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Carissa boiviniana


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Family Apocynaceae

Trees , shrubs , or vines , rarely subshrubs or herbs, with latex or rarely watery juice. Leaves simple , opposite, rarely whorled or alternate, pinnately veined; stipules absent or rarely present. Inflorescences cymose , terminal or axillary , with bracteoles. Flowers bisexual , 5- [or 4]-merous, actinomorphic . Calyx 5- or rarely 4-partite, quincuncial, basal glands usually present. Corolla 5- or rarely 4-lobed, salverform , funnelform , urceolate , or rarely rotate, lobes overlapping to right or left, rarely valvate . Stamens 5 or rarely 4; filaments short; anthers mostly sagittate , free or connivent into a cone adherent to pistil head , dehiscing longitudinally, base rounded , cordate, sagittate, or prolonged into an empty spur; pollen granular ; disc ringlike or cup-shaped, 2-5-lobed, or absent. Ovaries superior, rarely half-inferior, connate or distinct , 1- or 2-locular; ovules (1 or) 2-numerous per locule. Style 1; pistil head capitate, conical , or lampshade-shaped, base stigmatic, apex 2-cleft and not stigmatic . Fruit a berry, drupe, capsule, or follicle. Seeds with or without coma; endosperm thick and often horny , scanty, sometimes absent; embryo straight or nearly so, cotyledons often large, radicle terete .

About 155 genera and 2000 species distributed primarily in the tropics and subtropics, poorly represented in the temperate regions . Of the 44 genera and 145 species present in China, one genus and 38 species are endemic, and nearly 95% of the taxa grow in the southern and southwestern portions of the country.

Fruit type is highly diversified in the family , and it is diagnostic of many genera. Genera 1-4 produce 1, 2-celled berries from a flower; genus 5 produces 2, 1-celled berries from a flower; 6 and 7 produce mostly fleshy follicles containing deeply indented seeds with ruminate endosperm; 8 has follicles and winged seeds; 9 produces follicles and seeds with 2 comas; 10-12 have follicles with globose seeds; 13-18 have drupes mostly with fleshy mesocarp; 19 has samaroid fruit; 20 has spiny capsules with seeds winged all around; and 21-44 have free or fused follicles and comose seeds. Double flowers are known only from cultivated forms of Nerium oleander, Tabernaemontana divaricata, and Wrightia religiosa.

Plants of the Apocynaceae are often poisonous and are rich in alkaloids or glycosides, especially in the seeds and latex. Some species are valuable sources of medicine, insecticides , fibers, and rubber.[1]

Genus Carissa

Shrubs , climbers , or small trees , mostly spiny . Branches dichotomous. Leaves opposite; petiole 2-3 mm. Cymes terminal or axillary , dichotomous, pedunculate , usually many flowered. Flowers 5- [or 4]-merous. Calyx without glands or rarely with many basal glands inside. Corolla salverform , tube cylindric , dilated at staminal insertion , lobes overlapping to left or to right . Stamens included in throat ; anthers lanceolate, obtuse or apiculate , base not appendaged; disc absent. Ovary 2-loculed; ovules 1-4 in each locule, rarely numerous , biseriate . Style filiform ; pistil head narrowly oblong or fusiform , apex shortly 2-cleft. Berries 1- or 2-loculed. Seeds 2 or more, peltate; endosperm fleshy ; cotyledons ovate , radicle inferior.

About 30 species: tropics and subtropics of Africa, Asia, and Australia; four species in China.[2]


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Basionym : Clusiaceae Leioclusia boiviniana Baill.

Basionym author: (Baill.)

Basionym: Clusiaceae Leioclusia boiviniana Baill.

Basionym author: (Baill.)

Similar Species

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Members of the genus Carissa

ZipcodeZoo has pages for 13 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:

C. bispinosa zambesiensis (Hedgethorn) · C. carandas (Karanda) · C. edulis (Egyptian Carissa) · C. grandiflora 'Tomlinsonii' (Tomlinsonii Natal-Plum) · C. macrocarpa (Amatungulu) · C. macrocarpa 'Boxwood Beauty' (Compact Natal Plum) · C. macrocarpa 'Emerald Blanket' (Natal Plum) · C. macrocarpa 'Fancy' (Fancy Natal Plum) · C. macrocarpa 'Nana' (Dwarf Natal Plum) · C. macrocarpa 'Tomlinson' (Natal Plum) · C. macrocarpa 'Tuttle' (Tuttle's Natal Plum) · C. macrocarpa 'Variegata' (Natal Plum) · C. spinarum (Conkerberry)

More Info

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Further Reading

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  1. Bingtao Li, Antony J. M. Leeuwenberg & David J. Middleton "Apocynaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 143. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at [back]
  2. "Carissa". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 146. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at [back]
Last Revised: 2/1/2015