English, with notes, and twenty-four additional letters, fully explaining the system of Linnaeus, by Thomas Martyn. London, B. White, 1787. url p. 402.
- Letters on the elements of botany: addressed to a lady / by the celebrated J.J. Rousseau; translated into English, with notes, and twenty-four additional letters, fully explaining the system of Linnaeus, by Thomas Martyn. London: Printed for B. White and Son, 1791. url p. 402.
- List of rare, threatened and endemic plants in Europe (1982 edition) Council of Europe url p. 31.
- Lists of plant types for landscape planting; the materials of planting for ornament listed according to their various uses, by Stephen F. Hamblin. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1923. url , , , , , p. 102, p. 113, p. 116, p. 143, p. 84, p. 98.
- Marcellia. New York [etc.]Pergamon Press [etc.] url .
- Memoirs / Brooklyn Botanic Garden. Brooklyn, N.Y.: The Garden, 1918-1936. url p. 366.
- Memoirs of the American Entomological Society. Philadelphia, American Entomological Society, 1916- url p. 111, p. 114, p. 117, p. 127, p. 128.
- My garden, by Louise Beebe Wilder. .. illustrated by Will Simmons. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, Page & company, [c1916] url p. 24, p. 76, p. 76.
- My garden, its plan and culture together with a general description of its geology, botany, and natural history, London, Bell and Daldy, 1872. url .
- Natural history of insects: comprising their architecture, transformations, senses, food, habits--collection, preservation and arrangement. Boston: Lilly, Wait, Colman, and Holden, 1833. url , p. 403.
- Nicholson, G. The illustrated dictionary of gardening: a practical and scientific encyclopædia of horticulture for gardeners and botanists /edited by George Nicholson; assisted by J.W.H. Trail. .. and J. Garrett. .. 8 1884 London: L.U. Gill, -88. url p. 381, p. 411, p. 434.
- Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. 2 1902 Edinburgh: H. M. Stationery Off. url p. 335.
- Our garden flowers; a popular study of their native lands, their life histories, and their structural affiliations, New York, C. Scribner's Sons, 1910. url .
- Philosophical magazine. London: Taylor & Francis. url p. 471.
- Physiological plant anatomy, tr. by Montagu Drummond. London, MacMillan, 1914. url p. 563.
- Phytologia. Bronx Park, New York, H.A. Gleason and H.N. Moldenke, url p. 308.
- Plant culture; a working hand-book of every day practice for all who grow flowering and ornamental plants in the garden and greenhouse, by George W. Oliver. New York, A. T. De La Mare Printing and Publishing Co., c1912. url , p. 178, p. 178.
- Plant culture; a working handbook of every day practice for all who grow flowering and ornamental plants in the garden and greenhouse, New York, A. T. De La Mare Co., Inc.[c1921] url , .
- Plantsman. Durham, N.H.: New Hampshire Plant Growers' Association, url p. 27.
- Practical landscape gardening: the importance of careful planning, locating the house, arrangement of walks and drives, construction of walks and drives, lawns and terraces, how to plant a property, laying out a flower garden, arch New York, A.T. De La Mare Company, inc., 1916. url , .
- Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. Washington, Biological Society of Washington url p. 1013.
- Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. Washington, etc.: Entomological Society of Washington url p. 52.
- Reports of the Director. .. / Experimental Farms. Ottawa: Experimental Farms, 1888-1916. url p. 313.
- Residential sites and environments; their conveniences, gardens, parks, planting, etc. New York, A.T. Delamare Print. and Pub. Co., 1898. url p. 115, p. 44, p. 45, p. 60.
- Round the year in the garden; a descriptive guide to the flowers of the four seasons, and to the work of each month in the flower, friut and kitchen garden, by H. H. Thomas. .. Beautifully illustrated with twelve direct colour photographs by H. Essenhigh Corke, and sixty-four half-tone plates. New York, Funk and Wagnalls company url p. 64.
- Standardized plant names; a catalogue of approved scientific and common names of plants in American commerce. Salem, Mass., 1923. url p. 288, p. 45, p. 73.
- Studies in gardening, New York, C. Scribner's sons, 1916. url , , .
- Studies in gardening, by A. Clutton Brock; with preface and notes by Mrs. Francis King. .. New York, C. Scribner's Sons, 1916. url p. 278, p. 278, p. 308, p. 308, p. 330, p. 330.
- Sub-alpine plants: or, Flowers of the Swiss woods and meadows / by H. Stuart Thompson; with 33 coloured plates (168 figures) by George Flemwell. London: Dutton, 1912. url , p. 2, p. 6.
- Sub-alpine plants: or, flowers of the Swiss woods and meadows / [London]: E.P. Dutton & Co., 1912. url , .
- The American florist: a weekly journal for the trade. Chicago: American Florist Company, [1885-1931] url p. 1088, p. 1092, p. 1128, p. 1313, p. 198, p. 489, p. 53, p. 553, p. 61, p. 790.
- The Annals and magazine of natural history; zoology, botany, and geology being a continuation of the Annals combined with Loudon and Charlesworth's Magazine of Natural History. London, Taylor and Francis, Ltd. url p. 266, p. 266, p. 455, p. 455.
- The Annals of Scottish natural history. Edinburgh: David Douglas, 1892-1911. url p. 103, p. 177, p. 48.
- The British rust fungi (Uredinales) their biology and classification, Cambridge, University Press, 1913. url .
- The Canadian field-naturalist. 62 1948 Ottawa, Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club. url p. 92.
- The Catholic yearbook: comprehending, the circle of the seasons and key to the calendar and almanac, or the natural history, religious festivals and miscellaneous customs of the whole year adapted for all succeeding years; [by Thomas Ignatius Maria Forster] London: Keating and Brown, 1833. url p. 150.
- The Cottage gardener. [London: W.S. Orr, url p. 346.
- The English flower garden and home grounds: design and arrangement shown by existing examples of gardens in Great Britain and Ireland, followed by a description of the plants, shrubs, and trees for the open-air garden and their culture / by W. Robinson. London: J. Murray, 1911. url p. 486.
- The English rock-garden, by Reginald Farrer. London, Jack, 1919. url p. 213.
- The Entomologist's record and journal of variation. s.l., s.n. url p. 155, p. 197, p. 48, p. 68.
- The Florists' exchange: a weekly medium of interchange for florists, nurserymen, seedsmen and the trade in general. New York, N.Y.: [A.T. De la Mare Ptg. and Pub. Co., url p. 1039, p. 1111, p. 116, p. 1208, p. 1217, p. 1281, p. 1316, p. 1328, p. 1380, p. 1427, p. 1452, p. 1488, p. 1513, p. 153, p. 1583, p. 208, p. 305, p. 584, p. 636, p. 654, p. 657, p. 699, p. 741, p. 766, p. 767, p. 835, p. 893, p. 907, p. 963.
- The Garden: an illustrated weekly journal of gardening in all its branches. London: [s.n., url , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , p. 106, p. 111, p. 126, p. 126, p. 135, p. 139, p. 141, p. 176, p. 192, p. 212, p. 218, p. 24, p. 249, p. 254, p. 262, p. 269, p. 274, p. 278, p. 304, p. 308, p. 328, p. 351, p. 354, p. 358, p. 367, p. 376, p. 38, p. 394, p. 408, p. 416, p. 429, p. 431, p. 449, p. 45, p. 473, p. 487, p. 488, p. 492, p. 495, p. 500, p. 502, p. 506, p. 508, p. 508, p. 511, p. 524, p. 545, p. 55, p. 578, p. 600, p. 626, p. 64, p. 642, p. 645, p. 8, p. 80, p. 86, p. 98.
- The Gardeners' chronicle and agricultural gazette. 1846 London: published for the proprietors, 1844-1873. url p. 201, p. 804.
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url p. 112, p. 12, p. 144, p. 152, p. 18, p. 186, p. 187, p. 196, p. 200, p. 21, p. 217, p. 22, p. 224, p. 249, p. 251, p. 26, p. 272, p. 28, p. 280, p. 305, p. 313, p. 320, p. 345, p. 348, p. 366, p. 39, p. 392, p. 392, p. 392, p. 393, p. 40, p. 403, p. 406, p. 412, p. 432, p. 455, p. 487, p. 49, p. 559, p. 59, p. 60, p. 623, p. 666, p. 682, p. 685, p. 69, p. 695, p. 696, p. 722, p. 730, p. 732, p. 734, p. 738, p. 739, p. 756, p. 76, p. 762, p. 771, p. 784, p. 798, p. 804, p. 806, p. 819, p. 826, p. 827, p. 831, p. 84.
- The Great Basin naturalist. 43 1983 Provo, Utah: M.L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University, 1939-1999. url p. 233.
- The Horticulturist and journal of rural art and rural taste. Albany, N.Y.: Luthur Tucker, 1846/1847-1875 url p. 46.
- The Illustrated dictionary of gardening: a practical and scientific encyclopaedia of horticulture for gardeners and botanists / edited by George Nicholson. ..; assisted by J.W.H. Trail. .. and J. Garrett. ... London: L. Upcott Gill; 1887-1889. url p. 367, p. 411, p. 434.
- The Journal of horticulture, cottage gardener and country gentlemen. London: George W. Johnson and Robert Hogg, 1861-1877. url p. 398, p. 95.
- The Manchester flora: a descriptive list of the plants growing wild within eighteen miles of Manchester, with notices of the plants commonly cultivated in gardens; preceded by an introduction to botany, by L. H. Grindon. London, W. White, 1859. url p. 315.
- The Phytologist: a botanical journal. London, William Pamplin, 1855-1863. url p. 593.
- The Phytologist: a popular botanical miscellany. London, John van Voorst, 1844-56. url p. 17, p. 504.
- The alpine flora / by Henry Correvon and Phillippe Robert; translated into English and enlarged, under the author's sanction, by E. W. Clayforth. London: Methuen,  url p. 135.
- The book of garden design, London and New York, J. Lane, 1905. url .
- The book of garden design, by Charles Thonger. London, J. Lane, 1905. url p. 65.
- The book of hardy flowers; a simple and complete descriptive guide to the cultivation in gardens of the trees and shrubs, perennial and annual flowers, that are hardy, or are suitable for planting out-of-doors in summer in temp Ed. by H. H. Thomas. .. Beautifully illustrated with thirty-two direct color photographs by H. Essenhigh Corke and sixty-four half-tone plates. 1915 New York, Funk & Wagnalls company; [etc., etc.] url plate 19, p. 480, p. ix.
- The book of nature study, ed. by J. Bretland Farmer. .. assisted by a staff of specialists. Fully illustrated. London, Caxton publishing company[1908?]-1909. url p. 171.
- The book of the seasons: or, The calendar of nature / by William Howitt. Philadelphia: Carey and Hart, 1842. url p. 183.
- The book of the seasons; or, The calendar of nature. LondonR. Bentley1833 url p. 159.
- The complete garden, by Albert D. Taylor, assisted by Gordon D. Cooper. Illustrated with fifty full page cuts, four line charts, and nine coloured plates. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, Page, 1921. url p. 139, p. 139, p. 224, p. 224, p. 232.
- The complete home landscape, by Arthur J. Jennings, in collaboration with Leonard H. Johnson. New York, A. T. De La Mare, 1924. url p. 162, p. 166, p. 169.
- The encyclopedia of gardening. A dictionary of cultivated plants, etc., giving in alphabetical sequence the culture and propagation of hardy and half-hardy plants, trees and shrubs, orchids, ferns, fruit, vegetables, hothouse and g London, W. H. & L. Collingridge url .
- The flower-fields of Alpine Switzerland: an appreciation and a plea, painted and written by G. Flemwell; With twenty-five reproductions of water-colour drawings. New York, Dodd, Mead, 1912. url , p. 164, p. 190.
- The garden bluebook; a manual of the perennial garden, by Leicester Bodine Holland. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday,  url p. 227, p. 228, p. 72.
- The garden month by month; describing the appearance, color, dates of bloom, height and cultivation of all desirable hardy herbaceous perennials for the formal or wild garden, with additional lists of aquatics, vi Garden City, N.Y., Garden City publishing company, inc.[c1907]. url .
- The garden... London, 1872- url , p. 511.
- The gardener's magazine and register of rural & domestic improvement. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown and Green, 1826-1844. url p. 531.
- The natural history of plants, their forms, growth, reproduction, and distribution; Dublin, Blackie & son, limited, 1902. url .
- The natural history of plants; their forms, growth, reproduction, and distribution. From the German of Anton Kerner von Marilaun, by F.W. Oliver, with the assistance of Marian Busk and Mary F. Ewart. with about 2000 original woodcut illustrations and sixteen plates in colours. London, Blackie, 1896-1897. url p. 360, p. 361.
- The natural history of the Tineina. .. By H. T. Stainton, assisted by Professor Zeller and J. W. Douglas. London, J. Van Voorst; [etc., etc.]1855-73. url p. 80.
- The new American orchardist; Boston, Otis, Broaders, and company, 1844. url p. 397.
- The new American orchardist; or, An account of the most valuable varieties of fruit, of all climates, adapted to cultivation in the United States; with their history, modes of culture, management, uses, &c. With an appendix on ve By William Kenrick. Boston, Otis, Broaders, & co., 1844. url p. 397.
- The perfect garden, how to keep it beautiful and fruitful, with practical hints on eonomical management and the culture of all the principal flowers, fruits, and vegetables; Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott company; [etc., etc.]1908. url p. 102.
- The physiology of plants. a treatise upon the metabolism and sources of energy in plants, ed. by A.J. Ewart. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1900-6. url p. 426, p. 73.
- The physiology of plants; a treatise upon the metabolism and sources of energy in plants, by Dr. W. Pfeffer. .. 2d fully rev. ed., translated and edited by Alfred J. Ewart. Oxford, Clarendon press, 1900-06. url p. 426.
- The pictorial museum of animated nature. .. London: C. Cox, [1844?] url p. 343.
- The transactions of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. Leeds [etc.] url p. 227.
- The wild garden, or the naturalization and natural grouping of hardy exotic plants with a chapter on the garden of British wild flowers. London, J. Murray, 1894. url .
- The wild garden: or, Our groves and gardens made beautiful by the naturalisation of hardy exotic plants; being one way onwards from the dark ages of flower gardening, with suggestions for the regeneration of the bare by W. Robinson; illustrated by Alfred Parsons. London: J. Murray; 1883. url p. 166.
- The wild garden; or, Our groves & shrubberies made beautiful. .. London, J. Murray, 1870. url .
- The wild garden; or, Our groves and gardens made beautiful by the naturalisation of hardy exotic plants. .. London, J. Murray;1883. url .
- Thirty-eight plates, with explanations: intended to illustrate Linnaeus's System of vegetables, and particularly adapted to the Letters on the elements of botany / by Thomas Martyn. London: Printed for Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Browne, 1817. url p. 53.
- Town gardening / by Mary Hampden. New York, C.Scribner's sons, 1922 url p. 23.
- Transactions and proceedings of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh. [Edinburgh]: The Society, 1891-1970. url p. 295.
- Transactions of the Botanical Society. Edinburgh: Botanical Society of Edinburgh, 1841-1891. url p. 219, p. 327.
- Transactions of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. [S.l.: s.n.], 1843-1920. url p. 179, p. 188, p. 189, p. 198, p. 278, p. 54, p. 6.
- Transactions of the Natural History Society of Glasgow. Glasgow, The Society. url .
- Travels in the central Caucasus and Bashan; including visits to Ararat and Tabreez and ascents of Kazbek and Elbruz. By Douglas W. Freshfield. London: Longmans, Green, & co., 1869. url p. 505.
- Vernalization and photoperiodism, a symposium by A. E. Murneek [and others] Foreword by Kenneth V. Thimann. Waltham, Mass., Chronica Botanica Co., 1948. url p. 80.
- W. Curtis (ed.) The Botanical magazine, or, Flower-garden displayed. .. /by William Curtis. 3 1790 [S.l.: s.n.], 1790-1800; url , .
- Yard and garden; a book of practical information for the amateur gardener in city, town or suburb, Indianapolis, The Bobbs-Merrill company[c1908] url , , p. 162, p. 394, p. 396.
- Garcia-Jacas, N., A. Susanna, V. Mozaffarian, and R. Ilarslan. 2000. The natural delimitation of Centaurea (Asteraceae: Cardueae): ITS sequence analysis of the Centaurea jacea group. Pl. Syst. Evol. 223: 185199.
- Moore, R. J. 1972. Distribution of native and introduced knapweeds (Centaurea) in Canada and the United States. Rhodora 74: 331346.
- Roché, B. F. and C. T. Roché. 1991. Identification, introduction, distribution, ecology, and economics of Centaurea species. In: L. F. James et al., eds. 1991. Noxious Range Weeds. Boulder, San Francisco, and Oxford. Pp. 274291.
- Wagenitz, G. 1955. Pollenmorphologie und Systematik in der Gattung Centaurea L. s.l. Flora 142: 213279.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed March 27, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 15, 2007:
- Jyväskylä University Museum - The Section of Natural Sciences, Vascular plant collection of Jyvaskyla University Museum
- Oregon State University, Vascular Plant Collection
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2658264
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Ast-22286
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13727278
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:191037-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 401601
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 36966
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDAST1Y0E0
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: CEMO
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 27163
- David J. Keil, Jörg Ochsmann "Centaurea". in Flora of North America Vol. 19, 20 and 21 Page 52, 57, 58, 67, 83, 84, 96, 171, 172, 176, 177, EFloras.org. [back]
- "Centaurea montana". in Flora of North America Vol. 19, 20 and 21 Page 183, 185. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 178.660 meters (586.155 feet), Standard Deviation = 210.110 based on 3,862 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]