- Celtis occidentalis is valued as an ornamental street tree because of its tolerance to drought . [source]
- Native Americans used decoctions prepared from the bark of Celtis occidentalis medicinally as an aid in menses and to treat sore throat (D. E. Moerman 1986). [source]
- This is a highly variable species. Segregates named as varieties follow an east-west geographic gradient and are based primarily on leaf size, shape , and pubescence . [source]
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Afrikaans:
Common Names in English:
American Hackberry, Common Hackberry, Hackberry, Nettletree, Northern Hackberry, Sugarberry, Western Hackberry
Common Names in French:
Common Names in unspecified:
Hackberry, Western Hackberry
, dioecious or sometimes monoecious, often with cystoliths
(a hard calcium carbonate
structure at base
of a hair) . Stems furrowed
. Stipules free
. Leaves alternate or opposite, palmately lobed
, sometimes simple
. Male inflorescences a bracteate
panicle. Male flowers: pedicellate
; sepals 5, free; petals absent; stamens 5, opposite sepals; filaments
slits. Female inflorescences a bracteate spicate cyme much reduced in Cannabis, pendent or erect. Female flowers: sessile; calyx appressed
to ovary, membranous; petals absent; ovary 1-loculed; ovule solitary, pendulous from locule apex; style 2-parted, branches filiform
. Fruit an achene, covered by persistent
calyx; endosperm fleshy
; embryo curved
or spirally involute
Two genera and four species: N Africa, Asia, Europe, North America; two genera and four species (one endemic) in China.
Because all the Chinese species in this family are cultivated and are often found naturalized in disturbed habitats , it is difficult to know the true wild distributions.
Cannabaceae has sometimes been included in Moraceae or Urticaceae but is now usually recognized as a distinct family. The subfamily Celtidoideae of Ulmaceae could possibly be included within Cannabaceae (see the discussion after the Ulmaceae family description ) .
or rarely shrubs
, to 30 m
; crowns spreading
usually gray, smooth
or often fissured
and conspicuously warty. Branches without or with thorns
, slender, glabrous
. Leaves: stipules falling early. Leaf blade
deltate to ovate
to oblong-lanceolate, base
or cuneate to rounded
entire or serrate-dentate; venation
3(-5) -pinnate. Inflorescences: staminate
inflorescences cymes or fascicles; pistillate
solitary or few-flowered clusters
. Flowers usually unisexual
, staminate and pistillate on same plants
, along with a few bisexual
on branches of current
year, appearing in mid or late spring
. Staminate flowers
in bud, exserted after anthesis
; gynoecium minute, rudimentary
. Pistillate flowers: calyx slightly to deeply 4(-5) -lobed; stamens 4-5, inserted
, often nonfunctional filaments usually shorter than in staminate flowers, rarely absent; anthers
to face in bud, extrorse
; ovaries sessile, ovoid
, 1-locular; styles short, sessile, divided
into 2 divergent, elongate
, lobes entire or 2-cleft. Fruits fleshy
drupes, ovoid or globose
; outer mesocarp
thick, firm, inner mesocarp thin, fleshy; stones
thick walled, ripening in autumn, persisting after leaves fall
Species ca. 60: tropical and temperate regions , worldwide.
The hackberries provide important wildlife habitat , forming thickets that give shelter and fleshy drupes that ripen in autumn, persist after leaves fall, and supply winter food for birds and mammals. The treatment presented here is a simplified circumscription of species with no elaboration of infraspecific variation or interspecific hybridization. The group is taxonomically complex and in need of revision .
Species Celtis occidentalis
Trees or shrubs , size varying greatly in response to habitat ; crowns rounded . Bark gray, deeply furrowed , warty with age. Wood light yellow, weak. Branches without thorns , spreading , young branches mostly pubescent . Leaves: petiole 0.5-1.2 mm. Leaf blade lance-ovate to broadly ovate or deltate, 5-12 × 3-6(-9) cm (on fertile branches), leathery, base oblique or obliquely somewhat acuminate, margins conspicuously serrate to well below middle , teeth 10-40, apex acuminate; surfaces scabrous . Inflorescences dense pendulous clusters . Drupes dark orange to purple- or blue-black when ripe , orbicular , to 7-11(-20) mm diam., commonly with thick beak ; pedicel to 15 mm. Stones cream colored , 7-9 × 5-8 mm, reticulate . 2 n = 20, 30, and 40. [source]
ID Features: Alternate leaf arrangement. Oblique leaf base. Rough leaf. Corky bark. Small, imbricate lateral buds. Terminal bud absent. Zigzag stem pattern. Serrated leaf tips. Small, red drupe fruit.
Flowers: Blooms late April to early May. Emerge with leaves. Not ornamentally important. • Bloom Period: Mid Spring • Flower Color: Green • Flower Conspicuous: No
Seeds: Seed per Pound: 43000 • Seed Spread Rate: Moderate • Seedling Vigor: Medium • Fruit: Orangy-red fleshy fruit. Drupe. Ripen in September - October. Edible, sweet date taste. Not ornamentally important. Flesh surround hard seed that can break teeth. • Fruit/Seed Abundance: High • Fruit/Seed Color: Purple • Fruit/Seed Conspicuous: No • Cold Stratification Required: Yes
Foliage: Foliage Color: Green • Summer foliage: Alternate leaf arrangement . Leaves are simple and are 3" to 5" long. Oblique leaf base. Serrate margins at leaf tip. Medium green color, pale yellow-green leaf underside. Leaves are glabrous on underside especially around veins. Leaves have rough texture . • Fall foliage: Yellow fall color. Not showy. • Foliage Porosity Summer: Dense • Foliage Porosity Winter: Porous • Foliage Texture: Coarse • Fall Conspicuous: Yes • Leaf Retention: No
Active Growth Period: Spring and Summer • Growth Rate: Moderate-fast. • Mature Height (feet): 50.0 • Maximum Height at 20 Years (feet): 25 • Size: 40' to 60' tall and has an almost equal spread . • Vegetative Spread Rate: None • Lifespan: Lifespan
Landscape Uses: Good tree for poor conditions. Park tree. Screen . For edible fruit. • Liabilities: Leaf spot, powdery mildew , hackberry nipple gall, scale. Witches' broom caused by insect. Problems don't kill tree , but make tree very unattractive.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,370 meters (0 to 7,776 feet).
Duration: Perennial • Coppice Potential: Yes • Progagated by Bulbs: No • Propagated by Bare Root: Yes • Propagated by Container: Yes • Propagated by Corms: No • Propagated by Cuttings: No • Propagated by Seed: Yes • Propagated by Sod: No • Propagated by Sprigs: No • Propagated by Tubers: No • Fruit/Seed Period Begin: Summer • Fruit/Seed Period End: Fall • Fruit/Seed Persistence: Yes
Culture: Easily transplant form B&B container or bare root . Prefers rich soil. Very soil adaptable. Tolerant of most conditions. Wind tolerant. Full sun . Urban tolerant.
Soil: Adapted to Medium Textured: Adapted to Medium Textured Soils • Adapted to Coarse Textured Soils: Yes • Anaerobic Tolerance: Medium • Salinity Tolerance: None • CaCO3 Tolerance: Medium • Minimum pH: 6.0 • Maximum pH: 7.8 • Fertility Requirement: Medium
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun . • Shade Tolerance: Intermediate
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: High • Minimum Precipitation: 14 • Maximum Precipitation: 32 • Moisture Use: Low
Temperature: Minimum Temperature (F): -38 • Minimum Frost Free Days: 90 • Cold Hardiness: 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Perleb, 1826
- Augier, 1801 ex Martinov, 1820, nom. cons.
- C. Linnaeus, 1753
- Hackberry, sugarberry, bois inconnu [Classical Latin, Pliny's name for Celtis australis Linnaeus, the "lotus" of the ancient world]
- Specific epithet:
- Botanical name: - Celtis occidentalis L.
- Specific epithet: occidentalis - L.
- Genus: Celtis () - C. Linnaeus, 1753 - Hackberry, sugarberry, bois inconnu [Classical Latin, Pliny's name for Celtis australis Linnaeus, the "lotus" of the ancient world]
- Family: Cannabaceae () - Augier, 1801 ex Martinov, 1820, nom. cons. - hemp
- Order: Rosales () - Perleb, 1826
- Superorder: Urticanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : L. Publication : Sp. Pl. 2: 1044 1753 [1 May 1753]
Members of the genus Celtis
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 31 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
C. australis (European Hackberry) · C. bungeana (Hackberry) · C. ehrenbergiana (Spiny Hackberry) · C. iguanaea (Iguana Hackberry) · C. jessoensis (Japanese Hackberry) · C. julianae (Julian Hackberry) · C. laevigata (Net-Leaf Hackberry) · C. laevigata reticulata (Netleaf Hackberry) · C. laevigata var. brevipes (Sugar Hackberry) · C. laevigata var. laevigata (Sugarberry) · C. laevigata var. reticulata (Netleaf Hackberry) · C. laevigata var. texana (Texas Sugarberry) · C. laevigata 'All Seasons' (Sugar Hackberry) · C. lindheimeri (Lindheimer Hackberry) · C. occidentalis (American Hackberry) · C. occidentalis L. var. occidentalis L. (Common Hackberry) · C. occidentalis L. var. pumila (Pursh) A.Gray (Common Hackberry) · C. occidentalis var. canina (Common Hackberry) · C. occidentalis var. occidentalis (Western Hackberry) · C. occidentalis var. pumila (Dwarf Hackberry) · C. occidentalis 'Chicagoland' (American Hackberry) · C. occidentalis 'Delta' (American Hackberry) · C. occidentalis 'Prairie Pride' (American Hackberry) · C. occidentalis 'Windy City' (American Hackberry) · C. pallida (Capul) · C. reticulata var. reticulata (Netleaf Hackberry) · C. sinensis (Chinese Elm) · C. sinensis 'Green Cascade' (Chinese Elm) · C. tenuifolia (Dwarf Hackberry) · C. tournefortii (Oriental Hackberry) · C. trinervia (Almex)
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- Great Basin naturalist memoirs. 1992 [Provo, Utah]Brigham Young University, 1976-1992. url p. 1263, p. 273, p. 342, p. 354, p. 426, p. 611.
- Guide to the Economic Museum of the New York Botanical Garden. New York, 1921. url p. 230.
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- Hardy ornamental flowering trees and shrubs / by A. D. Webster. London: Smith, Elder, 1908. url p. 32.
- Heteroptera, or true bugs of eastern North America, with especial reference to the faunas of Indiana and Florida, by W.S. Blatchley. .. Indianapolis, The Nature publishing company, 1926. url p. 468.
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- How to know wild fruits; a guide to plants when not in flower by means of fruit and leaf; by Mary Elisabeth Herbert. New York, Macmillan, 1914. url , p. 172, p. 337.
- How to make a country place; an account of the successes and the mistakes of an amateur in thirty-five years of farming, building and development: together with a practical plan for securing a home and an independent income, star New York, Orange Judd company; [etc., etc.]1914. url p. 371.
- Identification of the economic woods of the United States, including a discussion of the structural and physical properties of wood, New York, John Wiley & sons, inc.; [etc., etc.]1919. url , , , p. 51, p. 89.
- Illinois River Bluffs area assessment / Illinois Department of Natural Resources, Office of Scientific Research and Analysis, [and the] State Geological Survey Division. Springfield, Ill.: Illinois Dept. of Natural Resources, 1998- url p. 161, p. 177.
- Illinois trees: selection, planting, and care [by] J. Cedric Carter. Urbana, 1966. url p. 61.
- Illustrated key to the wild and commonly cultivated trees of the northeastern United States and adjacent Canada; based primarily upon leaf characters, New YorkHolt1912 url p. 16.
- Insect galls of Springfield, Massachusetts, and vicinity / by Fannie A. Stebbins. Springfield, Mass.: Springfield Museum of Natural History, 1909. url p. 132, p. 33.
- Insects affecting park and woodland trees / by Ephraim Porter Felt. Albany: New York State Education Dept., 1905-1906. url p. 219.
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- Iowa parks. Conservation of Iowa historic, scenic and scientific areas. Also, a description of numerous areas suitable for public state parks, with reasons for their preservation. Report of the State board of con Pub. by the state of Iowa. Des Moines url p. 166, p. 67, p. 80.
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- Lake Maxinkuckee. A physical and biological survey by Barton Warren Evermann and Howard Walton Clark. [Indianapolis]Dept. of Conservation, State of Indiana [Wm. B. Burford, printer]1920. url p. 289.
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- Land teaching; a handbook of soils, plants, gardens and grounds, for teachers and cultivators, Atlanta, Ga., Southern ruralist company, 1910. url p. 2.
- Landscape garden series, ed. by Ralph Rodney Root. Davenport, Ia.: The Garden Press,  url p. 12, p. 19.
- Landscaping your home / Urbana: University of Illinois Press, c1975. url p. 220.
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- London trees. Being an account of the trees that succeed in London, with a descriptive account of each species and notes on their comparative value and cultivation. With guide to where the finest London trees may b by A. D. Webster. London, The Swarthmore Press, 1920. url p. 137, p. 172, p. 206, p. 208, p. 83, p. viii.
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- Memoir / Ithaca, N.Y. url p. 201.
- Michigan flora: a list of the fern and seed plants growing without cultivation / prepared by W.J. Beal. [Lansing, Mich.]: State Board of Agriculture: 1904. url p. 29, p. 29.
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- Miscellaneous publication - University of Kansas, Museum of Natural History. 1956 Lawrence: University of Kansas, 1946-1996. url p. 11, p. 13, p. 44, p. 45, p. 48, p. 61.
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- Morphology and taxonomy of fungi. Philadelphia, Blakiston, 1950. url p. 310.
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- National Arboretum contribution. Washington, D.C.: The Arboretum: 1953- url p. 16.
- Native trees of Canada / by B.R. Morton; with notes on nomenclature and utilization by R.G. Lewis. Ottawa: Dept. of the Interior, Forestry Branch, 1921. url p. 201, p. 92, p. 97.
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- Part I. The living flora of West Virginia, by C. F. Millspaugh. Part II. The fossil flora of West Virginia, by David White. Wheeling, Wheeling news litho. co., 1913 url p. 41, p. 63.
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- Propagation of wild birds; a manual of applied ornithology, treating of practical methods of propagation of quails, grouse, wild turkey, pheasants, partridges, pigeons and doves, and waterfowl, in America, and of attracting and by Herbert K. Job. Illustrated from photographs mostly by the author. Garden City, N. Y., Doubleday, Page, 1915. url p. 240.
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- Rocky mountain flowers; an illustrated guide for plantlovers and plant-users; with twenty-five plates in color and twenty-one plates in black and white [by] Frederic Edward Clements...and Edith Schwartz Clements... 1914 New York city, the H.W. Wilson company, 1914. url explanation of plate 4.
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- Standardized plant names; a catalogue of approved scientific and common names of plants in American commerce. Salem, Mass., 1923. url p. 194.
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- The care of trees in lawn, street and park. With a list of trees and shrubs for decorative use. New YorkHolt1910 url p. 279, p. 365.
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- Mean = 302.900 meters (993.766 feet), Standard Deviation = 245.450 based on 2,268 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]