- Early settlers once used the leaves to make a pleasant tea.
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
Ceanothus, Jersey Tea, Jersey-Tea Ceanothus, Jerseytea, Mountain Sweet, Mountainsweet, New Jersey Tea, New Jersey-Tea, Red Root, Redroot, Redshank, Wild Snowball
Common Names in French:
Common Names in unspecified:
Jersey Tea, Jerseytea, New Jersey Tea
Deciduous or evergreen
, often thorny trees
, woody climbers
, or lianas, rarely herbs. Leaves simple
, alternate or opposite, pinnately veined or 3-5-veined, entire to serrate, sometimes much reduced; stipules small, caducous
, sometimes transformed into spines. Flowers yellowish to greenish, rarely brightly colored
, small, bisexual
, rarely polygamous, (4 or) 5-merous, hypogynous to epigynous
, in mostly axillary
, sessile or pedunculate
cymes, or reduced to few in fascicles. Calyx tube
or hemispherical to tubular
, sometimes absent, at rim
with calyx, corolla, and stamens; sepals 4 or 5, valvate
in bud, triangular, erect
or ± recurved during anthesis
, adaxially often distinctly keeled
, alternate with petals. Petals 4 or 5, rarely absent, usually smaller than sepals, concave
, rarely nearly flat, often shortly clawed. Stamens 4 or 5, antepetalous
and often ± enclosed by petals; filaments
of petals; anthers
minute, versatile or not, 2(or 4) -celled, dehiscing by longitudinal
slits, usually introrse
. Disk intrastaminal
, thin to ± fleshy
, entire or lobed
or rarely pubescent
from ovary or tightly surrounding it, or adnate to calyx tube. Ovary superior to inferior, (1 or) 2-4-loculed, with 1(or 2) ovules per locule; ovules anatropous
, basal and erect; styles simple or ± deeply 3-lobed or 3-cleft. Fruit either an indehiscent, rarely explosively dehiscent
, sometimes winged
, schizocarpic capsule, or a ± fleshy drupe with 1-4 indehiscent, rarely dehiscent, pyrenes (stones
) . Seeds with thin, oily albumen, sometimes exalbuminous
; embryo large, oily, straight or rarely bent.
About 50 genera and more than 900 species: almost cosmopolitan , mainly in subtropical to tropical areas; 13 genera and 137 species (82 endemic, one introduced ) in China.
Former classifications usually placed Rhamnaceae in the Rhamnales, together with Vitaceae and Leeaceae (Suessenguth in Engler & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 2, 20d. 1953), or together with Elaeagnaceae (Thorne, Bot. Rev. 58: 225-348. 1992) . Orders such as Celastrales, Urticales, and Euphorbiales have often been considered as closely related groups. Recent analyses of DNA sequences strongly supported including the family in the Rosales, beside the closest relatives Barbeyaceae and Dirachmaceae (see Angiosperm Phylogeny Group II, Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 141: 399-436. 2003) . Suessenguth (loc. cit. ) grouped the family into five tribes , mainly characterized by fruit characters. Richardson et al. (Kew Bull . 55: 311-340. 2000; Amer. J. Bot. 87: 1309-1324. 2000) revised this tribal classification on the basis of a phylogenetic analysis using rbcL and trnL-F sequences of the plastid genome. Now 11 tribes are recognized, of which four are represented in the Flora area.
The bark , leaves, and fruit of several species of Rhamnus have been used as laxatives , notably R. cathartica and R. frangula. Diverse Old World species of Rhamnus provide yellow and green dyes as well as drugs. Timber of Alphitonia, Colubrina, Hovenia, and Ziziphus species is used for construction, fine furniture, carving, lathework, and musical instruments. Many Ziziphus species yield edible fruit; among them, Z. jujuba (Chinese jujube) and Z. mauritiana (Indian jujube) are cultivated on a commercial scale. Hovenia dulcis is also grown for its edible, fleshy inflorescence stalks . Species of Hovenia, Paliurus, and Rhamnus are cultivated as ornamentals .
Habit: Subshrub , Shrub
Flowers: Bloom Period: March, April, May, June. • Flower Color: near white, white
Size: 36-48" tall.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,092 meters (0 to 3,583 feet).
Culture: Space 36-48" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.6 • Maximum pH: 7.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Sun to Partial Shade.
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Ceanothus americanus var. intermedius (Pursh) Torr. & Gray • Ceanothus americanus var. pitcheri Torr. & Gray • Ceanothus intermedius Pursh
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 15-Mar-2000
Members of the genus Ceanothus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 161 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
C. americanus (Ceanothus) · C. arboreus (Catalina Ceanothus) · C. arboreus 'Trewithen Blue' (Feltleaf Ceanothus) · C. arcuatus (Arching Ceanothus) · C. bakeri (Baker's Ceanothus) · C. coeruleus (Azure Ceanothus) · C. confusus (Rincon Ridge Ceanothus) · C. connivens (Trailing Buckbrush) · C. cordulatus (Mountain Whitethorn) · C. crassifolius (Hoary-Leaf Whitethorn) · C. cuneatus (Buckbrush) · C. cuneatus var. cuneatus (Buckbrush) · C. cuneatus var. fascicularis (Buck Brush Ceanothus) · C. cuneatus var. ramulosus (Buckbrush Ceanothus) · C. cuneatus var. rigidus (Monterey Ceanothus) · C. cyaneus (San Diego Buckbrush) · C. dentatus (Cropleaf Ceanothus) · C. divergens (Calistoga Ceanothus) · C. divergens 'Burtonensis' (Crop-Leaf Ceanothus) · C. diversifolius (Pine Mat Ceanothus) · C. fendleri (Ceanothus) · C. ferrisae (Coyote Ceanothus) · C. ferrisiae (Coyote Ceanothus) · C. flexilis (Flexible Ceanothus) · C. foliosus (Wavy-Leaf Whitethorn) · C. foliosus var. foliosus (Wavyleaf Ceanothus) · C. foliosus var. medius (Wavyleaf Buckbrush) · C. foliosus var. vineatus (Vine Hill Ceanothus) · C. fresnensis (Fresno Ceanothus) · C. gloriosus (Holly Ceanothus) · C. gloriosus var. exaltatus (Glory Brush Ceanothus) · C. gloriosus var. exaltatus 'Emily Brown' (Emily Brown Ceanothus) · C. gloriosus var. gloriosus (Point Reyes Ceanothus) · C. gloriosus var. porrectus (Mount Vision Ceanothus) · C. gloriosus 'Anchor Bay' (Holly Ceanothus) · C. greggii (Ceanothus) · C. greggii greggii (Ceanothus) · C. greggii greggii var. greggii (Mohave Desert Ceanothus) · C. greggii var. greggii (Desert Ceanothus) · C. greggii var. lanuginosa (Mohave Desert Ceanothus) · C. greggii var. perplexans (Cupleaf Ceanothus) · C. greggii var. vestitus (Mohave Ceanothus) · C. griseus (California Lilac) · C. griseus var. horizontalis 'Carmel Creeper' (California Lilac) · C. griseus var. horizontalis 'Diamond Heights' (Ceanothus) · C. griseus var. horizontalis 'Santa Ana' (California Lilac) · C. griseus var. horizontalis 'Yankee Point' (Ceanothus) · C. hearstiorum (Hearst Ranch Buckbrush) · C. herbaceus (Jersey Tea) · C. impressus (Santa Barbara Ceanothus) · C. impressus var. impressus (Santa Barbara Ceanothus) · C. impressus var. nipomensis (Santa Barbara Ceanothus) · C. impressus 'Puget Blue' (Santa Barbara Ceanothus) · C. incanus (Coast Whitethorn) · C. infestus (Junco) · C. integerrimus (Deer Brush) · C. integerrimus var. parvifolius (Deerbrush Ceanothus) · C. jepsonii (Jepson Ceanothus) · C. jepsonii var. albiflorus (Ceanothus) · C. jepsonii var. jepsonii (Jepson Ceanothus) · C. lemmoni (Lemmon's Ceanothus) · C. lemmonii (Ceanothus) · C. leucodermis (Chaparral Whitethorn) · C. lobbianus (Lobbian Ceanothus) · C. lorenzenii (Lorenzen's Ceanothus) · C. maritimus (Maritime Ceanothus) · C. maritimus 'Point Sierra' (Maratime Ceanothus) · C. martini (Martin Ceanothus) · C. martinii (Ceanothus) · C. masonii (Bolinas Ceanothus) · C. megacarpus (Big-Pod Ceanothus) · C. megacarpus var. insularis (Island Ceanothus) · C. megacarpus var. megacarpus (Bigpod Ceanothus) · C. mendocinensis (Mendocino Ceanothus) · C. microphyllus (Little-Leaf Whitethorn) · C. oliganthus (Hairy Ceanothus) · C. ophiochilus (Vail Lake Ceanothus) · C. otayensis (Otay Ceanothus) · C. palmeri (Palmer Ceanothus) · C. papillosus (Ceanothus) · C. papillosus roweanus (Wartleaf Ceanothus) · C. papillosus var. papillosus (Wartleaf Ceanothus) · C. papillosus var. roweanus (California Lilac) · C. papillosus var. roweanus 'Julia Phelps' (Ceanothus) · C. parryi (Ceanothus) · C. parvifolius (Ceanothus) · C. pinetorum (Ceanothus) · C. prostratus (Mahala Mats Ceanothus) · C. pumilus (Dwarf Ceanothus) · C. purpureus (Hollyleaf Ceanothus) · C. rigidus 'Snowball' (Monterey Ceanothus) · C. rodericki (Buckthorn) · C. roderickii (Pine Hill Ceanothus) · C. roweanus (Wartleaf Ceanothus) · C. rugosus (Rugose Ceanothus) · C. sanguineus (Oregon-Tea) · C. serpyllifolius (Coastal Plain Buckbrush) · C. serrulatus (Cascade Lake Ceanothus) · C. sonomensis (Sonoma Ceanothus) · C. sorediatus (Jim-Brush)
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- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:716751-1
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- Mean = 203.810 meters (668.668 feet), Standard Deviation = 171.870 based on 2,019 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]