Common Names in English:
American Bittersweet, Climbing Bittersweet, Staffvine, Waxwork
The Celastraceae are trees and shrubs comprising about 50 genera and 800 species that are sometimes climbing or vining. The leaves are simple and alternate or opposite; stipules are small and caducous or absent. The flowers are bisexual or sometimes functionally unisexual , actinomorphic , and are small and often greenish. The calyx comprises 4 or 5 usually basally connate sepals. The corolla is rarely absent or more commonly consists of 4 or 5 distinct petals. The androecium consists of 4 or 5 or rarely 10 distinct stamens that alternate with the petals. The gynoecium is a single compound pistil of 2-5 carpels, a single short style, and a superior or rarely half inferior ovary with 2-5 locules, each containing usually 2 axile ovules. An annular nectary disk surrounds and is usually adnate to the ovary. The fruit is a capsule, berry, samara, or drupe. -- Gerald Carr.
, deciduous, dioecious or polygamo-dioecious
. Leaves alternate, thin or subcoriaceous; stipules minute, deciduous, sometimes absent, deeply serrate. Flowers small, whitish-green, in terminal
cymes, 4-5-merous. Male flowers: stamens 4-5, about as long as the petals, inserted
on the edge
of the disc with a vistigial pistil. Female flowers: staminodes 4-5, ovary 2-4-lobed, 2-4-celled; ovules 1-2 in each cell
. Capsule 3-celled, dehiscing by 3 valves
; seeds 1-2 in each cell, each enclosed in a fleshy
A tropical and a subtropical genus of about 30 species, mostly in N. America, Asia, Madagascar and Australia. One species has been reported from Pakistan.
Habit: Vine • Growth Form: Thicket Forming • Shape and Orientation: Columnar
Flowers: Bloom Period: Spring • Flower Color: White • Flower Conspicuous: No
Seeds: Seed per Pound: 26080 • Seed Spread Rate: Moderate • Seedling Vigor: Medium • Fruit/Seed Abundance: High • Fruit/Seed Color: Orange • Fruit/Seed Conspicuous: Yes • Cold Stratification Required: Yes
Foliage: Foliage Color: Green • Foliage Texture: Coarse • Fall Conspicuous: Yes • Leaf Retention: No
Active Growth Period: Spring and Summer • Growth Rate: Rapid • Mature Height (feet): 2.0 • Maximum Height at 20 Years (feet): 2 • Size: 20-30' tall. • Vegetative Spread Rate: Rapid • Lifespan: Lifespan
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,044 meters (0 to 6,706 feet).
Duration: Perennial • Coppice Potential: No • Progagated by Bulbs: No • Propagated by Bare Root: Yes • Propagated by Container: Yes • Propagated by Corms: No • Propagated by Cuttings: No • Propagated by Seed: Yes • Propagated by Sod: No • Propagated by Sprigs: No • Propagated by Tubers: No • Fruit/Seed Period Begin: Summer • Fruit/Seed Period End: Fall • Fruit/Seed Persistence: No
Culture: Space 4-6' apart.
Soil: Adapted to Medium Textured: Adapted to Medium Textured Soils • Adapted to Coarse Textured Soils: Yes • Anaerobic Tolerance: None • Salinity Tolerance: None • CaCO3 Tolerance: Medium • Minimum pH: 5.0 • Maximum pH: 7.5 • Fertility Requirement: Medium
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade. • Shade Tolerance: Tolerant
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: Medium • Minimum Precipitation: 30 • Maximum Precipitation: 60 • Moisture Use: High
Temperature: Minimum Temperature (F): -38 • Minimum Frost Free Days: 110 • Cold Hardiness: 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Celastranae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 24-Jul-2003
Members of the genus Celastrus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 8 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
C. flagellaris (Flagellaris Staff Tree) · C. gemmatus (Chinese Bittersweet) · C. loeseneri (Chinese Bittersweet) · C. orbiculatus (Asian Bittersweet) · C. orbiculatus 'Diana' (Chinese Bittersweet) · C. orbiculatus 'Hercules' (Oriental Bittersweet) · C. scadens (American Bittersweet) · C. scandens (American Bittersweet)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 18, 2007:
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2651754
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-27974
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13776969
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:160503-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 9727
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 27974
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 160503-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDCEL03020
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: CESC
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 29285
- "Celastrus". in Flora of Pakistan Page 13. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 300.540 meters (986.024 feet), Standard Deviation = 202.560 based on 2,115 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]