, deciduous or rarely evergreen
, dioecious, rarely polygamous. Leaves alternate, rarely subopposite, usually petiolate
; stipules persistent
. Catkins erect
or pendulous; each flower usually with a cupular disc or 1 or 2(or 3) nectariferous
. Male flowers with 2-many stamens; filaments
; to connate
2(or 4) -loculed, dehiscing longitudinally. Female flowers with 1 pistil, sessile or stipitate
; ovary superior, 1- or 2-loculed; ovules several to many, anatropous
, with a 1 integument; style 1, 2 in Chosenia; stigmas 2-4. Capsule dehiscing by 2-4(or 5) valves
; placenta and inside wall of ovary with long hairs
. Seeds 4-numerous, glabrous
; hairs and seeds simultaneously deciduous when capsule matures.
Three genera and about 620 species: mainly N hemisphere, a few in S hemisphere; three genera and 347 species (236 endemic) in China, including at least nine hybrids and at least one introduced species .
or small trees
. Leaves alternate, usually petiolate
; stipules usually small, caducous
, rarely larger and/or persistent
; leaf blade
usually pinnate-veined, sometimes 3-veined from base
, often with pellucid
dots and lines
at 10 × against light), margin
entire or toothed
. Flowers perigynous, bisexual
, small, usually clustered in axillary
, few- to many flowered, sessile or shortly pedunculate
fascicles, rarely solitary or in small cymes; bracts papery
or scalelike, generally ovate
, small, congested
at fascicle base to form a persistent cushion; pedicels usually present, articulate
, rarely flowers practically sessile. Sepals 4 or 5, imbricate, joined in basal part to form a shallow or deeper cup
above, cup never adnate
to ovary. Petals absent. Disk cuplike, adnate to inside of calyx tube
, free from ovary, rim
, or clavate
, usually hairy
, either in same row
as and alternating with stamens, or in an intrastaminal
row. Stamens (6-) 8-10(-12) ; filaments
on rim of disk cup. Ovary superior, 1-loculed; placentas 2-4, each with several ovules; style 1, entire or distally 3-branched, sometimes very short; stigma capitate, 3-lobed when style is entire. Capsule fleshy
to leathery, globose
or 3-angled when fresh, mostly 6-ribbed when dry, (2 or) 3(or 4) -valvate, dehisced valves
often naviculate; sepals, stamen filaments, disk, and disk lobes generally persistent at capsule base, style remnant often persistent at apex. Seeds several, ovoid
, aril completely covering seed, membranous or fleshy, often brightly colored
, soft, partly fimbriate.
About 180 species: tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Asia, Australia, North and South America, and the Pacific islands; seven species in China.
In Chinese species: flowers in axillary glomerules; disk lobes in same row as stamens; style entire; capsule fleshy.
More gatherings are needed for the genus from China, Myanmar, India, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam, from which more accurate, detailed, and standardized descriptions and keys can be drawn . Chinese material of Casearia kurzii, C. tardieuae, and C. velutina seems particularly scarce. Between some species, the flowers and fruit offer few diagnostic characters. The following key is tentative.
Biome: Terrestrial .
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Violanae () - R. Dahlgren Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : Bosser Publication : Adansonia s?r. 2, 19(3): 337 1980
Members of the genus Casearia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 9 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
C. aculeata (Rabo De Ranton) · C. arborea (Gia Verde) · C. decandra (Wild Honeytree) · C. guianensis (Guyanese Wild Coffee) · C. silvestris (Crackopen) · C. sylvestris (Crackopen) · C. sylvestris var. lingua (Wild-Sage) · C. sylvestris var. sylvestris (Wild-Sage) · C. sylvestris subsp. myricoides (Wild-Sage)
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- The World List of Threatened Trees WCMC, IUCN url p. 110.
- Wang Chan and Fang Cheng-fu, eds. 1984. Salicaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 20(2): 1-403.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
- IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. . Downloaded on January 28, 2012.
- Strahm, W. 1998. Casearia mauritiana. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloadedon 31January2012.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 7140503
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:365177-1
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 365177-1
- IUCN ID: 198186
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 1019402
- Cheng-fu Fang, Shi-dong Zhao & Alexei K. Skvortsov "Salicaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 4 Page 139. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Casearia". in Flora of China Vol. 13 Page 113, 114, 133. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Strahm, W. 1998. Casearia mauritiana. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. <www.iucnredlist.org>. Downloaded on 31 January 2012. [back]