The largest family of flowering plants , the Compositae (Asteraceae), comprising about 1,100 genera and more than 20,000 species and characterized by many small flowers arranged in a head looking like a single flower and subtended by an involucre of bracts. A head may consist of both ray flowers and disk flowers, as in the sunflower, of disk flowers only, as in the burdock, or of ray flowers only, as in the dandelion.
or perennials, 30-180 cm. herbage
to ± glandular
and/or ± tomentose
. Stems usually erect
, branched distally or throughout, (leafy). Leaves basal and cauline or all cauline; basal and proximal
cauline winged-petiolate, distal cauline sessile, sometimes clasping
to pinnately lobed
, ± spiny
glabrous or ± glandlar and/or ± tomentose. Heads discoid
, borne singly or in few-headed cymiform arrays. Involucres ovoid
distally. Phyllaries many in 4-5 series. linear
(at least outer ± leaflike), bases
, apical appendages
more herbaceous, prominently veiny
, spiny-dentate or -lobed, spine. tipped. Receptacles convex
to conic, epaleate, bearing subulate
. Florets 15-60+. corollas yellow to red or ± purple, tubes
very slender, throats
gradually or abruptly expanded, ± cylindric
or short-campanulate, lobes
bases short-tailed, apical appendages oblong
; style branches: fused portions with slightly swollen basal nodes minutely hairy
, distally minutely papillate
portions very short. Cypselae oblong to obpyramidal
, ± 4-angled, apices with smooth
or dentate rims, faces usually ± roughened (outer) or smooth (inner), glabrous, attachment scar
; pappi 0 or (usually only inner cypselae) ± persistent
, of many, usually unequal, narrow scales overlapping in several series. x = 10, 12.
Species 14: introduced ; United States; Mediterranean region.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Order: Asterales () - Lindley, 1833
- Superorder: Campanulanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Carthamus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 10 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
C. baeticus baeticus (Smooth Distaff Thistle) · C. lanatus (Distaff Thistle) · C. lanatus baeticus (Distaff Thistle) · C. lanatus lanatus (Woolly Distaff Thistle) · C. leucocaulos (Distaff Thistle) · C. oxyacantha (Jeweled Distaff Thistle) · C. oxyacanthus (Wild Safflower) · C. tinctorius (American Saffron) · C. tinctorius 'Grenade Mix' (American Saffron) · C. tinctorius 'Magestic Orange' (American Saffron)
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- A handbook of tropical gardening and planting, with special reference to Ceylon, by H. F. Macmillan. .. Colombo, H.W. Cave & co., 1914. url p. 562.
- A student's text-book of botany / by Sydney H. Vines. London: Macmillan, 1895. url p. 664.
- A student's text-book of botany, by Sydney H. Vines. With 483 illustrations. London, Macmillan & co., 1896. url .
- Analytical class-book of botany, designed for academies and private students. In two parts: Part 1. Elements of vegetable structure and physiology. By Frances H. Green. Part 11. Systematic botany: illustrated by a compendious flora of the northern states. By Joseph W. Congdon. London, D. Appleton, 1855. url p. 98.
- Analytical class-book of botany: designed for academies and private students. In two parts: Part 1. Elements of vegetable structure and physiology / by Frances H. Green. Part 11. Systematic botany, by Joseph W. Congdon. New York: D. Appleton, 1856. url p. 98.
- Biology of deserts: the proceedings of a symposium on the biology of hot and cold deserts organized by the Institute of Biology / edited by J.L. Cloudsley-Thompson. London: Institute of Biology; 1954. url p. 72.
- Botany for high schools and colleges / by Charles E. Bessey. New York: H. Holt, 1883, c1880. url p. 512.
- Botany. New York, Holt, 1889. url p. 512.
- Bulletin - United States National Museum. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, [etc.];1877-1971. url p. 126.
- Bulletin of the Essex Institute. Salem, Mass., Essex Institute. url p. 6.
- Bulletin of the New York Botanical Garden. Lancaster, Pa.: Published for the Garden by the New Era Printing Co., url p. 54.
- C. E. Hobbs Botanical hand-book of common local, English, botanical and pharmacopial names arranged in alphabetical order, of most of the crude vegetable drugs, etc., in common use. Especially designed as a reference book for druggists and apothecaries. Comp. and pub. by Charles E. Hobbs. Boston, Printed by C.C. Roberts, 1876. url p. 80.
- C.E. Hobbs' Botanical hand-book: of common local, English, botanical and pharmacopœial names arranged in alphabetical order, of most of the crude vegetable drugs, etc., in common use: their properties, productions and uses in an abb Boston: Printed by C.C. Roberts, 1876. url , , .
- Diseases of plants induced by cryptogamic parasites: introduction to the study of pathogenic Fungi, slime-Fungi, bacteria, & Algae / London; Longmans, Green & co., 1897. url .
- Garden flowers; how to cultivate them. A treatise on the culture of hardy ornamental trees, shrubs, annuals, herbaceous and bedding plants. By Edward Sprague Rand, jr.... New York, Hurd and Houghton, 1876. url p. 91.
- Guide to the Economic Museum of the New York Botanical Garden. New York, 1921. url p. 54.
- Memoir on the physical and political geography of New Granada. New York, T. Dwight, 1853. url p. 101.
- Old-fashioned gardening; a history and a reconstruction, New York, McBride, Nast & company, 1913. url .
- Phantom flowers, a treatise on the art of producing skeleton leaves. Boston, J. E. Tilton, 1864. url .
- Popular science monthly. New York: D. Appleton, 1872-1950. url p. 284.
- Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. Washington, etc.: Entomological Society of Washington url p. 33.
- Reports of the Director. .. / Experimental Farms. Ottawa: Experimental Farms, 1888-1916. url p. 328.
- Some south Indian insects and other animals of importance considered especially from an economic point of view / by T. Bainbrigge Fletcher. Madras, Printed by the superintendent, government press, 1914. url p. 260, p. 486.
- Structural and systematic botany: being an arrangement of plants, forming a basis for the study of botany, either on the Linnaean or natural systems. London, C. Griffin[pref. 1855] url p. 195, p. 54.
- The commercial products of the vegetable kingdom, considered in their various uses to man and in their relation to the arts and manufactures; forming a practical treatise and handbook of reference for the colonist, manufacturer, merchant, and consume London, Day, 1854. url p. 652.
- The exploitation of plants / London: J. M. Dent & Sons, Ltd., 1917. url .
- Ashri, A. and P. F. Knowles. 1959. Further notes on Carthamus in California. Leafl. W. Bot. 9: 5-8.
- Ashri, A. and P. F. Knowles. 1960. Cytogenetics of safflower (Carthamus L.) species and their hybrids. Agron. J. 52: 11-17.
- Hanelt, P. 1963. Monographisch Übersicht der Gattung Carthamus L. (Compositae). Feddes Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. 67: 41-180.
- Hanelt, P. 1976. Carthamus. In: T. G. Tutin et al., eds. 1964-1980. Flora Europaea. 5 vols. Cambridge. Vol. 4, pp. 302-303.
- Khidir, M. O. and P. F. Knowles. 1970b. Cytogenetic studies of Carthamus species (Compositae) with 32 pairs of chromosomes. II. Intersectional hybridization. Canad. J. Genet. Cytol. 12: 90-99.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.