Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
Net-Leaf Hackberry, Netleaf Hackberry, Palo Blanco, Southern Hackberry, Sugar Berry, Sugar Hackberry, Sugar Hackberry Celtis Laevigata, Sugarberry, Texas Sugarberry
Common Names in unspecified:
Sugar Berry, Sugar Hackberry, Sugarberry
, dioecious or sometimes monoecious, often with cystoliths
(a hard calcium carbonate
structure at base
of a hair) . Stems furrowed
. Stipules free
. Leaves alternate or opposite, palmately lobed
, sometimes simple
. Male inflorescences a bracteate
panicle. Male flowers: pedicellate
; sepals 5, free; petals absent; stamens 5, opposite sepals; filaments
slits. Female inflorescences a bracteate spicate cyme much reduced in Cannabis, pendent or erect. Female flowers: sessile; calyx appressed
to ovary, membranous; petals absent; ovary 1-loculed; ovule solitary, pendulous from locule apex; style 2-parted, branches filiform
. Fruit an achene, covered by persistent
calyx; endosperm fleshy
; embryo curved
or spirally involute
Two genera and four species: N Africa, Asia, Europe, North America; two genera and four species (one endemic) in China.
Because all the Chinese species in this family are cultivated and are often found naturalized in disturbed habitats , it is difficult to know the true wild distributions.
Cannabaceae has sometimes been included in Moraceae or Urticaceae but is now usually recognized as a distinct family. The subfamily Celtidoideae of Ulmaceae could possibly be included within Cannabaceae (see the discussion after the Ulmaceae family description ) .
or rarely shrubs
, to 30 m
; crowns spreading
usually gray, smooth
or often fissured
and conspicuously warty. Branches without or with thorns
, slender, glabrous
. Leaves: stipules falling early. Leaf blade
deltate to ovate
to oblong-lanceolate, base
or cuneate to rounded
entire or serrate-dentate; venation
3(-5) -pinnate. Inflorescences: staminate
inflorescences cymes or fascicles; pistillate
solitary or few-flowered clusters
. Flowers usually unisexual
, staminate and pistillate on same plants
, along with a few bisexual
on branches of current
year, appearing in mid or late spring
. Staminate flowers
in bud, exserted after anthesis
; gynoecium minute, rudimentary
. Pistillate flowers: calyx slightly to deeply 4(-5) -lobed; stamens 4-5, inserted
, often nonfunctional filaments usually shorter than in staminate flowers, rarely absent; anthers
to face in bud, extrorse
; ovaries sessile, ovoid
, 1-locular; styles short, sessile, divided
into 2 divergent, elongate
, lobes entire or 2-cleft. Fruits fleshy
drupes, ovoid or globose
; outer mesocarp
thick, firm, inner mesocarp thin, fleshy; stones
thick walled, ripening in autumn, persisting after leaves fall
Species ca. 60: tropical and temperate regions , worldwide.
The hackberries provide important wildlife habitat , forming thickets that give shelter and fleshy drupes that ripen in autumn, persist after leaves fall, and supply winter food for birds and mammals. The treatment presented here is a simplified circumscription of species with no elaboration of infraspecific variation or interspecific hybridization. The group is taxonomically complex and in need of revision .
Species Celtis laevigata
Trees , to 30 m ; trunks to 1 m diam., crowns broad, spreading . Bark light gray, smooth or covered with corky warts . Branches without thorns , often pendulous, young branches pubescent at first, then glabrous . Leaves: petiole 6-10 mm. Leaf blade typically elliptic-lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, (4-) 6-8(-15) × (2-) 3-4 cm, thin and membranaceous to leathery, base broadly cuneate to rounded , margins entire or rarely with a few long teeth, apex sharply acute to acuminate; surfaces glabrous or nearly so, margins ciliate . Inflorescences: flowers solitary or few-flowered clusters at base of leaves. Drupes orange to brown or red when ripe , nearly orbicular , 5-8 mm diam., beakless; pedicel 6-15 mm. Stones 4.5-7 × 5-6 mm. 2 n = 20, 30, and 40. [source]
ID Features: Alternate leaf arrangement. Oblique leaf base. Rough leaf. Corky bark. Lateral buds is triangular and appressed. Terminal bud absent. Zigzag stem pattern. Serrated leaf tips. Small, black drupe fruit.
Flowers: Blooms late April to early May. Emerge with leaves. Not ornamentally important. • Bloom Period: Flowering late spring-early fall (May-Oct). • Flower Color: Green • Flower Conspicuous: No
Seeds: Seed per Pound: 6000 • Seed Spread Rate: Slow • Seedling Vigor: Medium • Fruit: Black drupe fruit. Hard seed covered by thin flesh. 0.25" in diameter. Edible, sweet. Attract birds. Mature in early fall . • Fruit/Seed Abundance: High • Fruit/Seed Color: Orange • Fruit/Seed Conspicuous: No • Cold Stratification Required: Yes
Foliage: Foliage Color: Green • Summer foliage: Alternate leaf arrangement . Simple , deciduous leaves. Narrow, ovate leaf shape. Oblique leaf base. Yellowish green leaf color. 2" to 4" long. • Fall foliage: Yellow fall color. Not the best tree for fall color. • Foliage Porosity Summer: Moderate • Foliage Porosity Winter: Porous • Foliage Texture: Medium • Fall Conspicuous: Yes • Leaf Retention: No
Active Growth Period: Spring and Summer • Growth Rate: Moderate-rapid. • Mature Height (feet): 80.0 • Maximum Height at 20 Years (feet): 35 • Size: 40' to 60' tall. • Vegetative Spread Rate: None • Lifespan: Lifespan
Landscape Uses: Shade tree . Street tree. Difficult sites. Park tree. To attract wildlife. For edible fruit. • Liabilities: Leaf spot, powdery mildew , hackberry nipple gall, scale, aphids. Witches' broom caused by insect. Problems don't kill tree , but make tree very unattractive.
In rich bottomlands along streams , in flood plains , and on rocky slopes ; 0-300 m.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,998 meters (0 to 9,836 feet).
Duration: Perennial • Coppice Potential: No • Progagated by Bulbs: No • Propagated by Bare Root: Yes • Propagated by Container: Yes • Propagated by Corms: No • Propagated by Cuttings: No • Propagated by Seed: Yes • Propagated by Sod: No • Propagated by Sprigs: No • Propagated by Tubers: No • Fruit/Seed Period Begin: Summer • Fruit/Seed Period End: Fall • Fruit/Seed Persistence: Yes
Culture: Soil tolerant , but does well with fertilization and irrigation . Full sun . Pollution tolerant. Tolerant of most conditions. Wind tolerant.
Soil: Adapted to Medium Textured: Adapted to Medium Textured Soils • Adapted to Coarse Textured Soils: No • Anaerobic Tolerance: None • Salinity Tolerance: None • CaCO3 Tolerance: Medium • Minimum pH: 4.8 • Maximum pH: 6.8 • Fertility Requirement: Medium
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun . • Shade Tolerance: Tolerant
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: Low • Minimum Precipitation: 20 • Maximum Precipitation: 60 • Moisture Use: High
Temperature: Minimum Temperature (F): -29 • Minimum Frost Free Days: 150 • Cold Hardiness: 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Perleb, 1826
- Augier, 1801 ex Martinov, 1820, nom. cons.
- C. Linnaeus, 1753
- Hackberry, sugarberry, bois inconnu [Classical Latin, Pliny's name for Celtis australis Linnaeus, the "lotus" of the ancient world]
- Specific epithet:
- Botanical name: - Celtis laevigata Willd.
- Specific epithet: laevigata - Willd.
- Genus: Celtis () - C. Linnaeus, 1753 - Hackberry, sugarberry, bois inconnu [Classical Latin, Pliny's name for Celtis australis Linnaeus, the "lotus" of the ancient world]
- Family: Cannabaceae () - Augier, 1801 ex Martinov, 1820, nom. cons. - hemp
- Order: Rosales () - Perleb, 1826
- Superorder: Urticanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
C. laevigata var. brachyphylla Sargent • C. laevigata var. smallii (Beadle) Sargent • C. laevigata var. texana Sargent • C. mississippiensis Bosc • C. smallii Beadle • Celtis Aculeata Laevigata • Celtis laevigata var. anomala Sargent • Mertensia laevigata Kunth • Momisia laevigata (Kunth) F. Dietr.
Publishing author : Willd. Publication : Enum. Pl. [Willdenow] 67 1814
Members of the genus Celtis
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 31 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
C. australis (European Hackberry) · C. bungeana (Hackberry) · C. ehrenbergiana (Spiny Hackberry) · C. iguanaea (Iguana Hackberry) · C. jessoensis (Japanese Hackberry) · C. julianae (Julian Hackberry) · C. laevigata (Net-Leaf Hackberry) · C. laevigata reticulata (Netleaf Hackberry) · C. laevigata var. brevipes (Sugar Hackberry) · C. laevigata var. laevigata (Sugarberry) · C. laevigata var. reticulata (Netleaf Hackberry) · C. laevigata var. texana (Texas Sugarberry) · C. laevigata 'All Seasons' (Sugar Hackberry) · C. lindheimeri (Lindheimer Hackberry) · C. occidentalis (American Hackberry) · C. occidentalis L. var. occidentalis L. (Common Hackberry) · C. occidentalis L. var. pumila (Pursh) A.Gray (Common Hackberry) · C. occidentalis var. canina (Common Hackberry) · C. occidentalis var. occidentalis (Western Hackberry) · C. occidentalis var. pumila (Dwarf Hackberry) · C. occidentalis 'Chicagoland' (American Hackberry) · C. occidentalis 'Delta' (American Hackberry) · C. occidentalis 'Prairie Pride' (American Hackberry) · C. occidentalis 'Windy City' (American Hackberry) · C. pallida (Capul) · C. reticulata var. reticulata (Netleaf Hackberry) · C. sinensis (Chinese Elm) · C. sinensis 'Green Cascade' (Chinese Elm) · C. tenuifolia (Dwarf Hackberry) · C. tournefortii (Oriental Hackberry) · C. trinervia (Almex)
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- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2645772
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-19042
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13736424
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:851091-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 70160
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 19042
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 836997-1
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- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: CELA
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 26693
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- Mean = 444.440 meters (1,458.136 feet), Standard Deviation = 559.370 based on 2,095 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]