Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
Snowbrush, Snowbrush Ceanothus, Snowbush, Tobacco Brush Ceanothus, Tobacco Ceanothus
Common Names in unspecified:
Snowbrush Ceanothus, Snowbush
Deciduous or evergreen
, often thorny trees
, woody climbers
, or lianas, rarely herbs. Leaves simple
, alternate or opposite, pinnately veined or 3-5-veined, entire to serrate, sometimes much reduced; stipules small, caducous
, sometimes transformed into spines. Flowers yellowish to greenish, rarely brightly colored
, small, bisexual
, rarely polygamous, (4 or) 5-merous, hypogynous to epigynous
, in mostly axillary
, sessile or pedunculate
cymes, or reduced to few in fascicles. Calyx tube
or hemispherical to tubular
, sometimes absent, at rim
with calyx, corolla, and stamens; sepals 4 or 5, valvate
in bud, triangular, erect
or ± recurved during anthesis
, adaxially often distinctly keeled
, alternate with petals. Petals 4 or 5, rarely absent, usually smaller than sepals, concave
, rarely nearly flat, often shortly clawed. Stamens 4 or 5, antepetalous
and often ± enclosed by petals; filaments
of petals; anthers
minute, versatile or not, 2(or 4) -celled, dehiscing by longitudinal
slits, usually introrse
. Disk intrastaminal
, thin to ± fleshy
, entire or lobed
or rarely pubescent
from ovary or tightly surrounding it, or adnate to calyx tube. Ovary superior to inferior, (1 or) 2-4-loculed, with 1(or 2) ovules per locule; ovules anatropous
, basal and erect; styles simple or ± deeply 3-lobed or 3-cleft. Fruit either an indehiscent, rarely explosively dehiscent
, sometimes winged
, schizocarpic capsule, or a ± fleshy drupe with 1-4 indehiscent, rarely dehiscent, pyrenes (stones
) . Seeds with thin, oily albumen, sometimes exalbuminous
; embryo large, oily, straight or rarely bent.
About 50 genera and more than 900 species: almost cosmopolitan , mainly in subtropical to tropical areas; 13 genera and 137 species (82 endemic, one introduced ) in China.
Former classifications usually placed Rhamnaceae in the Rhamnales, together with Vitaceae and Leeaceae (Suessenguth in Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2, 20d. 1953), or together with Elaeagnaceae (Thorne, Bot. Rev. 58: 225-348. 1992) . Orders such as Celastrales, Urticales, and Euphorbiales have often been considered as closely related groups. Recent analyses of DNA sequences strongly supported including the family in the Rosales, beside the closest relatives Barbeyaceae and Dirachmaceae (see Angiosperm Phylogeny Group II, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 141: 399-436. 2003) . Suessenguth (loc. cit. ) grouped the family into five tribes , mainly characterized by fruit characters. Richardson et al. (Kew Bull . 55: 311-340. 2000; Amer. J. Bot. 87: 1309-1324. 2000) revised this tribal classification on the basis of a phylogenetic analysis using rbcL and trnL-F sequences of the plastid genome. Now 11 tribes are recognized, of which four are represented in the Flora area.
The bark , leaves, and fruit of several species of Rhamnus have been used as laxatives , notably R. cathartica and R. frangula. Diverse Old World species of Rhamnus provide yellow and green dyes as well as drugs. Timber of Alphitonia, Colubrina, Hovenia, and Ziziphus species is used for construction, fine furniture, carving, lathework, and musical instruments. Many Ziziphus species yield edible fruit; among them, Z. jujuba (Chinese jujube) and Z. mauritiana (Indian jujube) are cultivated on a commercial scale. Hovenia dulcis is also grown for its edible, fleshy inflorescence stalks . Species of Hovenia, Paliurus, and Rhamnus are cultivated as ornamentals .
Habit: Tree , Shrub • Growth Form: Thicket Forming • Shape and Orientation: Semi-Erect
Flowers: Bloom Period: Early Summer • Flower Color: White • Flower Conspicuous: Yes
Seeds: Seed per Pound: 107919 • Seed Spread Rate: Moderate • Seedling Vigor: Low • Fruit/Seed Abundance: High • Fruit/Seed Color: Brown • Fruit/Seed Conspicuous: No • Cold Stratification Required: Yes
Foliage: Foliage Color: Green • Foliage Porosity Summer: Dense • Foliage Porosity Winter: Moderate • Foliage Texture: Medium • Fall Conspicuous: No • Leaf Retention: No
Active Growth Period: Spring and Summer • Growth Rate: Moderate • Mature Height (feet): 10.0 • Maximum Height at 20 Years (feet): 10 • Size: 24-36" tall. • Vegetative Spread Rate: Moderate • Lifespan: Lifespan
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 3,180 meters (0 to 10,433 feet).
Duration: Perennial • Coppice Potential: No • Progagated by Bulbs: No • Propagated by Bare Root: Yes • Propagated by Container: Yes • Propagated by Corms: No • Propagated by Cuttings: No • Propagated by Seed: Yes • Propagated by Sod: No • Propagated by Sprigs: No • Propagated by Tubers: No • Fruit/Seed Period Begin: Summer • Fruit/Seed Period End: Fall • Fruit/Seed Persistence: No
Soil: Adapted to Medium Textured: Adapted to Medium Textured Soils • Adapted to Coarse Textured Soils: Yes • Anaerobic Tolerance: None • Salinity Tolerance: None • CaCO3 Tolerance: High • Minimum pH: 6.5 • Maximum pH: 8.3 • Fertility Requirement: Medium
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun . • Shade Tolerance: Intolerant
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: Low • Minimum Precipitation: 14 • Maximum Precipitation: 40 • Moisture Use: Medium
Temperature: Minimum Temperature (F): -23 • Minimum Frost Free Days: 120
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Rhamnanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Ceanothus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 161 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
C. americanus (Ceanothus) · C. arboreus (Catalina Ceanothus) · C. arboreus 'Trewithen Blue' (Feltleaf Ceanothus) · C. arcuatus (Arching Ceanothus) · C. bakeri (Baker's Ceanothus) · C. coeruleus (Azure Ceanothus) · C. confusus (Rincon Ridge Ceanothus) · C. connivens (Trailing Buckbrush) · C. cordulatus (Mountain Whitethorn) · C. crassifolius (Hoary-Leaf Whitethorn) · C. cuneatus (Buckbrush) · C. cuneatus var. cuneatus (Buckbrush) · C. cuneatus var. fascicularis (Buck Brush Ceanothus) · C. cuneatus var. ramulosus (Buckbrush Ceanothus) · C. cuneatus var. rigidus (Monterey Ceanothus) · C. cyaneus (San Diego Buckbrush) · C. dentatus (Cropleaf Ceanothus) · C. divergens (Calistoga Ceanothus) · C. divergens 'Burtonensis' (Crop-Leaf Ceanothus) · C. diversifolius (Pine Mat Ceanothus) · C. fendleri (Ceanothus) · C. ferrisae (Coyote Ceanothus) · C. ferrisiae (Coyote Ceanothus) · C. flexilis (Flexible Ceanothus) · C. foliosus (Wavy-Leaf Whitethorn) · C. foliosus var. foliosus (Wavyleaf Ceanothus) · C. foliosus var. medius (Wavyleaf Buckbrush) · C. foliosus var. vineatus (Vine Hill Ceanothus) · C. fresnensis (Fresno Ceanothus) · C. gloriosus (Holly Ceanothus) · C. gloriosus var. exaltatus (Glory Brush Ceanothus) · C. gloriosus var. exaltatus 'Emily Brown' (Emily Brown Ceanothus) · C. gloriosus var. gloriosus (Point Reyes Ceanothus) · C. gloriosus var. porrectus (Mount Vision Ceanothus) · C. gloriosus 'Anchor Bay' (Holly Ceanothus) · C. greggii (Ceanothus) · C. greggii greggii (Ceanothus) · C. greggii greggii var. greggii (Mohave Desert Ceanothus) · C. greggii var. greggii (Desert Ceanothus) · C. greggii var. lanuginosa (Mohave Desert Ceanothus) · C. greggii var. perplexans (Cupleaf Ceanothus) · C. greggii var. vestitus (Mohave Ceanothus) · C. griseus (California Lilac) · C. griseus var. horizontalis 'Carmel Creeper' (California Lilac) · C. griseus var. horizontalis 'Diamond Heights' (Ceanothus) · C. griseus var. horizontalis 'Santa Ana' (California Lilac) · C. griseus var. horizontalis 'Yankee Point' (Ceanothus) · C. hearstiorum (Hearst Ranch Buckbrush) · C. herbaceus (Jersey Tea) · C. impressus (Santa Barbara Ceanothus) · C. impressus var. impressus (Santa Barbara Ceanothus) · C. impressus var. nipomensis (Santa Barbara Ceanothus) · C. impressus 'Puget Blue' (Santa Barbara Ceanothus) · C. incanus (Coast Whitethorn) · C. infestus (Junco) · C. integerrimus (Deer Brush) · C. integerrimus var. parvifolius (Deerbrush Ceanothus) · C. jepsonii (Jepson Ceanothus) · C. jepsonii var. albiflorus (Ceanothus) · C. jepsonii var. jepsonii (Jepson Ceanothus) · C. lemmoni (Lemmon's Ceanothus) · C. lemmonii (Ceanothus) · C. leucodermis (Chaparral Whitethorn) · C. lobbianus (Lobbian Ceanothus) · C. lorenzenii (Lorenzen's Ceanothus) · C. maritimus (Maritime Ceanothus) · C. maritimus 'Point Sierra' (Maratime Ceanothus) · C. martini (Martin Ceanothus) · C. martinii (Ceanothus) · C. masonii (Bolinas Ceanothus) · C. megacarpus (Big-Pod Ceanothus) · C. megacarpus var. insularis (Island Ceanothus) · C. megacarpus var. megacarpus (Bigpod Ceanothus) · C. mendocinensis (Mendocino Ceanothus) · C. microphyllus (Little-Leaf Whitethorn) · C. oliganthus (Hairy Ceanothus) · C. ophiochilus (Vail Lake Ceanothus) · C. otayensis (Otay Ceanothus) · C. palmeri (Palmer Ceanothus) · C. papillosus (Ceanothus) · C. papillosus roweanus (Wartleaf Ceanothus) · C. papillosus var. papillosus (Wartleaf Ceanothus) · C. papillosus var. roweanus (California Lilac) · C. papillosus var. roweanus 'Julia Phelps' (Ceanothus) · C. parryi (Ceanothus) · C. parvifolius (Ceanothus) · C. pinetorum (Ceanothus) · C. prostratus (Mahala Mats Ceanothus) · C. pumilus (Dwarf Ceanothus) · C. purpureus (Hollyleaf Ceanothus) · C. rigidus 'Snowball' (Monterey Ceanothus) · C. rodericki (Buckthorn) · C. roderickii (Pine Hill Ceanothus) · C. roweanus (Wartleaf Ceanothus) · C. rugosus (Rugose Ceanothus) · C. sanguineus (Oregon-Tea) · C. serpyllifolius (Coastal Plain Buckbrush) · C. serrulatus (Cascade Lake Ceanothus) · C. sonomensis (Sonoma Ceanothus) · C. sorediatus (Jim-Brush)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal February 02, 2008:
- Berkeley Natural History Museums, University and Jepson Herbaria DiGIR provider
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Oregon State University, Vascular Plant Collection
- School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, The Deaver Herbarium, Northern Arizona University
- US National Plant Germplasm System, United States National Plant Germplasm System Collection
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Washington Burke Museum, Vascular Plant Collection - University of Washington Herbarium
- Utah State University, USU-UTC Specimen Database
- Utah Valley State College
- , Utah Valley State College Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2652096
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-28517
- GRIN Nomen Number: 313601
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 28517
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 716969-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDRHA041H0
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: CEVEL CEVE
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 28759
- Yilin Chen & Carsten Schirarend "Rhamnaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 12 Page 115,355. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 1,312.260 meters (4,305.315 feet), Standard Deviation = 646.050 based on 705 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]