- Nodding thistle is one of the most serious weeds in North America. It is unpalatable to wildlife and livestock and often forms dense, impenetrable stands in pastures and rangelands. It readily colonizes disturbed sites in many different habitats . A single large terminal head can produce as many as 1200 cypselae. Efforts to control musk thistle infestations with Rhinocyllus conicus, a European seed head weevil, have met with some success, but concerns have been raised because this parasite also attacks native Cirsium species. [source]
- This flower is pretty, but the leaves are terribly prickly. Farmers HATE thistles, they ruin their livestocks' fields . It is actually against the law to have this plant on your property in some states!
- Thistles are composite flowers, in the Aster family .
- Despite their nasty reputation, they do have their redeeming qualities --- they provide nectar for butterflies, bees, and other insects and the tiny seeds are favorites of small birds like goldfinches.
- This flower is pretty, but the leaves are terribly prickly. Farmers HATE thistles, they ruin their livestocks' fields. It is actually against the law to have this plant on your property in some states! W
- Thistles are composite flowers, in the Aster family.
- Despite their nasty reputation, they do have their redeeming qualities --- they provide nectar for butterflies, bees, and other insects and the tiny seeds are favorites of small birds like goldfinches.
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
Chardon Penche, Musk Thistle, Nodding Plumeless Thistle, Nodding Plumeless-Thistle, Nodding Thistle, Plumeless Thistle
Common Names in French:
Chardon Pench, Chardon Penché
Common Names in Portuguese:
The largest family of flowering plants , the Compositae (Asteraceae), comprising about 1,100 genera and more than 20,000 species and characterized by many small flowers arranged in a head looking like a single flower and subtended by an involucre of bracts. A head may consist of both ray flowers and disk flowers, as in the sunflower, of disk flowers only, as in the burdock, or of ray flowers only, as in the dandelion.
or biennials [perennials
], 30-200(-400) cm. spiny
, ± tomentose
, sometimes glabrate
. Stems erect
to much branched, (spiny-winged) . Leaves basal and cauline; petiolate
or sessile; blade
spiny dentate, often 1-2-pinnately lobed
. Heads discoid
, borne singly or 2-20 in dense clusters
arrays. (Peduncles naked or leafy-bracteate, spiny-winged or not winged
.) Involucres cylindric
to spheric. Phyllaries many in 7-10+ series, linear
to broadly ovate
, margins entire, apices ascending
, acute, spine-tipped. Receptacles flat, epaleate, bearing setiform
("flattened bristles"). Florets several-many; corollas white to pink or purple, ± bilateral
long, slender, throats
, abruptly expanded from tubes, lobes
bases sharply short-tailed, apical appendages
; style branches: fused portions with slightly, minutely puberulent
, swollen basal nodes, distally papillate
or glabrous, distinct
portions very short. Cypselae ovoid
, slightly compressed
, faces smooth
. glabrous, attachment scars
; pappi persistent
or falling in rings
. of many minutely barbed
, basally connate
or setiform, minutely barbed scales ("minutely flattened bristles"). x = 8, 9, 10, 11, 13.
Species ca. 90: introduced ; Eurasia , Africa.
Species Carduus nutans
or biennials, 40-200+ cm. Stems glabrous
teeth of wings
to 10 mm, wing spines 2-10 mm.
tapering to winged
10-40 cm, margins
; cauline sessile, shorter, margins less divided
, glabrous or
. Heads borne singly or in corymbiform
sometimes a few axillary
, at least terminal
, often nodding
, 20-40 mm. Peduncles 2-30 cm, unwinged
distally or throughout, finely tomentose. Involucres hemispheric
20-60 mm × 20-70 mm. Phyllaries lanceolate to ovate
outer and middle
2-4 mm wide and spreading
2-7 mm wide, proximally glabrous or ±
tomentose, distally glabrous to minutely scabridulous
. spine tips
1-4 mm, inner phyllaries with unarmed
, straight or twisted tips.
Corollas purple, 15-28 mm, lobes
2.5-3 times longer
Cypselae golden to brown, 4-5 mm; pappus bristles
mm. 2n = 16. Flowering late spring-summer (May-Sep).
Carduus nutans is part of a variable complex that has been treated as one to several species or as a single species with several subspecies or varieties. The New World plants apparently represent multiple introductions, probably representing more than one of these taxa. Various intermediates are evident, and many specimens cannot be reliably assigned. Insufficient evidence exists to reliably apply the names of the various segregate entities to North American material . In a biosystematic study, two subspecies of C. nutans were differentiated in Canada (A. M. Desrochers et al. 1988). Subspecies nutans was characterized as having arachnoid phylla-ries with the terminal appendage only slightly wider than the appressed phyllary base, moderately to densely pubescent leaf bases, and a head diameter of 1.5-3.5 cm. Subspecies leiocephalus in contrast has glabrous phyllaries with the terminal appendage definitely wider than the base, glabrous or slightly pubescent bases, and heads 1.8-7 cm in diameter. Subspecies nutans was distributed in eastern Canada from Newfoundland to southern Ontario and subsp. leiocephalus from Ontario to British Columbia. Whether the results of the study (Desrochers et al.) are applicable to all the populations of musk thistles occurring in the United States has not been determined. [source]
Hybrids between Carduus acanthoides and C. nutans (C. ×orthocephalus Wallroth) have been documented from Ontario and Wisconsin and probably occur at other sites where the parental taxa co-occur. [source] Biennial (sometimes annual) up to eight feet tall, reproducing by seed only. Taproot large, fleshy , and hollow near soil surface. Stems tall, erect , and spiny , with spiny wings, lower portion branched. Leaves alternate, coarsely toothed , with prominent yellow spines. Flowers are large (as much as 2 in. across) on ends of long, nearly-naked stems, frequently drooping or nodding, purple to lavender. Bloom is in May or June, followed by seed production.
Flowers: Bloom Period: June, July, August, September. • Flower Color: magenta, pink
Size: 12-18" tall.
Aggressive weed of waste ground , pastures, roadsides, fields ; 0-3000 m ; introduced .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,043 meters (0 to 13,264 feet).
Ecology: Invasive: invades roadsides, pastures and open native habitats , hybridizes with Plumeless Thistle. Declared prohibited noxious weeds in Maryland. These weeds must be controlled by anyone owning or managing land within the State.
Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Culture: Space 24-36" apart.
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: High
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b, 11. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Lindley, 1833
- Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- Subfamily: Carduoideae ()
- Family: Compositae () - Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- Order: Asterales () - Lindley, 1833
- Superorder: Campanulanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue () - Brongniart, 1843
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 17-Nov-09
Members of the genus Carduus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 11 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
C. acanthoides (Plumeless Thistle) · C. crispus (Curled Plumless-Thistle) · C. nutans (Chardon Penche) · C. nutans macrocephalus (Musk Thistle) · C. nutans macrolepis (Chardon Penche) · C. nutans var. litoralis (Nodding Thistle) · C. orthocephalus (Plumeless Thistle) · C. pycnocephalus (Compact-Headed Thistle) · C. scariosus (Meadow Thistle) · C. tenuiflorus (Italian Thistle) · C. x orthocephalus (Plumeless Thistle)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- ... A preliminary catalogue of the flora of New Jersey. Comp. by N. L. Britton. .. with the assistance of eminent botanists. New Brunswick, Office of the survey, 1881. url p. 54.
- 1997 IUCN red list of threatened plants Cambridge: IUCN, World Conservation Union, 1998 url p. 155.
- A Flora of Berwick-upon-Tweed. By George Johnston, M.D. Edinburgh, J. Carfrae & Son; [etc., etc., ]1829-31. url p. 178.
- A Manual of botany: being an introduction to the study of the structure, physiology, and classification of plants / Edinburgh: A. and C. Black, 1875. url .
- A compendium of the Cybele britannica; or British plants in their geographical relations. London, Longmans, Green, Reader & Dyer, 1870. url .
- A contribution to the flora of Derbyshire being an account of the flowering plants, ferns, and Characeae found in the county / by W.H. Painter. London: George Bell, 1889. url p. 75.
- A dictionary of American plant names / compiled by Willard N. Clute. Joliet, Ill.: W.N. Clute, 1923. url p. 78.
- A dictionary of English names of plants applied in England and among English-speaking people to cultivated and wild plants, trees, and shrubs, by William Miller; in two parts, English-Latin and Latin-English. London, J. Murray, 1884. url p. 135.
- A flora of the English Lake District. London, G. Bell, 1885. url .
- A flora of the north-east of Ireland: including the Phanerogamia, the Cryptogamia vascularia, and the Muscineae / by Samuel Alexander Stewart and Thomas Hughes Corry. [Belfast]: Belfast Naturalists' Field Club; 1888. url p. 282, p. 330.
- A grammar of botany: illustrative of artificial, as well as natural classification: with an explanation of Jussieu's system / by Sir James Edward Smith. London: Longman, Ree, Orme, Brown, and Green, 1826. url , p. 42.
- A guide to the natural history of the Isle of Wight: a series of contributions by specialists relating to the various branches of natural history and kindred subjects / edited by Frank Morey. Newport, Isle of Wight: The County Press, 1909. url p. 157.
- A history of Longridge and district. By Tom. C. Smith. .. Preston: Printed by C.W. Whitehead, 1888. url p. 267.
- A manual of botany: being an introduction to the study of the structure, physiology, and classification of plants. By John Hutton Balfour. London: J. J. Griffin [etc.] 1851. url p. 564.
- A manual of the diseases of the camel and of his management and uses. .. Madras, Lawrence Asylum Press, 1890. url p. 150.
- A natural arrangement of British plants: according to their relations to each other as pointed out by Jussieu, De Candolle, Brown, &c.. .. / with an introduction to botany. .. By Samuel Frederick Gray. .. London: Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, 1821. url p. 436.
- A new British flora: British wild flowers in their natural haunts / described by A. R. Horwood; with sixty-four plates in colour representing 350 different plants, from drawings by J. N. Fitch and many illustrations from photographs. London: Gresham, 1919. url , p. 194, p. 196.
- A new British flora; British wild flowers in their natural haunts, described by A. R. Horwood, with 64 plates in col. representing 350 different plants, from drawings by J. N. Fitch and many illus. from photo. London, Gresham Pub. Co., 1919. url p. 194.
- A new London flora; or, Handbook to the botanical localities of the metropolitan districts. Compiled from the latest authorities, and from personal observations. London, Hardwick and Bogue, 1877. url p. 11, p. 129, p. 140, p. 142, p. 153, p. 176.
- A student's text-book of botany / by Sydney H. Vines. London: Macmillan, 1895. url p. 664.
- A student's text-book of botany, by Sydney H. Vines. With 483 illustrations. London, Macmillan & co., 1896. url .
- A system of physiological botany by Rev. P. Keith. .. Dublin: J. Cumming, 1816. url .
- Abstract of proceedings of the South London Entomological & Natural History Society. London [Eng.]: South London Entomological and Natural History Society, [1885-1896] url p. 132.
- Acta Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Fennica. Helsinki: Societas, 1875-1980. url p. 10, p. 103, p. 129, p. 21, p. 22, p. 49, p. 53, p. 55, p. 56, p. 87.
- Additions to the flora of Connecticut / E.B. Harger. .. [et al.]. Boston?: New England Botanical Club, 1917? url p. 252.
- An accentuated list of the British Lepidoptera, with hints on the derivation of the names. Published by the Entomological Societies of Oxford and Cambridge. London, J. Van Voorst, 1858. url .
- An account of the flowering plants, ferns and allies of Harleston. With a sketch of the geology, climate, and natural characteristics of the neighbourhood. Compiled and edited by Francis William Galpin. To which are added Observations on the birds of the district, by Charles Candler. London, Bartlett, 1888. url p. 30, p. 80.
- An elementary text-book of botany, by Sydney H. Vines. .. London: S. Sonnenschein & co., lim.;1898. url p. 581.
- An environmental profile of the Black Sea Coast WCMC url p. 13.
- An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions: from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia and from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the 102nd meridian / by Nathaniel Lord Britton and Hon. Addison Brown. New York: Scribner, 1913. url p. 554.
- An illustrated guide to the flowering plants of the middle Atlantic and New England states (excepting the grasses and sedges) the descriptive text written in familiar language, by George T. Stevens. .. with more than 1800 illustrations from drawings by the author. New York, Dodd, Mead and company, 1910. url p. 698.
- An illustration of the sexual system of Linnaeus / by Iohn Miller. London: The author, 1779-89. url p. 45.
- Anales de la Sociedad Española de Historia Natural. Madrid: La Sociedad, url p. 103, p. 171, p. 171.
- Annals of applied biology. [Wellesbourne, Warwick, etc.]Association of Applied Biologists [etc.] url p. 147, p. 168.
- Annals of natural history. London, R. and J.E. Taylor, url p. 238, p. 238, p. 238.
- Annotated list of the ferns and flowering plants of New York state, by Homer D. House. Albany, The University of the state of New York, 1924. url p. 745.
- Annual reports and proceedings of the Belfast Naturalists' Field Club. url p. 205, p. 376.
- Appendix C., vegetation/agricultural resources of the Beal Project area / prepared for Beal Mountain Mining, Inc.; prepared by Ken L. Scow, L. Dean Culwell. Helena, Mont.: Western Technology and Engineering,  url , p. 50.
- Bartonia;proceedings of the Philadelphia botanical club. .. 42 - 46 1973 - 19 Philadelphia, Philadelphia Botanical Club, Academy of Natural Sciences. url p. 13, p. 24, p. 30, p. 5, p. 8.
- Bemerkungen auf einer Reise in die südlichen Statthalterschaften des russischen Reichs in den Jahren 1793 und 1794 Leipzig: Bey Gottfried Martini, 1801. url .
- Botanical abstracts. Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Co. url p. 257.
- Botanical notes at Barton & Mildenhall, Suffolk / by Sir Charles J.F. Bunbury; edited by his wife. Mildenhall: Printed by S.R. Simpson, 1889 url p. 220, p. 255.
- Botanisk tidsskrift / utgivet af den Botaniske forening i København. København: G.E.C. Gads Forlag, 1866-1981. url p. 337.
- Botaniska notiser. Upsala: Wahlstro?m, 1857-c1980. url p. 39.
- British journal of entomology and natural history. [London]: British Entomological and Natural History Society, 1988- url , p. 162, p. 171.
- British wild flowers: familiarly described in the four seasons for the use of beginners and amateurs / by Thomas Moore. London, Reeve, 1867. url , p. 266, p. xxi.
- Budd's flora of the Canadian Prairie Provinces / [Ottawa]: Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, 1987. url p. 739.
- Bulletin - United States National Museum. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, [etc.];1877-1971. url p. 395, p. 396, p. 455.
- Bulletin of miscellaneous information /Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 1907 London: H.M. Stationery Office, 1900-1941. url p. 179.
- Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences. Buffalo, N.Y.: Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences, 1873- url p. 255.
- Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 20 1893 New York: Torrey Botanical Club, 1870-1996 url p. 241, p. 353, p. 357, p. 494, p. 589, p. 662.
- Butterflies and moths (British) / by W. Furneaux. London; Longmans, Green, 1897. url p. 245.
- Catalogue of Canadian plants. .. Montreal [etc.]1883-1902. url , p. 269, p. 269.
- Catalogue of scientific papers (1800-1900) Comp. by the Royal society of London. Cambridge, C. J. Clay and sons, 1867-1902; url p. 492.
- Catalogue of scientific papers, 1800-1900. Compiled by the Royal Society of London. London, C.J. Clay and Sons, 1867-1902 [etc.] Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1914-25. url p. 492.
- Checklist of plants of the Ottawa District. Ottawa, 1958. url p. 87.
- Chronological history of plants: man's record of his own existence illustrated through their names, uses, and companionship. Boston, Little, Brown & company, 1879. url .
- Cistula entomologica. London;E. W. Janson. url p. 333.
- Common and scientific names of weeds in Canada = Noms populaires et scientifiques des plantes nuisibles du Canada / Ottawa: Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada = Agriculture et agroalimentaire Canada, c2000. url p. 82.
- Common weeds of the Canadian Prairies; Ottawa, Queen's Printer, 1963. url p. 11, p. 15, p. 28, p. 67.
- Comparative anatomy of the vegetative organs of the phanerogams and ferns / by A. de Bary; translated and annotated by F.O. Bower and D.H. Scott; with 241 woodcuts and an index. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1884. url p. 150, p. 631.
- Compositae newsletter. Columbus, Ohio: Dept. of Botany, Ohio State University, 1975- url p. 25.
- Compte rendu du Congre?s international d'essais de semences. Discussions at the International Seed Testing Conference. Verhandlungen der Internationalen Konferenz fu?r Samenpru?fung a?/in Copenhague (Danemark), 6.- 10. VI. 1921. Hamburg, Druck von Lu?tcke & Wulff url .
- Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 21 1919 Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1890- url p. 292.
- Contributions from the herbarium of the Geological Survey of Canada / by James M. Macoun. [Ottawa?: s.n.], 1894-1906. url p. 170.
- Contributions to Canadian botany / by Jas. M. Macoun. Ottawa: [s. n.], 1894-1906. url p. 170.
- Contributions towards a Cybele hibernica, being outlines of the geographical distribution of plants in Ireland. Dublin.E. Ponsonby, 1898. url .
- Contributions towards a fauna and flora of the county of Cork, read at the meeting of the British association held at Cork in the year 1843. The Vertebrata by Dr. Harvey. The Mollusca, Crustacea and Echinodermata by J.D. Humphreys. The flora by Dr. Power. (Published by the Cuvierian society of Cork) London, J. Van Voorst, 1845. url p. 36.
- Cooperative economic insect report. Hyattsville, MD. [etc.]Plant Protection and Quarantine Programs Animal and Plant Health Service. url p. 129, p. 203.
- Cybele Britannica: or British Plants and their geographical relations. London, 1847-59. url p. 337, p. 475, p. 74.
- Dedication papers: scientific papers presented at the dedication of the laboratory building and plant houses, April 19-21, 1917. Brooklyn, N.Y.: Brooklyn Botanic Garden, 1918. url p. 369.
- Diseases of plants induced by cryptogamic parasites: introduction to the study of pathogenic Fungi, slime-Fungi, bacteria, & Algae / London; Longmans, Green & co., 1897. url .
- Early British botanists and their gardens, based on unpublished writings of Goodyer, Tradescant, and others, by R. T. Gunther. With nine plates and twenty-one other illustrations. Oxford, Printed by F. Hall for the author at the University Press, 1922. url p. 112.
- English botany, or, Coloured figures of British plants / edited by John T. Boswell Syme; the popular portion by Mrs. Lankester; the figures by J. Sowerby, J. de C. Sowerby, J.W. Salter, and John Edward Sowerby. London: R. Hardwicke, 1863-1886. url p. 23, p. 33.
- English botany, or, coloured figures of British plants / edited by John T. Boswell Syme; the popular portion by Mrs. Lankester; the figures by J. Sowerby, J. de C. Sowerby, J.W. Salter, and John Edward Sowerby. London: G. Bell, 1873. url p. 7, p. 9.
- Entomological news. [Philadelphia]American Entomological Society, 1925- url p. 118, p. 151, p. 193, p. 90, p. 95.
- Erigenia: journal of the Illinois Native Plant Society. Carbondale, Ill.: The Society, 1982- url p. 16, p. 23, p. 5, p. 55, p. 92.
- Familiar wild flowers figured and described by F. Edward Hulme. .. 1st- ser.. .. London, Cassell and company, limited, [1878- url p. 27.
- Field and woodland plants / by W. S. Furneaux. London; Longmans, Green, and Co., 1909 url p. 266.
- Field and woodland plants, by W.S. Furneaux. With 8 plates in colour, and numerous illustrations by Patten Wilson, and photographs from nature by the author. London, Longmans, Green, 1911. url p. 266, p. 376.
- Flora Orcadensis: containing the flowering plants arranged according to the natural orders / by Magnus Spence; and The mosses, by James Grant. Kirkwall: D. Spence, 1914. url p. 36.
- Flora Scotica; or, A description of Scottish plants, arranged both according to the artificial and natural methods. London, Printed by R. and A. Taylor, for A. Constable, 1821. url p. 235, p. 238.
- Flora hibernica, comprising the flowering plants, ferns, Characeæ, Musci, Hepaticæ, Lichenes and Algæ of Ireland, arranged according to the natural system with a synopsis of the genera according to the Linnæan system, by James Townsend Mackay. Dublin, Simpkin, Marshall and co.; [etc., etc.]1836. url p. 158.
- Flora hibernica: comprising the flowering plants, ferns, Characeæ, Musci, Hepaticæ, Lichenes and Algæ of Ireland: arranged according to the natural system with a synopsis of the genera according to the Linnæan system by James Townsend Mackay. Dublin: W. Curry jun., 1836. url p. 158.
- Flora metropolitana; or, Botanical rambles within thirty miles of London, being the results of numerous excursions made in 1833, 34, 35. .. intended for the student in practical botany. .. London, S. Highley, 1836. url p. 55, p. 96.
- Flora of Cambridgeshire; or, A catalogue of plants found in the county of Cambridge; with references to former catalogues, and the localities of the rarer species. London, J. Van Voorst, 1860. url , .
- Flora of Delaware and the Eastern Shore: an annotated list of the ferns and flowering plants of the peninsula of Delaware, Maryland and Virginia. [Wilmington]: Society of Natural History of Delaware, 1946. url p. 278.
- Flora of Derbyshire: flowering plants, higher cryptogams, mosses and hepatics, Characeae. London, Bemrose & Sons Ltd., 1903. url p. 189.
- Flora of Guernsey and the lesser Channel Islands: namely, Alderney, Sark, Herm, Jethou, and the adjacent islets. London, Dulau, 1901. url p. 120, p. 368, p. 427, p. 454.
- Flora of Illinois, containing keys for identification of flowering plants and ferns. Notre Dame, Ind., University of Notre Dame Press, 1963. url p. 269.
- Flora of Indiana, by Charles C. Deam. Indianapolis, Wm. B. Burford printing co., contractor for state printing and binding, 1940. url p. 1000, p. 999.
- Flora of Pennsylvania, Boston, Ginn & Company, 1903. url , .
- Flora of Pennsylvania. Edited with the addition of analytical keys by John Kunkel Small. Boston, Ginn & Co., 1903. url p. 340, p. 341.
- Flora of Plymouth: an account of the flowering plants and ferns found within twelve miles of the town; history of local botanical investigation. London, J. Van Voorst, 1880. url p. 193, p. 411.
- Flora of the Bristol coal-field. Edited (for the Bristol Naturalists' Society) by James Walter White. .. Bristol, J. Fawn & Son [etc.]1881- url p. 107.
- Flora of the District of Columbia and vicinity. By A.S. Hitchcock and Paul C. Standley, with the assistance of the botanists of Washington. WashingtonGovt. print. off.1919 url p. 292.
- Flora of the U.S.S.R. [Springfield, Va.: Israel Program for Scientific Translations; 1968- url p. 38, p. 5, p. 624, p. 626, p. 627.
- Flora of the vicinity of New York; a contribution to plant geography. [New York]1915 url p. 638.
- Flora scotica, or, A description of Scottish plants arranged both according to the artificial and natural methods: in two parts / by William Jackson Hooker. .. Edinburgh: A. Constable, 1821. url p. 534.
- Flora vectensis: being a systematic description of the phænogamous or flowering plants and ferns indigenous to the Isle of Wight. London, W. Pamplin, 1856. url .
- Flowers of the field, by the late Rev. C. A. Johns. London, Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1911. url p. 14, p. 276, p. 277.
- Flowers of the field. London, G. Routledge, 1908. url .
- Flowers of the field. London, Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge[186-?] url p. 348.
- Flowers of the field. Rev. throughout and edited by Clarence Elliott. With an appendix including the Pipe-wort tribe (Eriocauleae) the Sedge tribe (Cyperaceae) and the Grass tribe (Gramineae) LondonG. Routledge[n.d.] url p. 161.
- Freaks and marvels of plant life; or, Curiosities of vegetation. London, Soc. for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1882. url p. 454.
- Gardening for beginners; a handbook to the garden, by E.T. Cook. [London]"Country Life" [etc., 1914] url .
- General indexes to the thirty-six volumes of English botany: to which is added, an alphabetical index to English fungi: making together, a catalogue of indigenous British plants. London: J. Sowerby, 1814. url p. 11.
- Geological magazine. London [etc.]Cambridge University Press. url p. 11.
- Great Basin naturalist memoirs. 1987 [Provo, Utah]Brigham Young University, 1976-1992. url p. 161, p. 216.
- Ground beetles (Carabidae) of Fennoscandia: a zoogeographic study / by Carl H. Lindroth; Joachim Adis, scientific editor. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, 1989- url p. 85.
- Hampstead Hill: its structure, materials and sculpturing / by J. Logan Lobley; with The flora of Hampstead, by Henry T. Wharton; The insect fauna of Hampstead, by F. A. Walker; and The birds of Hampstead, by J. Edmund Haring. London: Roper and Drowley, 1889. url p. 76.
- Hampstead Hill; its structure, materials, and sculpturing. With The flora of Hampstead by Henry T. Wharton; The insect fauna of Hampstead, by F.A. Walker; and The birds of Hampstead, by J. Edmund Harting. LondonRoper and Drowley1889 url p. 76.
- Handbook of flower pollination based upon Hermann Müller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects'; tr. by J.R. Ainsworth Davis. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1906. url , , p. 563.
- Handbook of flower pollination: based upon Hermann Mu?ller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects' / Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1906-09. url , , , , .
- Handbook of the British flora: a description of the flowering plants and ferns indigenous to, or naturalized in, the British Isles. For the use of beginners and amateurs. By George Bentham. London: L. Reeve & Co., 1920. url p. 249.
- Handbook of the flora of Philadelphia and vicinity, containing data relating to the plants within the following radius: eastern Pennsylvania, north to the Blue mountains, and west to the Susquehanna; all of New Jersey except the northern counties; and Philadelphia, Philadelphia Botanical Club, 1905. url .
- Handbook to the natural history of Cambridgeshire, ed. by J.E. Marr. .. and A.E. Shipley. .. Cambridge, University press, 1904. url p. 223.
- Hardwicke's science-gossip: an illustrated medium of interchange and gossip for students and lovers of nature. London: Robert Hardwicke, 1866- url p. 139, p. 151, p. 172, p. 173, p. 211, p. 259, p. 284.
- Harper's guide to wild flowers, by Mrs. Caroline A. Creevey. New York, Harper, 1912. url , p. 366, p. 511, p. 524.
- Henderson's Handbook of plants and general horticulture / By Peter Henderson. New York, P. Henderson & Co., 1910. url p. 452.
- History and antiquities of Charnwood forest: with an appendix on the geology, botany & ornithology of the district. .. London: Hamilton, 1842. url p. 51.
- History of the Berwickshire Naturalists' Club, instituted September 22, 1831 [Vol. 1 of proceedings, corr. and reprinted] Alnwick, H.H. Blair, 1885. url p. 210.
- How to find and name wild flowers; being a new method of observing and identifying upwards of 1, 200 species of flowering plants in the British isles; with an introduction by F.E. hulme. .. illustrated by the author, and with four autochrome plates by H. Essenhigh Corke. .. London, Cassell[1906-1930] url p. 217.
- Humboldt; Monatsschrift für die gesamten Naturwissenschaften. Stuttgart, F. Enke, 1882-90. url p. 240.
- Iconographic encyclopaedia of science, literature, and art. systematically arranged by J.G. Heck. Translated from the German, with additions, and edited by Spencer F. Baird. .. illustrated by five hundred steel plates, containing upwards to twelve thousand en New York, R. Garrigue, 1851. url p. 43.
- Illinois River Bluffs area assessment / Illinois Department of Natural Resources, Office of Scientific Research and Analysis, [and the] State Geological Survey Division. Springfield, Ill.: Illinois Dept. of Natural Resources, 1998- url p. 164, p. 177.
- Illustrations of the British flora: a series of wood engravings, with dissections, of British plants. London, L. Reeve, 1919. url .
- International catalogue of scientific literature. London: Published for the International Council by the Royal Society of London, 1902-1919. url p. 455.
- International review of the science and practice of agriculture. Rome: International Institute of Agriculture, Bureau of Agricultural Intelligence and Plant Diseases, 1916-1926. url p. 1216.
- Introduction to botany, containing an explanation of the theory of that science, extracted from the works of Linnaeus, ed. by C. Stewart. Edinburgh, Bell, 1811. url p. 163.
- Introduction to the plant-life of the Oxford district. London, Milford, 1922-25. url p. 24, p. 26, p. 80.
- Jenaische Zeitschrift für Naturwissenschaft. Jena, Gustav Fischer [etc.]. url p. 260, p. 262, p. 285, p. 286, p. 287.
- Journal of Hymenoptera research. Washington, D.C.: International Society of Hymenopterists, [1992- url p. 201, p. 65.
- Journal of botany, British and foreign. London: Robert Hardwicke, 1863-1942. url , p. 106, p. 11, p. 11, p. 111, p. 163, p. 17, p. 178, p. 19, p. 195, p. 201, p. 21, p. 243, p. 26, p. 265, p. 266, p. 270, p. 270, p. 272, p. 276, p. 329, p. 336, p. 339, p. 339, p. 342, p. 345, p. 36, p. 360, p. 46, p. 46, p. 51, p. 52, p. 67, p. 73, p. 87, p. xix.
- Journal of ethnobiology. 8-9 1988-1989 Flagstaff, Ariz.: Center for Western Studies, 1981- url p. 187, p. 191.
- Journal of the New York Botanical Garden. 27 1926 Lancaster, Pa.: Published for the Garden by the New Era Printing Co., 1900- url p. 119.
- Journal of the Royal Institution of Cornwall. Truro, Eng., Workers of Cornwall Ltd. url p. 297.
- Journal of the Royal Microscopical Society. Oxford [etc.]Royal Microscopical Society. url p. 322, p. 493.
- Journal of the proceedings of the Linnean Society. Botany. 5 1861 London: Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans, & Roberts: ||Williams and Norgate, 1857-1864. url p. 40.
- Larva collecting and breeding: a handbook to the larvae of the British Macro-Lepidoptera and their food plants: both in nature and in confinement, with authorities / by J. Seymour St. John. London: W. Wesley, 1890 url p. 107.
- Leaflets of western botany. San Fransisco:[J. T. Howell], 1932-1966. url p. 19, p. 245.
- Life and letters of Alexander Goodman More, F.R.S.E., F.L.S., M.R.I.A., with selections from his zoological and botanical writings; ed. by C.B. Moffat, B.A., with a preface by Frances M. More. Dublin, Hodges, Figgis & co. (ltd.)1898. url p. 368, p. 507, p. 526, p. 72.
- List of New Brunswick plants by James Fowler. S.l.: s.n., 18-- url .
- List of Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta growing without cultivation in northeastern North America. Prepared by a Committee of the Botanical Club, American Association for the Advancement of Science. New York, 1894. url p. 344.
- Magazine of natural history and journal of zoology, botany, mineralogy, geology and meteorology. London: printed for Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, 1829-1837. url p. 167, p. 426, p. 636.
- Manual of British botany, containing the flowering plants and ferns. Arranged according to the natural orders. London, J. Van Voorst, 1856. url .
- Manual of British botany: containing the flowering plants and ferns arranged according to the natural orders / by Charles Cardale Babington. London: John Van Voorst, 1856. url p. 188.
- Manual of the New Zealand flora. By T. F. Cheeseman. .. Wellington, N. Z., J. Mackay, Govt. Printer, 1906. url p. 1078.
- Manual of the flora of the northern states and Canada / by Nathaniel Lord Britton. New York: Holt, 1905. url p. 1033.
- Martin's Natural history / Translated from the thirty-fifth German edition, by Sarah A. Myers; containing two hundred and sixty-two beautifully colored illustrations; First [and second] series. New York: Phinney, Blakeman & Mason, 1861- url p. 292.
- Memoirs / Brooklyn Botanic Garden. Brooklyn, N.Y.: The Garden, 1918-1936. url p. 369.
- Memoirs of the American Entomological Society. Philadelphia, American Entomological Society, 1916- url p. 113, p. 114, p. 117, p. 123, p. 124, p. 128, p. 141.
- Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden. New York: The Garden, 1900- url p. 638.
- Midland naturalist. London: Hardwicke and Bogue, 1878- url p. 253, p. 277, p. 77, p. 91, p. 93.
- Miscellaneous tracts relating to natural history, husbandry, and physick. To which is added The calendar of flora. London: R. and J. Dodsley, S. Baker, and T. Payne, 1762. url p. 279.
- Monitoring study of cirsium longistylum (long-styled thistle), a candidate threatened species / prepared by Bonnie L. Heidel. Helena: Montana Natural Heritage Program, 1994. url p. 10, p. 15.
- Muhlenbergia. Chico, Calif. [etc] url p. 350.
- Mémoires. Bruxelles, The Society. url p. 25.
- Natural history of Selborne & observations on nature / by Gilbert White; with the text and new letters of the Buckland edition; introduction by John Burroughs; illustrations by Clifton Johnson. New York, Appleton, 1895. url p. 226.
- Natural history of Selborne, and observations on nature / by Gilbert White; with the text and new letters of the Buckland edition; introduction by John Burroughs; illustrations by Clifton Johnson. Toronto: Musson Book Co., 1904. url p. 226.
- Nature. London, Macmillan. url p. 262, p. 543.
- Newman's entomologist. London: Simpkin, Marshall & Co., [1869-1876] url p. 134.
- Notes from the Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh. 2 1902 Edinburgh: H. M. Stationery Off. url p. 182, p. 28, p. 324, p. 423, p. 454, p. 464, p. 473.
- Odorographia: a natural history of raw materials and drugs used in the perfume industry: intended to serve growers, manufacturers and consumers / by J. Ch. Sawer. London: Gurney & Jackson, 1892-1894. url p. 19, p. 378.
- On the fauna and flora of the west of Scotland. Meeting at Glasgow, September, 1876. Glasgow, Blackie, 1876 url p. 65.
- On the popular names of British plants, being an explanation of the origin and meaning of the names of our indigenous and most commonly cultivated species. By R. C. A. Prior. London: Williams and Norgate, 1870. url p. 162, p. 207, p. 233.
- Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. London: Charles Knight, 1833- url p. 383.
- Pharmacographia Indica.by William Dymock, C.J.H. Warden, and David Hooper. 1890-1893 London: Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., 1893. url p. 15.
- Philosophical magazine. London: Taylor & Francis. url p. 17.
- Physiology at the farm in aid of rearing and feeding the live stock. Edinburgh and London, W. Blackwood and sons. url p. 398, p. xx.
- Phytologia memoirs. Plainfield, N.J.: H.N. Moldenke and A.L. Moldenke, 1980- url p. 566.
- Phytologia. Bronx Park, New York, H.A. Gleason and H.N. Moldenke, url p. 216, p. 271, p. 301, p. 306, p. 326, p. 334, p. 342, p. 369, p. 380, p. 394, p. 418, p. 461, p. 490, p. 86.
- Plant lore, legends, and lyrics. Embracing the myths, traditions, superstitions, and folk-lore of the plant kingdom. By Richard Folkard, jun. London, S. Low, Marston, Searle, and Rivington, 1884. url p. 562.
- Plants of the Punjab: a descriptive key to the flora of the Punjab, North-west Frontier Province, and Kashmir / by C.J. Bamber. Lahore: Supt. Govt. Printing, Punjab, 1916. url p. 368, p. 473, p. 5.
- Plants of the Punjab; a descriptive key to the flora of the Punjab, North-west Frontier Province and Kashmir. LahorePrinted by The Superintendent Government Printing1916 url p. 368, p. 473.
- Practical botany, structural and systematic, the latter portion being an analytical key to the wild flowering plants, trees, shrubs, ordinary herbs, sedges and grasses of the northern and middle United States east of t New York, H. Holt and Company, 1876. url , .
- Practical directory for the improvement of landed property. .. and the economic cultivation of its farms. Edinburgh, 1881. url p. 441.
- Principles of scientific botany, or, Botany as an inductive science by Dr. J.M. Schleiden. .. translated by Edwin Lankester. .. London: Printed for Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1849 url p. 406.
- Proceedings - Cambridge Philosophical Society. Cambridge [etc.]Cambridge Philosophical Society [etc.] url p. 230.
- Proceedings - Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society. Dorchester, Eng. url p. 39.
- Proceedings and transactions of the South London Entomological & Natural History Society. London: The Society. url p. 89.
- Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. Washington, Biological Society of Washington url p. 86, p. 86.
- Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. Washington, etc.: Entomological Society of Washington url p. 1016, p. 463, p. 511, p. 52, p. 578, p. 752, p. 758, p. 804, p. 961.
- Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. Dublin: Royal Irish Academy, 1841- url p. 107, p. 17, p. 18, p. 184, p. 29.
- Proceedings of the South London Entomological & Natural History Society. London [Eng]: South London Entomological and Natural history Society, [1897-1933] url p. 50.
- Proceedings. Halifax url p. 381.
- Psyche. Cambridge, Mass.: Cambridge Entomological Club url p. 275.
- Rambles in search of wild flowers, and how to distinguish them. London, Journal of horticulture and cottage gardener, 1864. url p. 165.
- Rambles of a naturalist round Folkestone: with occasional papers on the fauna and flora of the district, to which are added lists of plants, lepidoptera, birds, and land and freshwater shells / by Henry Ullyett. Folkestone: J. English, 1880. url p. 133.
- Range-wide status assessment of cirsium longistylum (long-styled thistle) / Helena: Montana Natural Heritage Program, c2004. url , , .
- Rapid ecological assessment of selected state lands in southcentral Montana for plant species of special concern / prepared by James P. Vanderhorst; prepared for Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks. Helena, MT: Montana Natural Heritage Program,  url p. 17.
- Report on the conservation status of Cirsium longistylum, a candidate threatened species / Lisa A. Schassberger. Helena, Mont.: Montana Natural Heritage Program, . url p. 21, p. 22, p. 27, p. 28, p. 29.
- Science and practice in farm cultivation. By James Buckman. London, R. Hardwicke, 1865. url p. 79.
- Science-gossip. Berlin: R. Friedländer & Sohn, -1902. url p. 117, p. 68.
- Science. New York, N.Y.: [s.n.]1880- url p. 86.
- Seeds handbook for agriculture, horticulture and forestry, with a key for the identification of the important agricultural seeds = Handbuch der Samenkunde für Landwirtschaft, Gartenbau und Forstwirtschaft, mit einem Schlussel zur Bestimmung der wichtigsten landwirtschaftlichen Samen / Walther Brouwen and Adolf Stahlin. [S.l.: s.n.], 1980. url p. 82.
- Sensitive plant species in weed management areas on the Helena National Forest: final report / Helena, Mont.: Montana Natural Heritage Program, c2002. url , .
- Sensitive plant species survey at the southern end of the Elkhorn Mountains, Broadwater and Jefferson Counties, Montana / prepared by Bonnie L. Heidel; prepared for Bureau of Land Management. Helena, MT: Montana Natural Heritage Program,  url .
- Sensitive plant species survey, Garfield and McCone Counties, Montana / prepared by Bonnie L. Heidel; prepared for Bureau of Land Management. Helena, MT: Montana Natural Heritage Program,  url .
- Sensitive plant survey in the Horse Prairie Creek drainage, Beaverhead County, Montana, Butte District, Bureau of Land Management / prepared by Jim Vanderhorst; prepared for United States Department of Interior, Bureau of Land management, Dillon Resource Area. Helena, Mont.: Montana Natural Heritage Program, c1995. url p. 38.
- Sensitive plant survey of the Sage Creek Area, Beaverhead County, Montana, Dillon Resource Area, Bureau of Land Management / prepared by Peter Lesica and Jim Vanderhorst; prepared for USDI Bureau of Land Management, Butte District. Helena, Mt.: Montana Natural Heritage Program,  url p. 37.
- Sensitive plant surveys in the Big Belt and Elkhorn Mountains, U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Region 1, Helena National Forest, Montana / prepared by Jackie M. Poole and Bonnie L. Heidel; prepared for Helena National Forest. Helena, Mont.: Montana Natural Heritage Program,  url , , , , , , .
- Sensitive plant surveys in the Gallatin National Forest, Montana / prepared by Jim Vanderhorst; prepared for U.S. Forest Service, Gallatin National Forest. Helena, MT: Montana Natural Heritage Program, . url p. 71.
- Special scientific report--wildlife / U.S. Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service. Washington, D.C.: The Service, 1949- url p. 113.
- Spixiana. 4 1981 München: Zoologische Staatssammlung München, 1977- url horstmann , p. 153, p. 217.
- Status review of Cirsium longistylum, U.S.D.A. Forest Service, Region 1 Lewis and Clark National Forest, Montana / Lisa A. Schassberger and Peter L. Achuff. Helena, Mont.: Montana Natural Heritage Program, . url p. 17, p. 22, p. 9, p. i.
- Taxonomic and demographic studies of Cirsium longistylum in the Little Belt Mountains, Montana / Lisa Schassberger Roe. Helena, Mont.: Montana Natural Heritage Program,  url p. i.
- Taxonomic literature: a selective guide to botanical publications and collections with dates, commentaries and types (TL2) Utrecht: Bohn, Scheltema & Holkema, 1976-1988. url p. 225.
- The American botanist and florist, including lessons in the structure, life growth of plants, together with a simple analytical flora, descriptive of the native and cultivated plants growing in the Atlantic division of the American uni New York, Barnes[n.d.] url p. 446.
- The American botanist and florist: including lessons in the structure, life, and growth of plants: together with a simple analytical flora, descriptive of the native and cultivated plants growing in the Atlantic division of the Americ by Alphonso Wood. New York: A. S. Barnes, 1877, c1870. url p. 446.
- The American farmer's encyclopedia and dictionary of rural affairs: embracing all the most recent discoveries in agricultural chemistry / adapted to the comprehension of unscientific readers by Gouverneur Emerson. Philadelphia: Carey and Hart, 1844. url p. 1034.
- The American farmer's encyclopedia: embracing all the recent discoveries in agricultural chemistry, and the use of mineral, vegetable and animal manures, with descriptions and figures of American insects, injurious to vegetation. Being by Gouverneur Emerson, of Pennsylvania, upon the basis of Johnson's Farmer's encyclopedia. New York: A.O. Moore, Agricultural Book Publisher, 1858, [c1857] url p. 1036.
- The American farmer's encyclopedia; embracing all the recent discoveries in agricultural chemistry, New York, A. O. Moore, 1858. url p. 1036.
- The Annals and magazine of natural history; zoology, botany, and geology being a continuation of the Annals combined with Loudon and Charlesworth's Magazine of Natural History. London, Taylor and Francis, Ltd. url p. 153, p. 153, p. 153, p. 182, p. 182, p. 197, p. 197, p. 200, p. 200, p. 331, p. 75, p. 75, p. 78.
- The Annals of Scottish natural history. Edinburgh: David Douglas, 1892-1911. url p. 105, p. 126, p. 126, p. 165, p. 176, p. 227, p. 48.
- The British flora: comprising the phaenogamous, or flowering plants and the ferns / by Sir William Jackson Hooker. London: Longman, Orme, Brown, Green & Longmans, 1838- url p. 296.
- The British herbal: an history of plants and trees, natives Britain, cultivated for use, or raised for beauty. /by John Hill, M.D. 1756 London: Printed for T. Osborne and J. Shipton [etc.]1756. url p. 427.
- The British nature book; a complete handbook and guide to British nature study, embracing the mammals, birds, reptiles, fish, insects, plants, etc., in the United Kingdom, by S.N. Sedgwick. .. Edinburgh, T.C. & E.C. Jack, Ltd., 1922. url p. 442.
- The British rust fungi (Uredinales), their biology and classification. Cambridge, Univ. Press, 1913. url p. 141.
- The Canadian entomologist. Ottawa [etc.]Entomological Society of Canada [etc.] url .
- The Canadian field-naturalist. Ottawa, Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club. url , mulligan & frankton , p. 106, p. 209, p. 213, p. 31, p. 328, p. 34, p. 343, p. 35, p. 474, p. 476, p. 479, p. 486, p. 90.
- The Coleoptera of the British islands: a descriptive account of the families, genera, and species indigenous to Great Britain and Ireland, with notes as to localities, habitats, etc. / by the Rev. W. W. Fowler. London: L. Reeve & co., 1887-1913. url p. 238, p. 244, p. 393.
- The Entomologist's monthly magazine. Oxford [etc.]Entomologist's Monthly Magazine Ltd. [etc.] url p. 130, p. 149, p. 157, p. 181, p. 258, p. 258, p. 89.
- The Entomologist's record and journal of variation. s.l., s.n. url p. 13, p. 2, p. 232, p. 30, p. 300, p. 57, p. 71, p. 72, p. 73, p. 76.
- The Entomologist. London: Simpkin, Marshall & Co., [1877- url p. 89.
- The Farmer's magazine. [London: Rogerson and Tuxford, 1834-1881. url p. 288, p. 374, p. 391, p. 487, p. 6.
- The Garden flowers of the year. LondonReligious Tract Society[1847?] url p. 138.
- The Garden: an illustrated weekly journal of gardening in all its branches. London: [s.n., url , p. 122, p. 402.
- The Gardener's monthly and horticulturist. Philadelphia, Pa.: Charles H. Marot, 1876-1888. url p. 381.
- The Gardener. Edinburgh;W. Blackwood and sons, 1867-1882. url p. 279.
- The Gardeners' chronicle and agricultural gazette. London: published for the proprietors, 1844-1873. url p. 298, p. 329, p. 436, p. 476.
- The Gardeners' chronicle. 1841 London: published for the proprietors, 1841-1843. url p. 583.
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url p. 13, p. 185, p. 207, p. 217, p. 23, p. 275, p. 298, p. 311, p. 336, p. 436, p. 59, p. 692, p. 75, p. 766.
- The Great Basin naturalist. 41 1981 Provo, Utah: M.L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University, 1939-1999. url p. 16, p. 231, p. 317.
- The Irish naturalist. Dublin: Eason & Son, Ltd., 1892- url p. 129, p. 214, p. 290, p. 332, p. 333.
- The Journal of agricultural science. Cambridge [Eng.]The University Press. url p. 510.
- The Journal of entomology: descriptive and geographical. London: Taylor and Francis, 1860-1866. url p. 14, p. 14, p. 15, p. 15.
- The Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. Bombay: The Society, url , p. 730.
- The Journal of the College of Science, Imperial University of Tokyo, Japan = Tokyo Teikoku Daigaku kiyo. Rika. Tokyo, Japan: The University, 1898-1925. url p. 528.
- The Journal of the Linnean Society. Botany. 38 1907-09 London: the Society: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts & Green: ||Williams and Norgate, 1865-1968. url p. 210, p. 217, p. 225, p. 95.
- The Magazine of natural history / conducted by Edward Charlesworth. [S.l.: s.n.], url p. 399, p. 73.
- The Manchester flora: a descriptive list of the plants growing wild within eighteen miles of Manchester, with notices of the plants commonly cultivated in gardens; preceded by an introduction to botany, by L. H. Grindon. London, W. White, 1859. url p. 543.
- The Naturalist. 1894 [Doncaster: Yorkshire Naturalists' Union], 1874- url p. 102, p. 148, p. 165, p. 256, p. 34, p. 35, p. 363, p. 53, p. 56, p. 97, p. 98.
- The New Forest: its history and its scenery / by John R. Wise; with 63 illustrations by Walter Crane; engraved by W.J. Linton. London: Gibbings, 1895. url p. 301.
- The Ottawa naturalist. Ottawa, Ottawa Field-Naturalists' Club. url p. 170, p. 170, p. 219, p. 219.
- The Phytologist: a botanical journal. London, William Pamplin, 1855-1863. url p. 102, p. 103, p. 106, p. 233, p. 279, p. 316, p. 323, p. 332, p. 340, p. 358, p. 36, p. 366, p. 387, p. 398, p. 546, p. 76.
- The Phytologist: a popular botanical miscellany. London, John van Voorst, 1844-56. url p. 134, p. 156, p. 208, p. 252, p. 280, p. 350, p. 411, p. 425, p. 504, p. 513, p. 632, p. 73, p. 735, p. 800, p. 801.
- The Proceedings and transactions of the Nova Scotian Institute of Science. Halifax, Nova Scotian Institute of Science. url p. 381.
- The Romance of wild flowers: a companion to the British flora / by Edward Step. London; Warne, 1899. url p. 192.
- The Scientific enquirer; a monthly medium for the supply of information on all scientific subjects. .. London [etc.]Bailliere, Tindall & Cox[1886-88] url p. 237.
- The Scientific proceedings of the Royal Dublin Society. Dublin: The Society, 1877- url p. 139.
- The Scottish botanical review. Edinburgh: Neill & Co., 1912. url p. 215.
- The Scottish naturalist. Perth [etc.]: Cowan & Co. [etc.], url p. 287, p. 54.
- The University of Kansas science bulletin. 39 1958 [Lawrence]: University of Kansas, 1902-1996. url p. 180.
- The Victoria history of the county of Warwick. London: Published for the University of London Institute of Historical Research by Dawsons of Pall Mall, 1965- url p. 46.
- The anthocyanin pigments of plants. By Muriel Wheldale. Cambridge, University Press, 1916. url p. 155, p. 307.
- The book of the seasons: or, The calendar of nature / by William Howitt. Philadelphia: Carey and Hart, 1842. url p. 229.
- The botanical looker-out among the wild flowers of England and Wales, at all seasons, and in the most interesting localities. By Edwin Lees. .. London, Hamilton, Adams & Co., 1851. url p. 145, p. 274.
- The botany of the Eastern Borders: with the popular names and uses of the plants, and of the customs and beliefs which have been associated with them / by George Johnston. London: J. Van Voorst, 1853. url p. 113, p. 130, p. 131, p. 319.
- The botany of the eastern borders, with the popular names and uses of the plants, and of the customs and beliefs which have been associated with them. London, J. Van Voorst, 1853. url , , , .
- The butterflies of the eastern United States and Canada: with special reference to New England / By Samuel Hubbard Scudder. Cambridge: The author, 1889. url p. 1936, p. 481.
- The coleoptera of the British Islands, a descriptive account of the families, genera, and species indigenous to Great Britain and Ireland, with notes as to localities, habitats, etc. London, Reeve, 1887-91. url p. 238, p. 244, p. 393.
- The correspondence of John Ray, consisting of selections from the philosophical letters published by Dr. Derham and original letters of John Ray in the collection of the British Museum / London: Printed for the Ray Society, 1848. url p. 199.
- The correspondence of John Ray: consisting of selections from the philosophical letters published by Dr. Derham, and original letters of John Ray in the collection of the British Museum. Ed. by Edwin Lankester. London: Printed for the Ray Society, 1848. url p. 199.
- The farmer's and planter's encyclopaedia of rural affairs; embracing all the most recent discoveries in agricultural chemistry, suited to the comprehension of unscientific readers. By Cuthbert W. Johnson. .. With extensive additions adapting the work to the United States. .. By Gouverneur Emerson. .. Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1868. url p. 1036.
- The fertilisation of flowers. Translated and edited by D'Arcy W. Thompson, with a preface by Charles Darwin. LondonMacmillan1883 url p. 340, p. 657.
- The field botanist's companion: comprising a familiar account, in the four seasons, of the most common of the wild flowering plants of the British Isles / by Thomas Moore. London: L. Reeve, 1862. url , , p. 101, p. 266.
- The flora of Berkshire; being a topographical and historical account of the flowering plants and ferns found in the county, with short biographical notices of the botanists who have contributed to Berkshire botany during the Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1897. url p. 58, p. 63.
- The flora of British India /By J. D. Hooker assisted by various botanists. Published under the authority of the secretary of state for India in council. 3 1882 London: L. Reeve, 1875-97. url p. 361, p. 361.
- The flora of Long Island. Lancaster, Pa.New Era Print., 1899. url .
- The flora of Oxfordshire and its contiguous counties: (comprising the flowering plants only;) arranged in easy and familiar language according to the Linnaean and natural systems; preceded by an introduction to botany / Oxford: H. Slatter, 1833. url p. 229.
- The flora of the parish of Halifax, by William B. Crump, & Charles Crossland. [Halifax]Halifax Scientific Society, 1904. url p. 61.
- The gardeners dictionary: containing the methods of cultivating and improving the kitchen, fruit and flower garden, as also the physick garden, wilderness, conservatory, and vineyard. London, Printed for the Author, 1735. url .
- The history of Glanville's Wootton, in the County of dorset, including its zoology and botany / by C.W. Dale. London, Hatchards, 1878. url p. 354.
- The history of Harting, by the Rev. H.D. Gordon. With a chapter on the geology of the district, by the late Sir Roderick Impey Murchison, and some notice of its fauna and flora, by J. Weaver. London: Printed for the authors by W. Davy, 1877. url p. 481.
- The lepidopterist's calendar. Gloucester, H. Marsden, 1875. url p. 129, p. 156, p. 206.
- The natural history & antiquities of Selborne in the county of Southampton, by Gilbert White, with illustrations in colour by George Edward Collins... London: Macmillan and co., limited, 1911. url p. 396.
- The natural history and antiquities of Selborne, in the county of Southampton / by the Rev. Gilbert White London: Swan Sonnenschein, 1888 url .
- The natural history of Selborne; with A naturalist's calendar & additional observations; with a pref. by Richard Jefferies. London: Scott, 1887. url p. 300.
- The naturalisation of animals & plants in New Zealand, Cambridge [Eng.]University Press, 1922. url , , .
- The naturalist. London: Simpkin, Marshall, 1865- url p. 138, p. 170, p. 227, p. 238, p. 253, p. 274, p. 306, p. 354, p. 403.
- The students' flora of New Zealand and the outlying islands. Wellington, N. Z., John Mackay, govt. printer url .
- The tourist's flora: a descriptive catalogue of the flowering plants and ferns of the British Islands, France, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, and the Italian islands / London: Reeve and Benham, 1850. url p. 222.
- The transactions of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union. Leeds [etc.] url , , , p. 146, p. 17, p. 225.
- The wheat plant: its origin, culture, growth, development, composition, varieties, diseases, etc., etc.: together with a few remarks on Indian corn, its culture, etc. / by John H. Klippart. Cincinnati, Moore, Wilstach, Keys, & co., 1860. url p. 33.
- Thirty-eight plates, with explanations: intended to illustrate Linnaeus's System of vegetables, and particularly adapted to the Letters on the elements of botany / by Thomas Martyn. 1799 London: J. White, 1799. url p. 49, explanation of plate XXV.
- Topographical botany: being local and personal records towards shewing the distribution of British plants traced through the 112 counties and vice-counties of England, Wales, and Scotland. London, B. Quaritch, 1883. url .
- Torreya. Burlington, Vt., Torrey Botanical Club, 1901-1945. url p. 109, p. 159, p. 168, p. 223, p. 3, p. 45, p. 79, p. 84.
- Transactions and proceedings of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh. [Edinburgh]: The Society, 1891-1970. url , p. 27.
- Transactions of the Botanical Society. Edinburgh: Botanical Society of Edinburgh, 1841-1891. url p. 219, p. 328.
- Transactions of the Edinburgh Field Naturalists' and Microscopical Society. [Edinburgh]: The Club, 1891- url p. 380, p. 87, p. 90.
- Transactions of the Entomological Society of London. London, The Society. url p. 43.
- Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Science. [Lexington, Ky.]Kentucky Academy of Science, 1923-1997. url p. 104, p. 109, p. 116, p. 117, p. 118, p. 145, p. 147, p. 162, p. 174, p. 232, p. 45, p. 95.
- Transactions of the Natural History Society of Northumberland, Durham, and Newcastle-upon-Tyne. Newcastle-upon-Tyne [et al.]F. & W. Dodsworth [et al.]1865/67-1973. url p. 116, p. 120, p. 195.
- Transactions of the Tyneside Naturalists' Field Club. Newcastle-upon-Tyne: F. & W. Dodsworth, 1850-1864. url p. 304.
- Tulane studies in zoology and botany. 21 1979 New Orleans: Tulane University, [1968- url p. 22.
- Tutira: the story of a New Zealand sheep station / by H. Guthrie-Smith. Edinburgh: Blackwood, 1921. url p. 251, p. 278.
- Types of British vegetation, Cambridge, University Press, 1911. url .
- Update to the report on the conservation status of Grindelia howellii, a candidated threatened species / Diane S. Pavek. Helena, Mont.: Montana Natural Heritage Program,  url p. 30, p. 33, p. 38, p. 40, p. 43, p. 44.
- Vegetation and flora of the Line Creek Plateau area, Carbon County, Montana / prepared by Peter Lesica and the Montana Natural Heritage Program; prepared for USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station. Helena, MT: Montana Natural Heritage Program,  url p. 18, p. 25.
- Vegetation of the Peak District / C. E. Moss. Cambridge: University Press, 1913. url p. 119, p. 126.
- Vegetation of the Peak District. Cambridge, University Press, 1913. url p. 119, p. 147, p. 15.
- Weeds and wild flowers: their uses, legends, and literature. By Lady Wilkinson. London: J. Van Voorst, 1858. url p. 335.
- Weeds of farm land, by Winifred E. Brenchley. New York, Longmans, Green and co., 1920. url p. 150, p. 167, p. 210, p. 23, p. 238.
- Weeds of farm land. London, Longmans, 1920. url p. 167, p. 210, p. 23.
- Weeds of the North Central States. Urbana, Ill: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, College of Agriculture, Agricultural Experiment Station,  url p. 199, p. 267.
- Withering, W. A systematic arrangement of British plants: with an easy introduction to the study of botany. 3 1801 London: Printed for T. Cadell, jun [etc.], 1801. url p. 682.
- Batra, S. W. T., J. R. Coulson, P. H. Dunn, and P. E. Boldt. 1981. Insects and Fungi Associated with Carduus Thistles (Compositae). Washington. [U.S.D.A. Techn. Bull. 1616.]
- Desrochers, A. M. , J. F. Bain, and S. I. Warwick. 1988. A biosystematic study of the Carduus nutans complex in Canada. Canad. J. Bot. 66: 16211631.
- Desrochers, A. M., J. F. Bain, and S. I. Warwick. 1988b. The biology of Canadian weeds. 89. Carduus nutans L. and Carduus acanthoides L. Canad. J. Plant Sci. 68: 10531068.
- Franco, J. do A. 1976. Carduus. In: T. G. Tutin et al., eds. 19641980. Flora Europaea. 5 vols. Cambridge. Vol. 4, pp. 220232.
- Kazmi, S. M. A. 1964. Revision der Gattung Carduus Compositae). Teil II. Mitt. Bot. Staatssaml. München 5: 279550.
- Bisby, F.A., Y.R. Roskov, M.A. Ruggiero, T.M. Orrell, L.E. Paglinawan, P.W. Brewer, N. Bailly, J. van Hertum, eds (2007). Species 2000 and ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2007 Annual Checklist. Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
- "Carduus nutans". in Flora of North America Vol. 19, 20 and 21 Page 91, 93. Published by Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
- GCC: Global Compositae Checklist. Release date: November 18, 2009
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed March 29, 2007. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 4 providers.
- Light, Kris. East Tennessee Wildflowers
- National Invasive Species Information Center, National Agricultural Library, United States Department of Agriculture. Web Site. Accessed May 3, 2008.
- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
- USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL (April 24, 2008)
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 18, 2007:
- Jyväskylä University Museum - The Section of Natural Sciences, Vascular plant collection of Jyvaskyla University Museum
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- Oregon State University, Vascular Plant Collection
- The Danish Biodiversity Information Facility, Botany registration database by Danish botanists
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2657418
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Ast-266
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2494752
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:188890-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 104109
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 35787
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDAST1S040
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: CANU4
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 11844
- David J. Keil "Carduus". in Flora of North America Vol. 19, 20 and 21 Page 57, 66, 83, 91, 96, 97, 122. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Carduus nutans". in Flora of North America Vol. 19, 20 and 21 Page 91, 93. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 168.330 meters (552.264 feet), Standard Deviation = 289.360 based on 11,067 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]