The largest family of flowering plants , the Compositae (Asteraceae), comprising about 1,100 genera and more than 20,000 species and characterized by many small flowers arranged in a head looking like a single flower and subtended by an involucre of bracts. A head may consist of both ray flowers and disk flowers, as in the sunflower, of disk flowers only, as in the burdock, or of ray flowers only, as in the dandelion.
or biennials [perennials
], 30-200(-400) cm. spiny
, ± tomentose
, sometimes glabrate
. Stems erect
to much branched, (spiny-winged) . Leaves basal and cauline; petiolate
or sessile; blade
spiny dentate, often 1-2-pinnately lobed
. Heads discoid
, borne singly or 2-20 in dense clusters
arrays. (Peduncles naked or leafy-bracteate, spiny-winged or not winged
.) Involucres cylindric
to spheric. Phyllaries many in 7-10+ series, linear
to broadly ovate
, margins entire, apices ascending
, acute, spine-tipped. Receptacles flat, epaleate, bearing setiform
("flattened bristles"). Florets several-many; corollas white to pink or purple, ± bilateral
long, slender, throats
, abruptly expanded from tubes, lobes
bases sharply short-tailed, apical appendages
; style branches: fused portions with slightly, minutely puberulent
, swollen basal nodes, distally papillate
or glabrous, distinct
portions very short. Cypselae ovoid
, slightly compressed
, faces smooth
. glabrous, attachment scars
; pappi persistent
or falling in rings
. of many minutely barbed
, basally connate
or setiform, minutely barbed scales ("minutely flattened bristles"). x = 8, 9, 10, 11, 13.
Species ca. 90: introduced ; Eurasia , Africa.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Lindley, 1833
- Family: Compositae () - Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- Order: Asterales () - Lindley, 1833
- Superorder: Campanulanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Carduus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 11 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
C. acanthoides (Plumeless Thistle) · C. crispus (Curled Plumless-Thistle) · C. nutans (Chardon Penche) · C. nutans macrocephalus (Musk Thistle) · C. nutans macrolepis (Chardon Penche) · C. nutans var. litoralis (Nodding Thistle) · C. orthocephalus (Plumeless Thistle) · C. pycnocephalus (Compact-Headed Thistle) · C. scariosus (Meadow Thistle) · C. tenuiflorus (Italian Thistle) · C. x orthocephalus (Plumeless Thistle)
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- Gray's new manual of botany: a handbook of the flowering plants and ferns of the central and northeastern United States and adjacent Canada / Asa Gray; rearranged and extensively revised by Benjamin Lincoln Robinson and Merritt Lyndon Fernald. New York: American Book Company, c1908. url p. 858.
- Handbook of the flora of Philadelphia and vicinity, containing data relating to the plants within the following radius: eastern Pennsylvania, north to the Blue mountains, and west to the Susquehanna; all of New Jersey except the northern counties; and Philadelphia, Philadelphia Botanical Club, 1905. url .
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- Notes on the distribution and bibliography of North American bees of the families, Apidae, Meliponidae, Bombidae, Euglossidae, and Anthophoridae, New York1920 url p. 542, p. 601.
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- Proceedings of the Rochester Academy of Science. Rochester, N.Y.: The Academy.1889- url p. 79.
- Psyche. Cambridge, Mass.: Cambridge Entomological Club url , p. 18.
- Publication. Field Columbian Museum. Chicago.: Field Columbian Museum, 1895-1909. url p. 233.
- Report of the Geological Survey of Ohio. Columbus, Nevins & Myers, state printers, 1873-93. url .
- Report of the State Botanist. Albany, N.Y.: University of the State of New York, 1898-1925. url p. 160.
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- The Metaspermae of the Minnesota Valley. A list of the higher seed-producing plants indigenous to the drainage-basin of the Minnesota River, Minneapolis[Harrison & Smith, State Printers]1892. url .
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- The flora of Long Island. Lancaster, Pa.New Era Print., 1899. url .
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- The plants of Southern New Jersey; with especial reference to the flora of the Pine Barrens and the geographic distribution of the species. Trenton, 1911. url p. 50.
- The plants of southern New Jersey; with especial reference to the flora of the pine barrens and the geographic distribution of the species. Trenton, 1911. url p. 50.
- Transactions of the Academy of Science of St. Louis. [St. Louis: Academy of Science of St. Louis], 1860-1958. url p. 505.
- Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences. New York: New York Academy of Sciences. url p. 20.
- Batra, S. W. T., J. R. Coulson, P. H. Dunn, and P. E. Boldt. 1981. Insects and Fungi Associated with Carduus Thistles (Compositae). Washington. [U.S.D.A. Techn. Bull. 1616.]
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- Desrochers, A. M., J. F. Bain, and S. I. Warwick. 1988b. The biology of Canadian weeds. 89. Carduus nutans L. and Carduus acanthoides L. Canad. J. Plant Sci. 68: 10531068.
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- Kazmi, S. M. A. 1964. Revision der Gattung Carduus Compositae). Teil II. Mitt. Bot. Staatssaml. München 5: 279550.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 10524282
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 15108442
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:188903-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 3033813