Common Names in English:
or rarely shrubs
, deciduous, semievergreen, or evergreen
, monoecious or rarely dioecious; bark
tight (or exfoliating) . Branchlets
with solid or chambered
buds subglobose or ovoid
, naked or with scales
. Stipules absent. Leaves alternate (or opposite), odd- or even-pinnate, sometimes trifoliolate
, rarely simple
, peltate scales, often resinous
, particularly conspicuous
abaxially on young leaves and twigs
serrate or rarely entire. Inflorescences pendulous or sometimes erect
or terminal, on reduced shoots
arising on branchlets of previous year (old growth) or on current
yearâ€™s growth (new growth), of several types: androgynous panicle with male, lateral spikes and female, central spike; androgynous panicle with male, mainly lateral spikes and female, central spike male at apex; cluster
of male spikes and solitary female spike; or solitary male and female spikes. Flowers unisexual
, rarely entomophilous. Male flowers subtended by an entire or 3-lobed bract; bracteoles 2 or absent; sepals 0-4, adnate
to receptacle when present; stamens 3-40(-100), inserted
on receptacle; filaments
short to nearly absent, free
, 2-loculed, dehiscing longitudinally. Female flowers with an entire or 3-lobed bracts; bracteoles 2 or 3 (or absent) ; sepals 0-4, adnate to ovary, free at apex; gynoecium of 2 carpels united into an inferior ovary
, 1-loculed, but at base 2-4(-8) -loculed; style 1, short or elongate
, rarely absent; stigmas 2, carinal or commissural
, sometimes 4-lobed, plumose
; ovule 1, orthotropous
. Fruiting spike elongate, and pendulous or short and erect, rarely conelike. Fruit a drupelike nut, 2-4(-8) -chambered at base, with a dehiscent
or indehiscent husk
, or a 2- or 3-winged or disc-winged nutlet
. Seed solitary, without endosperm. Cotyledons 4-lobed, much contorted. Germination hypogeal or epigeal. 2n = (28), 32, (64) .
Nine genera and 60 or more species: mostly in temperate and subtropical regions of the N hemisphere; seven genera (one endemic) and 20 species (seven endemic, one introduced ) in China.
, rarely shrubs
, 3-52 m.
gray or brownish, smooth
in younger trees, becoming ridged
and sometimes deeply furrowed
or exfoliating with small platelike scales
or long strips or broad plates
greenish, orangish, reddish, or rusty brown, or bronze, terete
, slender or stout, pubescent
; leaf scars
or 3-lobed, large; pith
solid and homogeneous
. Bud scales valvate
or imbricate, glabrous or variously pubescent; axillary buds protected by pair of valvate bracteoles (i.e.
, prophylls) or bracteoles fused into hood
. Leaves odd-pinnate; petiole
pubescent and/or scaly or glabrous. Leaflets
, distal leaflets largest, 2-26 Ã— 1-14 cm; surfaces abaxially with nonglandular hairs
(unicellular common to all species, fasciculate with 2-8 rays in 1 rank, multiradiate
with 8-17 rays in 2 ranks
) and glandular
scales (capitate-glandular and large peltate scales common to all species; small peltate scales round
, irregular, or 2- or 4-lobed), adaxially with scattered
hairs and scattered to abundant scales in spring
or concentrated along midrib
and secondary veins to essentially glabrous in the fall
catkins in fascicles of 3 (except sect. Rhamphocarya of se Asia) from 1st-, sometimes 2d-year twigs, sessile or pedunculate
; stamens 3-10(-15) per flower, with or without hairs. Pistillate
flowers in terminal
few-flowered spikes. Fruits nuts enclosed in husks
or not compressed, husks completely or partially dehiscing, sutures smooth or winged
; nuts brown, reddish brown, or tan, sometimes mottled
with black or tan, compressed or not compressed, angled
or not angled, smooth, rugulose
, or verrucose
thin or thick. Seeds sweet or bitter
Species 18: e North America, Mexico, e Asia.
Carya was widespread during the Tertiary; fossils have been reported from the states of Colorado and Washington, and from China, Japan, Europe, and western Siberia. Today two sections of the genus occur in southeastern Asia (sect. Rhamphocarya and sect. Sinocarya ) and two in North America (sect. Apocarya, the so-called pecan hickories, and sect. Carya, the true hickories). Both 2 n = 32 and 2 n = 64 chromosome numbers are known for the genus; tetraploidy, however, is confined to sect. Carya.
The commercial use of Carya is substantial. The cultivated pecan, C. illinoinensis, is the most important nut tree native to North America, and the wood of the true hickories is unequaled for its use in tool handles because of the combined strength and shock resistance. Hickory nuts are also an important, high-quality food source for wildlife because they are high in proteins and fats. Carya cordiformis, C. glabra, and C. ovata are grown extensively in central Europe for timber.
Characters of the buds and bark are taxonomically important in Carya, but shoots with terminal buds and information about bark characteristics are frequently absent on herbarium specimens. Phenotypic variation from tree to tree is often considerable and difficult to quantify. Most of this variation undoubtedly results from adaptation to local and regional conditions; hybridization has probably played a subtle role as well. Sympatry of two or more species is common, and artificial pollinations suggest that even diploid × tetraploid crosses produce viable seed.
Habit: Tree • Growth Form: Single Stem • Shape and Orientation: Erect
Flowers: Bloom Period: Mid Spring • Flower Color: Yellow • Flower Conspicuous: No
Seeds: Seed per Pound: 90 • Seed Spread Rate: Slow • Seedling Vigor: Low • Fruit/Seed Abundance: Medium • Fruit/Seed Color: Brown • Fruit/Seed Conspicuous: Yes • Cold Stratification Required: Yes
Foliage: Foliage Color: Green • Foliage Porosity Summer: Dense • Foliage Porosity Winter: Porous • Foliage Texture: Coarse • Fall Conspicuous: Yes • Leaf Retention: No
Active Growth Period: Spring and Summer • Growth Rate: Slow • Mature Height (feet): 100.0 • Maximum Height at 20 Years (feet): 18 • Size: over 40' tall. • Vegetative Spread Rate: None • Lifespan: Lifespan
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,092 meters (0 to 3,583 feet).
Duration: Perennial • Coppice Potential: No • Progagated by Bulbs: No • Propagated by Bare Root: Yes • Propagated by Container: Yes • Propagated by Corms: No • Propagated by Cuttings: No • Propagated by Seed: Yes • Propagated by Sod: No • Propagated by Sprigs: No • Propagated by Tubers: No • Fruit/Seed Period Begin: Summer • Fruit/Seed Period End: Fall • Fruit/Seed Persistence: No
Culture: Space over 40' apart.
Soil: Adapted to Medium Textured: Adapted to Medium Textured Soils • Adapted to Coarse Textured Soils: Yes • Anaerobic Tolerance: None • Salinity Tolerance: None • CaCO3 Tolerance: High • Minimum pH: 6.5 • Maximum pH: 7.4 • Fertility Requirement: Medium
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun . • Shade Tolerance: Intolerant
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: Medium • Minimum Precipitation: 30 • Maximum Precipitation: 60 • Moisture Use: Medium
Temperature: Minimum Temperature (F): -28 • Minimum Frost Free Days: 125 • Cold Hardiness: 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Order: Fagales () - Engler, 1892
- Superorder: Juglandanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Carya tomentosa (Lam. Ex Poir.) Nutt. • Carya tomentosa var. subcoriacea (Sarg.) Palmer & Steyermark • Hicoria tomentosa (Lam. Ex Poir.) Raf. • Juglans alba L. P. P.
Members of the genus Carya
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 207 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
C. alba (Mockernut Hickory) · C. aquatica (Bitter Pecan) · C. brownii (Brown's Hickory) · C. carolinae-septentrionalis (Southern Shagbark Hickory) · C. cathayensis (Chinese Hickory) · C. collina (Collin Hickory) · C. cordiformis (Bitternut Hickory) · C. demareei (Demaree Hickory) · C. dunbarii (Dunbar's Hickory) · C. floridana (Florida Hickory) · C. glabra (Pignut Hickory) · C. glabra megacarpa (Pignut Hickory) · C. glabra var. glabra (Pignut Hickory) · C. glabra var. glabra (P.Mill.) Sweet (Pignut Hickory) · C. glabra var. hirsuta (Pignut Hickory) · C. glabra var. megacarpa (Pignut Hickory) · C. illinoensis (Northern Pecan Carya Illinoensis) · C. illinoiensis 'Aggie' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Alley' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Amling' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Apache' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Barton' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Bests Early' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Blunk' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Bolds' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Boltens S-24' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Brake' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Brooks' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Burkett' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Busseron' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Caddo' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Campell 4' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Candy' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Canton' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Cape Fear' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Carlson #3' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Carlson Center' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Carmichael' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Centennial' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Cherokee' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Cherryle' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Chetopa' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Cheyenne' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Chickasaw' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Chief' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Choctaw' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Clark' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Colby' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Comanche' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Converse Major' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Cowley' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Coy' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Creek' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Curtis' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Davis' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Delmas' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Dependable' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Desirable' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Devore' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Doc Smith' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Dooley' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Elliott' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'El Mart' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Evers' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Farley' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Fisher' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Forkert' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Frotscher' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'F. W. Anderson' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Gage' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Gibson' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Giles' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Glen Minor' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Gloria Grande' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Gormely' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Govett' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Grabohls' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Gracross' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Graking' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Grapark Giant' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Gratex' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Grazona' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Greenriver' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Grotjan' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Halbert' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Halsly' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Harper' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Harris Super' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Hastings' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Havens' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Hirschi' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Hodge' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Hopi' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Houma' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Howell' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Humble' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Iago' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Ideal' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Imperial' (Pecan) · C. illinoiensis 'Indiana' (Pecan)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 21, 2007:
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2665999
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-501306
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13758451
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:442142-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 100438
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 501306
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 442141-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDJUG010G0
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: CAAL27
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 23964
- Anmin Lu, Donald E. Stone & L. J. Grauke "Juglandaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 4 Page 277. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Donald E. Stone "Carya". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 191.160 meters (627.165 feet), Standard Deviation = 192.470 based on 2,000 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]