Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
Curled Plumless-Thistle, Curled Thistle, Curly Plumeless Thistle, Curly Plumeless-Thistle, Welted Thistle, Welted Thistle Carduus Crispus
Common Names in French:
Common Names in German:
Brachdistel, Brachfelddistel, Brochedaszel, Brochfialtdaszel, Daszel, Distel, Felddistel, Fialtdaszel, Kickel, Kicklich Dästel, Kicklige, Krause Distel, Stachdaszel, Stechan Daszel, Stechende Distel
Common Names in Portuguese:
The largest family of flowering plants , the Compositae (Asteraceae), comprising about 1,100 genera and more than 20,000 species and characterized by many small flowers arranged in a head looking like a single flower and subtended by an involucre of bracts. A head may consist of both ray flowers and disk flowers, as in the sunflower, of disk flowers only, as in the burdock, or of ray flowers only, as in the dandelion.
or biennials [perennials
], 30-200(-400) cm. spiny
, ± tomentose
, sometimes glabrate
. Stems erect
to much branched, (spiny-winged) . Leaves basal and cauline; petiolate
or sessile; blade
spiny dentate, often 1-2-pinnately lobed
. Heads discoid
, borne singly or 2-20 in dense clusters
arrays. (Peduncles naked or leafy-bracteate, spiny-winged or not winged
.) Involucres cylindric
to spheric. Phyllaries many in 7-10+ series, linear
to broadly ovate
, margins entire, apices ascending
, acute, spine-tipped. Receptacles flat, epaleate, bearing setiform
("flattened bristles"). Florets several-many; corollas white to pink or purple, ± bilateral
long, slender, throats
, abruptly expanded from tubes, lobes
bases sharply short-tailed, apical appendages
; style branches: fused portions with slightly, minutely puberulent
, swollen basal nodes, distally papillate
or glabrous, distinct
portions very short. Cypselae ovoid
, slightly compressed
, faces smooth
. glabrous, attachment scars
; pappi persistent
or falling in rings
. of many minutely barbed
, basally connate
or setiform, minutely barbed scales ("minutely flattened bristles"). x = 8, 9, 10, 11, 13.
Species ca. 90: introduced ; Eurasia , Africa.
Species Carduus crispus
or biennials, 30-150 cm. Stems openly branching,
with curled, septate
to nearly glabrous
to 1.5 cm wide, wing spines to 3 mm.
Leaves: basal tapering
10-20 cm, margins
spiny-toothed to ±
shallowly pinnately lobed
; cauline sessile, gradually smaller, margins
often more deeply divided
spines to 3 mm; abaxial
with long, one-celled hairs and/or long,
curled, septate hairs along veins or glabrate
or glabrate. Heads borne singly or in groups of 2-5,
15-18 mm. Peduncles spiny-winged to near apex or throughout,
to 4 cm. Involucres ± spheric, 12-17 × 12-17
mm. Phyllaries narrowly lanceolate, outer and middle
1 mm wide and appressed to spreading
0.5-1 mm wide, spine tips 1-1.5 mm, inner with unarmed
. Corollas purple or ± white, 11-16 mm, lobes
3.5 times length
. Cypselae light brown to gray-brown,
2.5-3.8 mm; pappus bristles
11-13 mm. 2n = 16
Carduus crispus closely resembles the much more common C. acanthoides. Some published records of C. crispus are probably C. acanthoides. Although the degree of spininess and tough versus brittle stems were used as key characters (A. Cronquist 1980; H. A. Gleason and A. Cronquist 1991) to differentiate the two taxa, both characters are subjective, and the second is impractical with dry material . [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: May, June, July, August, September, October. • Flower Color: red-purple
Weed of waste ground , pastures, roadsides, fields ; 0-500 m (Ref. 52641).
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,422 meters (0 to 4,665 feet).
Soil: Minimum pH: 5.6 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: High
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b, 11. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Lindley, 1833
- Family: Compositae () - Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- Order: Asterales () - Lindley, 1833
- Superorder: Campanulanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Comment: Data Providers: New Zealand Plant Name Database, Flora of Japan, Flora of Korea, Govaerts World Compositae Checklist A-G, IPNI, Flora of China Checklist, Tropicos, Euro+Med. GCC LSID: urn :lsid:compositae.org:names:0835F93D-149A-4964-A4BB-123AC27F1C6C
Last scrutiny: 19-Aug-09
Members of the genus Carduus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 11 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
C. acanthoides (Plumeless Thistle) · C. crispus (Curled Plumless-Thistle) · C. nutans (Chardon Penche) · C. nutans macrocephalus (Musk Thistle) · C. nutans macrolepis (Chardon Penche) · C. nutans var. litoralis (Nodding Thistle) · C. orthocephalus (Plumeless Thistle) · C. pycnocephalus (Compact-Headed Thistle) · C. scariosus (Meadow Thistle) · C. tenuiflorus (Italian Thistle) · C. x orthocephalus (Plumeless Thistle)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 14, 2007:
- Jyväskylä University Museum - The Section of Natural Sciences, Vascular plant collection of Jyvaskyla University Museum
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- The Danish Biodiversity Information Facility, Botany registration database by Danish botanists
- UK National Biodiversity Network, Botanical Society of the British Isles - Vascular Plants Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2657417
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Ast-7545
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2927116
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:188571-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 316602
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 35786
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDAST1S020
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: GUCR
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 26451
- David J. Keil "Carduus". in Flora of North America Vol. 19, 20 and 21 Page 57, 66, 83, 91, 96, 97, 122. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 160.790 meters (527.526 feet), Standard Deviation = 213.030 based on 9,893 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]