, dioecious or sometimes monoecious, often with cystoliths
(a hard calcium carbonate
structure at base
of a hair) . Stems furrowed
. Stipules free
. Leaves alternate or opposite, palmately lobed
, sometimes simple
. Male inflorescences a bracteate
panicle. Male flowers: pedicellate
; sepals 5, free; petals absent; stamens 5, opposite sepals; filaments
slits. Female inflorescences a bracteate spicate cyme much reduced in Cannabis, pendent or erect. Female flowers: sessile; calyx appressed
to ovary, membranous; petals absent; ovary 1-loculed; ovule solitary, pendulous from locule apex; style 2-parted, branches filiform
. Fruit an achene, covered by persistent
calyx; endosperm fleshy
; embryo curved
or spirally involute
Two genera and four species: N Africa, Asia, Europe, North America; two genera and four species (one endemic) in China.
Because all the Chinese species in this family are cultivated and are often found naturalized in disturbed habitats , it is difficult to know the true wild distributions.
Cannabaceae has sometimes been included in Moraceae or Urticaceae but is now usually recognized as a distinct family. The subfamily Celtidoideae of Ulmaceae could possibly be included within Cannabaceae (see the discussion after the Ulmaceae family description ) .
, taprooted. Stems simple
to well branched, without 2-branched hairs
. Leaves palmately compound
, without 2-branched hairs. Leaf blade
: surfaces abaxially sparsely to densely pubescent
. Inflorescences: staminate
cymes or panicles, erect; pistillate
, erect to spreading
. Flowers: staminate and pistillate on different plants
, sometimes on same plants, especially in cultivars. Achenes lenticular
, enclosed within enlarged perianth; embryo curved
Species 1: widespread in temperate regions , nearly worldwide.
Many populations of Cannabis sativa have been established largely from escapes from former cultivation and, sporadically, from clandestine cultivation.
One of the oldest cultivated plants , hemp was widely used in Neolithic China in the Yang Shao culture (ca. 4000 B .C.). Many legends understandably surround its origins and popularity. Its tough and durable fiber, excellent for rope, cordage, paper, canvas, sailcloth, and fish nets , prompted its initial spread throughout the world. The seeds are very nutritious; they are an important constituent in birdseed mixes, and the seeds, as well as the edible oil from seeds, are marketed as an excellent food source for human consumption . Oil from the seeds was also used in paints and varnishes and as fuel for lamps (B. B. Simpson and M. Conner-Ogorzaly 1986). Hemp was a major economic crop in the American colonies because of the demand for rope in agricultural, maritime, and military pursuits. Probably best known today for its psychoactive chemicals, it is used legally by physicians in the treatment of glaucoma and to relieve nausea in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiation (B. B. Simpson and M. Conner-Ogorzaly 1986).
Until 1970 marihuana was legally controlled in the United States by the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937, which levied a transfer tax for which no stamps or licenses were available to private citizens. Cannabis is now controlled by the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Act of 1970. In Canada marihuana has been controlled since 1938 by an amendment to the Narcotic Control Act (D. E. Mustol 1991).
The vernacular name hemp refers both to the plant and to its commercially extracted bast fibers. Most other terms refer both to the plant and to drug preparations of it.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Perleb, 1826
- Augier, 1801 ex Martinov, 1820, nom. cons.
- C. Linnaeus, 1753
- Hemp, Indian hemp, marijuana, marihuana, chanvre, cannabis [Greek kannabis, hemp, said to come from Arabic kinnab or Persian kannab ]
- Specific epithet:
- Botanical name: - Cannabis erratica Siev.
- Specific epithet: erratica - Siev.
- Genus: Cannabis () - C. Linnaeus, 1753 - Hemp, Indian hemp, marijuana, marihuana, chanvre, cannabis [Greek kannabis, hemp, said to come from Arabic kinnab or Persian kannab ]
- Family: Cannabaceae () - Augier, 1801 ex Martinov, 1820, nom. cons. - hemp
- Order: Rosales () - Perleb, 1826
- Superorder: Urticanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Rosidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : Siev. Publication : in Pall. N. Nord. Beitr. vii. 174
Members of the genus Cannabis
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 6 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
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- Botanical Museum leaflets, Harvard University. 23 1971-1974 Cambridge, Mass.: Botanical Museum, Harvard University, 1932- url p. 327.
- The Journal of heredity. Washington, etc., American Genetic Association url p. 206.
- Chang Siushih. 1998. Cannaboideae. In: Chang Siushih & Wu Chengyih, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 23(1): 220224.
- Schultes, R. E., W. M. Klein, T. Plowman, and T. E. Lockwood. 1974. Cannabis: An example of taxonomic neglect. Bot. Mus. Leafl. 23: 337-367.
- Simpson, B. B. and M. Conner-Ogorzaly. 1986. Economic Botany: Plants in Our World. New York.
- Small, E. 1979. The Species Problem in Cannabis: Science & Semantics. 2 vols. Toronto.
- Small, E. and A. Cronquist. 1976. A practical and natural taxonomy for Cannabis. Taxon 25: 405-435.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 10583826
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:850877-1
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 850877-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 1221650