or without evident stem, glabrous
, entirely submersed
, with both submersed and floating leaves, or with submersed stolons and emergent leaves, in fresh, brackish
, or marine
waters; turions rarely present. Stems rhizomatous
, with abbreviated
axis at nodes, or erect, leafy, elongate
. Leaves basal, alternate, opposite, or whorled
, sessile or petiolate
; stipules sometimes present, forming tubular
around stem; blade
entire or serrate; veins 1--many. Inflorescences axillary
, or scapose
, 1-flowered or cymose
, subtended by spathe
; spathe a 2-fid bract or pair of opposite bracts. Flowers unisexual
on same plants
or on different plants, often with rudiments
of opposite type, or bisexual
, rarely slightly zygomorphic; perianth epigynous
, mostly 6-parted, then differentiated into sepals and petals, rarely 3-parted, then petals absent in Thalassia and Halophila; stamens (0--) 2--many in 1 or more whorls (inner often staminodial), epigynous, distinct
or ± connate
; pollen spheric, in monads
or in slender chains; ovary 0--1, if present, inferior, 2--6[--16]-carpellate, 1-locular or falsely 6--9-locular; placentation parietal
. Fruits berrylike. Seeds many, fusiform
, or spheric; seed coat
, or echinate
Genera 17, species ca. 76 (10 genera, 14 species in the flora ) : nearly worldwide.
Hydrocharitaceae, like other members of the Alismatidae, have one or more (fewer than 20) scales (intravaginal squamules ) in the axils of their leaves. These scales (or hairs in some taxa) secrete mucilage and are without any venation . The structures are often referred to as "squamulae intravaginales" or "intravaginal scales" in the literature.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Subclass: Alismatidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : Willd. Publication : Mem. Acad. Berl. (1798) 89. t. i. f. 1
Members of the genus Caulinia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 0 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
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- A class-book of botany, designed for colleges, academies, and other seminaries. Illustrated by a flora of northern, middle, and western states; particularly of the United States north of the Capitol, lat. 38 3/4. Claremont, N. H., Manufacturing Co., S. Ide, agent, 1850. url p. 524.
- A class-book of botany: designed for colleges, academies, and other seminaries: in two parts: part I, The elements of botany: part II, The natural orders: illustrated by a flora of the northern, middle, and western states, particularly of the United States north of the Capitol, lat 38 3/4 / by Alphonso Wood. New York: A.S. Barnes & Burr; c1846. url p. 524.
- An illustrated flora of the Pacific States: Washington, Oregon, and California. Stanford University, Stanford University Press, 1923- url p. 541.
- An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions: from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia, and from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the 102d meridian / by Nathaniel Lord Britton and Hon. Addison Brown. New York: C. Scribner's sons, 1913. url p. 90.
- Annales du Jardin botanique de Buitenzorg. Leiden [etc.]: E. J. Brill [etc.] url p. 186.
- Annotated list of the ferns and flowering plants of New York state, by Homer D. House. Albany, The University of the state of New York, 1924. url p. 60.
- Annual report of the New Jersey State Museum. Trenton, N.J.: MacCrellish & Quigley, url p. 165.
- Botany of the United States north of Virginia; comprising descriptions of the flowering and fern-like plants hitherto found in those states. By Lewis C. Beck. New York, Harper & brothers, 1856. url p. 385.
- Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 49 1922 New York: Torrey Botanical Club, 1870-1996 url p. 35.
- Catalogue of scientific papers, 1800-1900. Compiled by the Royal Society of London. London, C.J. Clay and Sons, 1867-1902 [etc.] Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1914-25. url p. 726.
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 3 1892-1896 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 183, p. 587, p. 99.
- Flora cestrica: an herborizing companion for the young botanists of Chester County...Pennsylvania. Philadelphia, Lindsay & Blakiston, 1853. url p. 302.
- Flora of the U.S.S.R. [Springfield, Va.: Israel Program for Scientific Translations; 1968- url p. 213.
- Flora of the southern United States: containing an abridged description of the flowering plants and ferns of Tennessee, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida: arranged according to the natural system. The ferns by Prof. Daniel C. Eaton. New York, Ivison, Blakeman, 1889 [c1883] url p. 444.
- Flora of the state of Washington / by Charles V. Piper. Washington: G.P.O., 1906 url p. 99.
- Florula Bostoniensis. A collection of plants of Boston and its vicinity, with their generic and specific characters, principal synonyms, descriptions, places of growth, and time of flowering, and occasional remarks. Boston, C. C. Little and J. Brown, 1840. url p. 357.
- Florula bostoniensis. A collection of plants of Boston and its vicinity, with their generic and specific characters, principal synonyms, descriptions, places of growth, and time of flowering, and occasional remarks. Boston, C. C. Little and J. Brown, 1840. url p. 357.
- Handbook of flower pollination based upon Hermann Müller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects'; tr. by J.R. Ainsworth Davis. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1906. url p. 505.
- Handbook of flower pollination: based upon Hermann Mu?ller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects' / Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1906-09. url .
- History of Vermont, natural, civil and statistical, in three parts, with a new map of the state, and 200 engravings. Burlington, C. Goodrich, 1842. url p. 202.
- Journal of botany, British and foreign. 2 1864 London: Robert Hardwicke, 1863-1942. url p. 276.
- List of Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta growing without cultivation in northeastern North America. Prepared by a Committee of the Botanical Club, American Association for the Advancement of Science. New York, 1894. url p. 23.
- Manual of the botany of the northern United States: including the district east of the Mississippi and north of North Carolina and Tennessee, arranged according to the natural system / by Asa Gray. New York: Ivison, Phinney, Blakeman, 1868, c1867. url p. 483, p. 483.
- Natural history of New York. Albany: D. Appleton: 1842-1894. url p. 250, p. 250, p. 539.
- The American midland naturalist. Notre Dame, Ind., University of Notre Dame. url p. 365.
- The Metaspermae of the Minnesota Valley. A list of the higher seed-producing plants indigenous to the drainage-basin of the Minnesota River, Minneapolis[Harrison & Smith, State Printers]1892. url .
- The plants of Southern New Jersey with especial reference to the flora of the pine barrens and the geographic distribution of the species. Trenton, N. J., 1911. url .
- The plants of Southern New Jersey; with especial reference to the flora of the Pine Barrens and the geographic distribution of the species. Trenton, 1911. url p. 165.
- Transactions of the Linnean Society of London, 2nd series: Botany 5 1899 London. url p. 380, p. 403.
- Ancibor, E. 1979. Systematic anatomy of vegetative organs of the Hydrocharitaceae. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 78: 237--266.
- Catling, P. M. and W. G. Dore. 1982. Status and identification of Hydrocharis morsus-ranae and Limnobium spongia (Hydrocharitaceae) in northeastern North America. Rhodora 84: 523--545.
- Cook, C. D. K. 1982. Pollinating mechanisms in the Hydrocharitaceae. In: J.-J. Symoens et al., eds. 1982. Studies on Aquatic Vascular Plants. Brussels. Pp. 1--15.
- Godfrey, R. K. and J. W. Wooten. 1979. Aquatic and Wetland Plants of Southeastern United States:. Monocotyledons. Athens, Ga.
- Hartog, C. den. 1970. The Sea-grasses of the World. Amsterdam.
- The International Plant Names Index. Accessed Dec 27, 2011.