Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Afrikaans:
Common Names in English:
European Hackberry, European Nettletree, Honey-Berry, Lotetree, Lotus Berry, Mediterranean Hackberry, Mediterrean Hackberry, Nettletree, Southern Hackberry
Common Names in Italian:
Arcidiavolo, Bagolaro, Spaccasassi
, dioecious or sometimes monoecious, often with cystoliths
(a hard calcium carbonate
structure at base
of a hair) . Stems furrowed
. Stipules free
. Leaves alternate or opposite, palmately lobed
, sometimes simple
. Male inflorescences a bracteate
panicle. Male flowers: pedicellate
; sepals 5, free; petals absent; stamens 5, opposite sepals; filaments
slits. Female inflorescences a bracteate spicate cyme much reduced in Cannabis, pendent or erect. Female flowers: sessile; calyx appressed
to ovary, membranous; petals absent; ovary 1-loculed; ovule solitary, pendulous from locule apex; style 2-parted, branches filiform
. Fruit an achene, covered by persistent
calyx; endosperm fleshy
; embryo curved
or spirally involute
Two genera and four species: N Africa, Asia, Europe, North America; two genera and four species (one endemic) in China.
Because all the Chinese species in this family are cultivated and are often found naturalized in disturbed habitats , it is difficult to know the true wild distributions.
Cannabaceae has sometimes been included in Moraceae or Urticaceae but is now usually recognized as a distinct family. The subfamily Celtidoideae of Ulmaceae could possibly be included within Cannabaceae (see the discussion after the Ulmaceae family description ) .
or rarely shrubs
, to 30 m
; crowns spreading
usually gray, smooth
or often fissured
and conspicuously warty. Branches without or with thorns
, slender, glabrous
. Leaves: stipules falling early. Leaf blade
deltate to ovate
to oblong-lanceolate, base
or cuneate to rounded
entire or serrate-dentate; venation
3(-5) -pinnate. Inflorescences: staminate
inflorescences cymes or fascicles; pistillate
solitary or few-flowered clusters
. Flowers usually unisexual
, staminate and pistillate on same plants
, along with a few bisexual
on branches of current
year, appearing in mid or late spring
. Staminate flowers
in bud, exserted after anthesis
; gynoecium minute, rudimentary
. Pistillate flowers: calyx slightly to deeply 4(-5) -lobed; stamens 4-5, inserted
, often nonfunctional filaments usually shorter than in staminate flowers, rarely absent; anthers
to face in bud, extrorse
; ovaries sessile, ovoid
, 1-locular; styles short, sessile, divided
into 2 divergent, elongate
, lobes entire or 2-cleft. Fruits fleshy
drupes, ovoid or globose
; outer mesocarp
thick, firm, inner mesocarp thin, fleshy; stones
thick walled, ripening in autumn, persisting after leaves fall
Species ca. 60: tropical and temperate regions , worldwide.
The hackberries provide important wildlife habitat , forming thickets that give shelter and fleshy drupes that ripen in autumn, persist after leaves fall, and supply winter food for birds and mammals. The treatment presented here is a simplified circumscription of species with no elaboration of infraspecific variation or interspecific hybridization. The group is taxonomically complex and in need of revision .
Flowers: Bloom Period: March. • Flower Color: inconspicuous, none
Size: over 40' tall.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,212 meters (0 to 13,819 feet).
Culture: Space over 40' apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 5.1 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Perleb, 1826
- Augier, 1801 ex Martinov, 1820, nom. cons.
- C. Linnaeus, 1753
- Hackberry, sugarberry, bois inconnu [Classical Latin, Pliny's name for Celtis australis Linnaeus, the "lotus" of the ancient world]
- Specific epithet:
- Botanical name: - Celtis australis A.Rich.
- Specific epithet: australis - A.Rich.
- Genus: Celtis () - C. Linnaeus, 1753 - Hackberry, sugarberry, bois inconnu [Classical Latin, Pliny's name for Celtis australis Linnaeus, the "lotus" of the ancient world]
- Family: Cannabaceae () - Augier, 1801 ex Martinov, 1820, nom. cons. - hemp
- Order: Rosales () - Perleb, 1826
- Superorder: Urticanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : A.Rich. Publication : Tent. Fl. Abyss . 2: 257 1850
Members of the genus Celtis
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 31 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
C. australis (European Hackberry) · C. bungeana (Hackberry) · C. ehrenbergiana (Spiny Hackberry) · C. iguanaea (Iguana Hackberry) · C. jessoensis (Japanese Hackberry) · C. julianae (Julian Hackberry) · C. laevigata (Net-Leaf Hackberry) · C. laevigata reticulata (Netleaf Hackberry) · C. laevigata var. brevipes (Sugar Hackberry) · C. laevigata var. laevigata (Sugarberry) · C. laevigata var. reticulata (Netleaf Hackberry) · C. laevigata var. texana (Texas Sugarberry) · C. laevigata 'All Seasons' (Sugar Hackberry) · C. lindheimeri (Lindheimer Hackberry) · C. occidentalis (American Hackberry) · C. occidentalis L. var. occidentalis L. (Common Hackberry) · C. occidentalis L. var. pumila (Pursh) A.Gray (Common Hackberry) · C. occidentalis var. canina (Common Hackberry) · C. occidentalis var. occidentalis (Western Hackberry) · C. occidentalis var. pumila (Dwarf Hackberry) · C. occidentalis 'Chicagoland' (American Hackberry) · C. occidentalis 'Delta' (American Hackberry) · C. occidentalis 'Prairie Pride' (American Hackberry) · C. occidentalis 'Windy City' (American Hackberry) · C. pallida (Capul) · C. reticulata var. reticulata (Netleaf Hackberry) · C. sinensis (Chinese Elm) · C. sinensis 'Green Cascade' (Chinese Elm) · C. tenuifolia (Dwarf Hackberry) · C. tournefortii (Oriental Hackberry) · C. trinervia (Almex)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 11, 2007:
- Australian National Herbarium
- , Australian National Herbarium
- Bundesamt für Naturschutz / Zentralstelle für Phytodiversität Deutschland, Bundesamt fuer Naturschutz / Zentralstelle fuer Phytodiversitaet Deutschland
- Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien, Conservatoire botanique national du Bassin parisien
- European Environment Agency, EUNIS
- Forest Research Institute, Department of Natural Forests, Herbarium
- GBIF-Spain, BDBCV BioBlitz in Penyagolosa
- GBIF-Spain, Dirección General de Investigación, Desarrollo Tecnológico e Innovación de la Junta de Extremadura(DGIDTI): HSS
- GBIF-Spain, Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Montes, UPM: EMMA
- GBIF-Spain, Herbario Universidad de Málaga: MGC-Cormófitos
- GBIF-Spain, Hortus Botanicus Sollerensis Herbarium
- GBIF-Spain, Institut Botanic de Barcelona, BC
- GBIF-Spain, Universidad de Almería, HUAL
- Israel Nature and Parks Authority, Israel Nature and Parks Authority
- Marine Science Institute, UCSB, Paleobiology Database
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- National Herbarium of New South Wales, NSW herbarium collection
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Lund Botanical Museum
- Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum
- inatura - Erlebnis Naturschau Dornbirn, inatura - Erlebnis Naturschau Dornbirn
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2676193
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-565053
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13727278
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:851000-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 9757
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 565053
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 851000-1
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: CEAU8
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 29299
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- Mean = 533.130 meters (1,749.114 feet), Standard Deviation = 805.410 based on 157 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]