Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Afrikaans:
Common Names in English:
Balloon Vine, Balloonvine, Balloonvine Heartseed, Heart-Pea, Heartseed, Lesser Balloonvine, Love in a Puff, Winter-Cherry
Common Names in Hindi:
Kapalphoti, Khanphuti, कापालफोटी, खानफुटी
Common Names in Spanish:
Common Names in Tamil:
Modikkottan, Mudukkotan, Tej Ovati
(or woody vines
in Cardiospermum and allied genera), rarely herbaceous climbers
. Indumentum usually of simple
, often glandular
on young parts, buds, and inflorescences. Leaves alternate, usually estipulate; leaf blade
pinnate or digitate, rarely simple; leaflets
alternate to opposite, entire or dentate
to serrate. Inflorescence a terminal
; bracts and bracteoles small. Flowers unisexual
, rarely polygamous or bisexual
or zygomorphic, usually small. Sepals 4 or 5(or 6), equal or unequal, free
, imbricate or valvate
. Petals 4 or 5(or 6), sometimes absent, free, imbricate, usually clawed, often with scales
or hair-tufted basal appendages
. Disk conspicuous
, rarely absent. Stamens 5-10(-74), usually 8, rarely numerous
, variously inserted
but usually within disk, often exserted in male flowers; filaments
free, rarely connate; anthers
, longitudinally dehiscent
; staminodes sometimes present in carpellate
flowers, but filaments shorter and anthers with a thick wall, indehiscent. Ovary superior, (1-) 3(or 4) -loculed; ovules 1 or 2(or several) per locule, placentation axile
, rarely parietal
, campylotropous, or amphitropous
; style usually apical (terminal), semigynobasic in Allophylus [gynobasic
in Deinbollia Schumacher & Thonning]; stigma entire or 2 or 3(or 4) -lobed, usually rudimentary
in male flowers. Fruit a loculicidal capsule, berry, or drupe, or consisting of 2 or 3 samaras, often 1-seeded and 1-loculed by abortion
. Seeds 1(or 2 or more) per locule; testa black or brown, hard, often with a conspicuous fleshy aril or sarcotesta
; embryo curved
, or twisted, oily and starchy; endosperm usually absent. 2n = 20-36.
One hundred thirty-five genera and ca. 1500 species: widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions, especially well represented in tropical SE Asia; 21 genera (one endemic) and 52 species (16 endemic, one introduced ) in China.
There is some variation in the circumscription of Sapindaceae in taxonomic treatments, particularly with regard to the inclusion of genera from the closely related, predominately temperate families Aceraceae and Hippocastanaceae. Several studies including Müller and Leenhouts (in Ferguson & Müller, Evolutionary Significance Exine: 407-445. 1976), and more recently those based on molecular data (Stevens, Angiosperm Phylogeny Website, 2001 onward; Harrington et al. , Syst. Bot. 30: 366-382. 2005), supported the recognition of a broadly defined Sapindaceae incorporating Aceraceae and Hippocastanaceae. Harrington et al. (loc. cit. ) proposed four subfamilies or clades, comprising Sapindoideae (including
Koelreuteria and Ungnadia Endlicher), Dodonaeoideae, Hippocastanoideae (including taxa previously referred to Aceraceae and Hippocastanaceae, plus Handeliodendron), and a monotypic "Xanthoceratoideae". Within Hippocastanoideae, Acer Linnaeus and Dipteronia Oliver comprise a monophyletic group and are treated in this Flora as Aceraceae. Similarly, Aesculus Linnaeus, Billia Peyritsch, and the Chinese endemic Handeliodendron Rehder form a monophyletic group and are treated here as Hippocastanaceae. There is some support for "Xanthoceratoideae" being the first lineage to diverge within the broadly defined Sapindaceae assemblage; consequently, Xanthoceras is treated separately from genera in Sapindoideae and Dodonaeoideae in the following account of Sapindaceae s.s. The sequence of genera reflects Müller and Leenhouts (loc. cit.) as modified by recent analyses based on molecular and morphological data, rather than following the order developed by Radlkofer (Sitzungsber. Math.-Phys. Cl. Königl. Bayer. Akad. Wiss. München 20: 105-379. 1890; and in Engler, Pflanzenreich 98a-h(IV . 165) : 1-1539. 1931-1934), which was previously followed in FRPS.
The main economic uses of this family include (1) timber: Amesiodendron chinense, Dimocarpus longan, D. confinis, Litchi chinensis, Pavieasia kwangsiensis, and Pometia pinnata; (2) fruit: Dimocarpus longan, Litchi chinensis, and Nephelium lappaceum; (3) medicine: Dimocarpus longan (arillode ), Litchi chinensis (seeds), and Sapindus saponaria (roots ) ; (4) oil : Amesiodendron chinense, Delavaya toxocarpa, and Xanthoceras sorbifolium. Saponins occur widely in the family, commonly used as a fish poison and for their detergent properties.
Herbaceous or woody climbers
, rarely shrubs
. Leaves usually biternate
or bitrilobate; stipules small, deciduous; leaflets
, usually with pellucid
. Panicles axillary
; peduncles rather long, first pair of branches forming tendrils
or spines; bracts and bracteoles subulate
. Flowers unisexual
, zygomorphic, with slender noded pedicels. Sepals 4 or 5, imbricate, outer 2 smaller. Petals 4, with a large scale inside and slightly above base
petals with broadly winged
, scales of adaxial
. Disk lobed into 2 large glandular
at base of petals. Stamens (male flowers) 8, slightly longer
than petals. Ovary (female flowers) ellipsoid
, 3-loculed; ovules 1 per locule, inserted
of middle axis; style short; stigma 3-lobed. Capsules inflated
, saclike, 3-loculed; pericarp membranous or papery
, veined. Seeds 1 per locule, subglobose; hilum
cordate or suborbicular
; embryo with large cotyledons, outer one arched, inner one reflexed
. 2n = 20, 22.
About 12 species: mostly in tropical and subtropical America; one species in China.
Species Cardiospermum halicacabum
, herbaceous, 1-1.5 m.
Stems and branches green, 5- or 6-sulcate,
or sparsely hairy
. Leaves biternate
in outline; petioles
3-4 cm; leaflets
sparsely serrate or pinnately parted
, abaxially sparsely villous
veins, adaxially subglabrous or sparsely pilosulose
blade obliquely lanceolate or subrhombic, 3-8 × 1.5-2.5
cm, apex acuminate; lateral ones slightly smaller, ovate
. Panicles few flowered, ca.
as long as or slightly longer
leaves; peduncles straight, 4-8 cm, tendrils spiralled. Sepals 4, ciliate , outer 2 ovate, 8-10 mm, inner 2 narrowly elliptic, ca. 2 × as long as outer ones. Petals milky-white, obovate . Stamens (male flowers) ca. as long as or slightly longer than petals; filaments sparsely long villous. Ovary (female flowers) obovoid or sometimes subglobose, pubescent . Capsules brown, pearlike, turbinate-obtriangular or sometimes nearly ellipsoid , 1.5-3 × 2-4 cm, pubescent. Seeds black, shiny, ca. 5 mm in diam.; hilum green when fresh, white when dry, cordate. Fl. summer-autumn, fr. autumn-early winter. [source]
Habit: Vine , Subshrub , Forb/herb
Flowers: Bloom Period: June, July, August, September. • Flower Color: near white, white
Size: 10-12' tall.
Forest margins , shrublands, grasslands, cultivated areas, wastelands .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,002 meters (0 to 13,130 feet).
Duration: Annual , Biennial, Perennial
Culture: Space 3-6" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 8.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b, 11. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Order: Sapindales () - Dumortier, 1829
- Superorder: Rutanae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
C. microcarpum Kunth. • Cardiospermum halicacabum var. microcarpum (Kunth) Blume • Corindum halicacabum (L.) Medik.
Publishing author : L. Publication : Sp. Pl. 1: 366 (-367) 1753 [1 May 1753]
Members of the genus Cardiospermum
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 5 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
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- Lo Hsien-shui & Chen Te-chao. 1985. Sapindaceae (excluding Handeliodendron). In: Law Yuh-wu & Lo Hsien-shui, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 47(1): 1-72.
- Lo Hsien-shui & Chen Te-chao. 1985. Sapindaceae (excluding Handeliodendron). In: Law Yuh-wu & Lo Hsien-shui, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 47(1): 1-72.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 12, 2007:
- Australian National Herbarium
- , Australian National Herbarium
- Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Bishop Museum Natural History Specimen Data
- GBIF-Spain, Herbario Universidad de Málaga: MGC-Cormófitos
- GBIF-Spain, Jardín Botánico de Córdoba: Herbarium COA
- GBIF-Spain, Real Jardin Botanico
- , Vascular Plant Herbarium
- Herbarium of the University of Aarhus, The AAU Herbarium Database
- Herbier de la Guyane, Herbier de la Guyane
- Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad
- , Biodiversidad de Costa Rica
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- National Herbarium of New South Wales, NSW herbarium collection
- National Herbarium of New South Wales, Plants of Papua New Guinea
- SysTax, Herbarium Universitat Ulm
- SysTax, Instituto de Botanica del Nordeste
- SysTax, SysTax
- SysTax, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso
- Taiwan Biodiversity Information Facility, Magnoliophyta
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Lund Botanical Museum
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2652194
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-28667
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 2490700
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:782206-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 9014
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 28667
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 153886-3
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDSPN03040
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: CAHA13
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 27871
- Nianhe Xia & Paul A. Gadek "Sapindaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 12 Page 1, 6. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Nianhe Xia & Paul A. Gadek "Cardiospermum". in Flora of China Vol. 12 Page 6, 24. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Cardiospermum halicacabum". in Flora of China Vol. 12 Page 24. Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 245.820 meters (806.496 feet), Standard Deviation = 456.800 based on 664 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]