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Common Names in Afrikaans:
Common Names in Chinese:
Common Names in English:
Chinese Elm, Chinese Hackberry, Chinese Nettle-Tree, Japanese Hackberry
, dioecious or sometimes monoecious, often with cystoliths
(a hard calcium carbonate
structure at base
of a hair) . Stems furrowed
. Stipules free
. Leaves alternate or opposite, palmately lobed
, sometimes simple
. Male inflorescences a bracteate
panicle. Male flowers: pedicellate
; sepals 5, free; petals absent; stamens 5, opposite sepals; filaments
slits. Female inflorescences a bracteate spicate cyme much reduced in Cannabis, pendent or erect. Female flowers: sessile; calyx appressed
to ovary, membranous; petals absent; ovary 1-loculed; ovule solitary, pendulous from locule apex; style 2-parted, branches filiform
. Fruit an achene, covered by persistent
calyx; endosperm fleshy
; embryo curved
or spirally involute
Two genera and four species: N Africa, Asia, Europe, North America; two genera and four species (one endemic) in China.
Because all the Chinese species in this family are cultivated and are often found naturalized in disturbed habitats , it is difficult to know the true wild distributions.
Cannabaceae has sometimes been included in Moraceae or Urticaceae but is now usually recognized as a distinct family. The subfamily Celtidoideae of Ulmaceae could possibly be included within Cannabaceae (see the discussion after the Ulmaceae family description ) .
or rarely shrubs
, to 30 m
; crowns spreading
usually gray, smooth
or often fissured
and conspicuously warty. Branches without or with thorns
, slender, glabrous
. Leaves: stipules falling early. Leaf blade
deltate to ovate
to oblong-lanceolate, base
or cuneate to rounded
entire or serrate-dentate; venation
3(-5) -pinnate. Inflorescences: staminate
inflorescences cymes or fascicles; pistillate
solitary or few-flowered clusters
. Flowers usually unisexual
, staminate and pistillate on same plants
, along with a few bisexual
on branches of current
year, appearing in mid or late spring
. Staminate flowers
in bud, exserted after anthesis
; gynoecium minute, rudimentary
. Pistillate flowers: calyx slightly to deeply 4(-5) -lobed; stamens 4-5, inserted
, often nonfunctional filaments usually shorter than in staminate flowers, rarely absent; anthers
to face in bud, extrorse
; ovaries sessile, ovoid
, 1-locular; styles short, sessile, divided
into 2 divergent, elongate
, lobes entire or 2-cleft. Fruits fleshy
drupes, ovoid or globose
; outer mesocarp
thick, firm, inner mesocarp thin, fleshy; stones
thick walled, ripening in autumn, persisting after leaves fall
Species ca. 60: tropical and temperate regions , worldwide.
The hackberries provide important wildlife habitat , forming thickets that give shelter and fleshy drupes that ripen in autumn, persist after leaves fall, and supply winter food for birds and mammals. The treatment presented here is a simplified circumscription of species with no elaboration of infraspecific variation or interspecific hybridization. The group is taxonomically complex and in need of revision .
Species Celtis sinensis
Trees , to 20 m tall, deciduous. Bark gray. Branchlets brown, brown pubescent , sometimes glabrescent late in season . Winter buds dark brown, 1-3 mm, glabrous or inconspicuously puberulent . Stipules linear to lanceolate, 3-5 mm, pubescent, fugacious . Petiole brown, 3-10 mm, pubescent, adaxially with a broad and shallow furrow; leaf blade ovate to ovate-elliptic, 3-10 × 3.5-6 cm, thickly papery , abaxially usually inconspicuously yellowish brown puberulent when young, abaxially with hairs scattered on major veins and sometimes tufted in vein axils with age, base rounded , obtuse , or obliquely truncate , ± symmetric to moderately oblique , margin subentire to crenate on apical half, teeth 0-16 on each side, apex acute to shortly acuminate; secondary veins 3 or 4 on each side of midvein . Flowers fascicled in leaf axils and stem bases. Style branches linear, undivided. Infructescences unbranched, 1(-3) per leaf axil, rather stout, pubescent at least proximally, 4-10 mm; fruiting pedicel 1-1.5 × as long as subtending petiole. Drupe ± globose , 5-7(-8) mm in diam. Stone white, ± globose, reticulately foveolate, ribbed . Fl. Mar-Apr, fr. Sep-Oct. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: March. • Flower Color: inconspicuous, none, orange
Size: over 40' tall.
Roadsides, slopes ; 100-1500 m .
Culture: Space 30-40' apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 4.5 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: High
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Perleb, 1826
- Augier, 1801 ex Martinov, 1820, nom. cons.
- C. Linnaeus, 1753
- Hackberry, sugarberry, bois inconnu [Classical Latin, Pliny's name for Celtis australis Linnaeus, the "lotus" of the ancient world]
- Specific epithet:
- Botanical name: - Celtis sinensis Pers.
- Specific epithet: sinensis - Pers.
- Genus: Celtis () - C. Linnaeus, 1753 - Hackberry, sugarberry, bois inconnu [Classical Latin, Pliny's name for Celtis australis Linnaeus, the "lotus" of the ancient world]
- Family: Cannabaceae () - Augier, 1801 ex Martinov, 1820, nom. cons. - hemp
- Order: Rosales () - Perleb, 1826
- Superorder: Urticanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
C. bungeana var. pubipedicella G. H. Wang • C. cercidifolia C. K. Schneider • C. hunanensis Handel-Mazzetti; C. Labilis C. K. Schneider • C. nervosa Hemsley • C. tetrandra Roxburgh sinensis (Persoon) Y. C. Tang. • Celtis bodinieri H. Léveillé
Publishing author : Pers. Publication : Syn. Pl. (Persoon) 1: 292 1805 [1 Apr-15 Jun 1805]
Members of the genus Celtis
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 31 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
C. australis (European Hackberry) · C. bungeana (Hackberry) · C. ehrenbergiana (Spiny Hackberry) · C. iguanaea (Iguana Hackberry) · C. jessoensis (Japanese Hackberry) · C. julianae (Julian Hackberry) · C. laevigata (Net-Leaf Hackberry) · C. laevigata reticulata (Netleaf Hackberry) · C. laevigata var. brevipes (Sugar Hackberry) · C. laevigata var. laevigata (Sugarberry) · C. laevigata var. reticulata (Netleaf Hackberry) · C. laevigata var. texana (Texas Sugarberry) · C. laevigata 'All Seasons' (Sugar Hackberry) · C. lindheimeri (Lindheimer Hackberry) · C. occidentalis (American Hackberry) · C. occidentalis L. var. occidentalis L. (Common Hackberry) · C. occidentalis L. var. pumila (Pursh) A.Gray (Common Hackberry) · C. occidentalis var. canina (Common Hackberry) · C. occidentalis var. occidentalis (Western Hackberry) · C. occidentalis var. pumila (Dwarf Hackberry) · C. occidentalis 'Chicagoland' (American Hackberry) · C. occidentalis 'Delta' (American Hackberry) · C. occidentalis 'Prairie Pride' (American Hackberry) · C. occidentalis 'Windy City' (American Hackberry) · C. pallida (Capul) · C. reticulata var. reticulata (Netleaf Hackberry) · C. sinensis (Chinese Elm) · C. sinensis 'Green Cascade' (Chinese Elm) · C. tenuifolia (Dwarf Hackberry) · C. tournefortii (Oriental Hackberry) · C. trinervia (Almex)
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- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 5829235
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 15886654
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:851173-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 9781
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 851173-1
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