Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in English:
Plumeless Thistle, Spiny Plumeless Thistle, Spiny Plumeless-Thistle, Welted Thistle
Common Names in French:
Common Names in German:
Brachdistel, Distel, Dorn, Dornbusch, Dornstrauch, Felddistel, Korndistel, Stacheldistel, Weg-Distel
Common Names in Hungarian:
Common Names in Portuguese:
Cardo-Chileno, Cardo-Espinhoso, Cardo-Pratense
The largest family of flowering plants , the Compositae (Asteraceae), comprising about 1,100 genera and more than 20,000 species and characterized by many small flowers arranged in a head looking like a single flower and subtended by an involucre of bracts. A head may consist of both ray flowers and disk flowers, as in the sunflower, of disk flowers only, as in the burdock, or of ray flowers only, as in the dandelion.
or biennials [perennials
], 30-200(-400) cm. spiny
, ± tomentose
, sometimes glabrate
. Stems erect
to much branched, (spiny-winged) . Leaves basal and cauline; petiolate
or sessile; blade
spiny dentate, often 1-2-pinnately lobed
. Heads discoid
, borne singly or 2-20 in dense clusters
arrays. (Peduncles naked or leafy-bracteate, spiny-winged or not winged
.) Involucres cylindric
to spheric. Phyllaries many in 7-10+ series, linear
to broadly ovate
, margins entire, apices ascending
, acute, spine-tipped. Receptacles flat, epaleate, bearing setiform
("flattened bristles"). Florets several-many; corollas white to pink or purple, ± bilateral
long, slender, throats
, abruptly expanded from tubes, lobes
bases sharply short-tailed, apical appendages
; style branches: fused portions with slightly, minutely puberulent
, swollen basal nodes, distally papillate
or glabrous, distinct
portions very short. Cypselae ovoid
, slightly compressed
, faces smooth
. glabrous, attachment scars
; pappi persistent
or falling in rings
. of many minutely barbed
, basally connate
or setiform, minutely barbed scales ("minutely flattened bristles"). x = 8, 9, 10, 11, 13.
Species ca. 90: introduced ; Eurasia , Africa.
Flowers: Bloom Period: June, July, August, September. • Flower Color: mauve , rose
Size: 18-24" tall.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,002 meters (0 to 13,130 feet).
Ecology: Invasive: invades roadsides, pastures, and open native habitats , seeds dispersed by wind and wildlife. Declared prohibited noxious weeds in Maryland. These weeds must be controlled by anyone owning or managing land within the State.
Culture: Space 18-24" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 5.1 • Maximum pH: 8.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Moisture: Drought Tolerance: High
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 3a, 3b, 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Lindley, 1833
- Family: Compositae () - Giseke, 1792, nom. cons., nom. alt.
- Order: 8-19. () - Lindley, 1833
- Superorder: Campanulanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 17-Nov-09
Members of the genus Carduus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 11 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
C. acanthoides (Plumeless Thistle) · C. crispus (Curled Plumless-Thistle) · C. nutans (Chardon Penche) · C. nutans macrocephalus (Musk Thistle) · C. nutans macrolepis (Chardon Penche) · C. nutans var. litoralis (Nodding Thistle) · C. orthocephalus (Plumeless Thistle) · C. pycnocephalus (Compact-Headed Thistle) · C. scariosus (Meadow Thistle) · C. tenuiflorus (Italian Thistle) · C. x orthocephalus (Plumeless Thistle)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 24, 2007:
- Biologiezentrum der Oberoesterreichischen Landesmuseen, Biologiezentrum Linz
- Bundesamt für Naturschutz / Zentralstelle für Phytodiversität Deutschland, Bundesamt fuer Naturschutz / Zentralstelle fuer Phytodiversitaet Deutschland
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- Marine Science Institute, UCSB, Paleobiology Database
- Museum of Natural History, Wroclaw University, Museum of Natural History, Wroclaw University, Flora of the Stołowe Mts.
- NLBIF, Limnodata
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- The Danish Biodiversity Information Facility, Botany registration database by Danish botanists
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Lund Botanical Museum
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Plants
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2657416
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Ast-214
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 6093759
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:188363-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 104108
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 35785
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDAST1S010
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: CAAC
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 9359
- David J. Keil "Carduus". in Flora of North America Vol. 19, 20 and 21 Page 57, 66, 83, 91, 96, 97, 122. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 309.620 meters (1,015.814 feet), Standard Deviation = 358.800 based on 1,900 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]