Upright herb from tropical America, now naturaized widely in the tropics, including moist lowland forests in Hawaii. Leaves large, flowers bright red or yellow, fruits swollen, warty, about an inch long, containing black globose seeds strung into lei and used in rattles .
Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Afrikaans:
Common Names in Chinese:
mei Ren Jiao
Common Names in Dutch:
Common Names in English:
Canna, Achira, African Arrowfoot, African Arrowroot, Calenda, Canna Lily, edible Canna, English Shot, English Shot (South America), Fa'i Masoa, Fagamanu, Fanamanu, Gasau Ni Ga, Gruya, Gwangwa, Gwangwaama, Indian Shot, Indian-Shot, Luiuenwai, Mongos Halum-Tano, Nuaenga, Oruuru, Pia Renga, Pia-Raroto'a, Platanillo, Poloka, Poloke, Purple Arrowroot, Queensland Arrowroot, Queensland Arrowroot (Aust, Riti, Sierra Leone Arrowroot, South America), Tiare Papa'a, Toolima
Common Names in French:
Balisier à Chapelets (Caribbean Islands), Balisier Comestible, Balisier Des Indes, Balisier Jaune (Caribbean Islands), Balisier Rouge, Balisier Rouge (Caribbean Islands), Canna, Canna Florifére, Canne D´inde, Toloman (Caribbean Islands), Tous-Les-Mois, Tous-Les-Mois (Caribbean Islands)
Common Names in Futuna:
Common Names in German:
Common Names in Hausa:
Bakalele, Bakalele (Nigeria), Bakare Kare, Bakare Kare (Nigeria)
Common Names in Hawaiian:
Common Names in Japanese:
Akabana Dan Doku (As C Coccinea), choukuyou Kana (As C Edulis), kana Indika
Common Names in Nepalese:
Gaane Sarvadaa (Gane Sarvada)
Common Names in Portuguese:
Albará, Albará, Araruta Bastarda, Araruta De Porco, Bananeirinha Da India, Bananeirinha Da India De Flor, Bananeirinha-Da-índia, Bananeirinha-De-Flor, Beri, Birú Manso (Brazil), Birú Manso, Biru-Manso, Caeté-Dos-Jardns, Cana-Da-índia
Common Names in Puluwat:
Common Names in Russian:
Common Names in Spanish:
Achira, Bandera De Uriba (Colombia), Caña Comestible, Caña De La India, Café Cimarron (Panama), Capacho (Colombia), Chisgua (Colombia), Chumbima (Colombia), Chupa Flor, Maraca, Platanillo, Yuquilla
Common Names in Thai:
Phut Tharaksa (Central Thailand)
Common Names in Tongan:
. Stems erect
. Rhizomes tuberous
. Leaves alternate, spirally arranged
, large, veins pinnate and parallel, base
. Inflorescence a terminal
or panicle of showy, 1- or 2-flowered cincinni. Flowers bisexual
, mostly large. Sepals 3, green, free
. Corolla lobes
3, green or colored
, basally connate
into a tube
to staminodes. Staminodes and stamen in 2 whorls: outer whorl with (2 or) 3 conspicuous
staminodes, usually red or yellow; inner whorl with a reflexed
staminode (labellum), narrower than outer staminodes, and a fertile
1-loculed, adnate to apical margin
of filament. Ovary inferior, 3-loculed; ovules numerous
per locule; placentation axile
. Style petaloid. Fruit a capsule, 3-valved, usually warty. Seeds many, globose
; endosperm copious
; embryo straight.
One genus and ten to twenty species: tropical and subtropical America; one species (introduced ) in China.
, 1--2[--5] m
, forming small to large monotypic stands. Leaves green [bronze or magenta in hybrids and cultivars], often glaucous [lanuginose]; blade
to narrowly elliptic
, 20--70 cm ´ 15--30 cm, base
gradually or abruptly tapered, apex acute to acuminate. Inflorescences: peduncles green [magenta], often glaucous; bracts green [magenta], often glaucous; primary
bracts to 30 cm, secondary bracts to 20 cm; floral
bracts 0.5--3 ´ 0.3--1.5 cm, papery
. Flowers nearly sessile, subtended by pedicel bract; sepals usually green [magenta], often less than half size of petals; petals sharply reflexed
or not, green or brightly colored
, 4--15 cm, generally shorter than staminodes; staminodes pale
yellow to deep crimson red; labellum 3--9 ´ 4--10 cm; ovary green [magenta]. Capsules brown, 1.5--6 ´ 2--4.5 cm, warty, becoming papery. Seeds 5--25[--75] per capsule, medium to dark brown or black, 4--10 ´ 4--8 mm.
Species 10: tropical and subtropical Americas with some species naturalized and many cultivated hybrids.
Until recently taxonomists recognized more than 50 species in Canna, but that number has now been reduced to ten (P. J. M. Maas 1985; P. J. M. Maas and H. Maas 1988) based mainly on new concepts of biogeographical history, the extent of hybridization during cultivation, and the plasticity of morphological features, especially in the highly polymorphic species C. indica.
Little has been published regarding pollination of these plants . The two North American species with pale yellow flowers, Canna glauca and C. flaccida, flower at dusk and may be pollinated by hawkmoths. Several neotropical species with bright red or orange flowers are hummingbird-pollinated. Nectar, which accumulates at the base of the floral tube , is the apparent reward in all cases. Pollen is shed from the bisporangiate anther onto the adjacent style before the flower opens (secondary pollen presentation), which usually results in self-pollination ; thus, greenhouse-grown plants readily set seed. The large seed size and lack of reward for potential animal dispersal agents suggests that seeds are dispersed by gravity and water. Seeds can germinate and produce reproductive shoots in a single growing season .
Both Canna flaccida and C. glauca, as well as several Central American species, are hosts to the larva of the skipper butterfly Calpodes ethlius (Cramer), ), which builds protective tents by folding or rolling the apices of the leaves.
The most common use of Canna by Europeans and North Americans is as ornamentals . Both the hybrids and some species are grown for their striking foliage and large, delicate flowers. Two hybrids commonly grown in both temperate and tropical zones are C. Ã—generalis L. H. Bailey and C. Ã—orchioides L. H. Bailey. The former is apparently a cross between C. indica and C. glauca, or C. iridiflora Ruiz & and Pavóon and the latter between C. Ã—generalis and C. flaccida (L. H. Bailey 1924; J. W. Donahue 1965) . These hybrids are usually sterile , although they may persist in cultivation.
The seeds of Canna indica are used as beads (especially for rosaries) and in gourds to form rattles . The rhizomes are used to make a form of arrowroot. The vegetation and rhizomes have been used as medicinals for both humans and domesticated animals.
Species Canna indica
. Leaves: sheath
ovate, 20--60 ´ 10--30 cm, base
to narrowly cuneate,
apex shortly acuminate to acute, abaxially and adaxially glabrous.
, sometimes branched, bearing 1- to 2-flowered
cincinni, 6--20 per inflorescence; primary
bracts to 15 cm; secondary
bracts to 9 cm; floral
, broadly obovate
(ob) ovate(-triangular), 0.5--3 ´ 0.5--1.5 cm, apex entire,
often glaucous; bracteoles (ovate-) triangular, 0.5--2 ´ 0.3--0.8
cm, apex entire. Flowers red to yellow-orange, never pure yellow
(except in some hybrid cultivars), 4.5--7.5 cm; pedicels 0.2--1 cm,
to 1.5 cm in fruit; sepals narrowly triangular, 0.9--1.7 ´
0.2--0.5 cm; petals erect
, 4--6.5 cm, tube
0.5--1.5 cm, lobes
to narrowly oblong
, 3.5--5 ´ 0.4--0.7 cm; staminodes 3--4,
narrowly obovate to spatulate
, 4.5--7.5 cm, free
part 0.3--0.5 cm
wide, apex rounded
, acute, or cleft
; labellum reflexed
oblong, approximately equal to other staminodes. Capsules ellipsoid
to nearly globose
, 1.5--3 ´ 1.5--2 cm. Seeds black, globose
to nearly globose, 5--8 ´ 4--6.7 mm diam. 2n = 18. Flowering
primarily spring--summer; fruiting summer--early fall
Canna indica is probably native to neotropics and is now common throughout tropics and subtropics. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: April, May, June, July, August, September. • Flower Color: magenta
Size: 36-48" tall.
Often, if not always, in secondary growth and waste places; 0--100 m .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,744 meters (0 to 15,564 feet).
Culture: Space 9-12" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 7b, 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Zingiberanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Commelinidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Canna edulis Ker-Gawl.
Members of the genus Canna
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 570 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
C. altensteinii (Canna) · C. americanallis var. Variegata f. ruminoides (Variegated Canna) · C. aurantiaca (Canna Lily Canna Aurantiaca) · C. bangii (Canna Lily Canna Bangii) · C. brasiliensis (Canna Lily Canna Brasiliensis) · C. compacta (Canna Lily Canna Compacta) · C. discolor (Canna Lily Canna Discolor) · C. esculenta (Canna Lily Canna Esculenta) · C. flaccida (Bandana of the Everglades) · C. generalis (Canna Lily) · C. glauca (Louisiana Canna) · C. glauca 'Endeavour' (Endeavour Aquatic Canna Lily Canna Glauca) · C. glauca 'Erebus' (Erebus Aquatic Canna Lily Canna Glauca) · C. glauca 'Fuchsia Fantasy' (Fuchsia Fantasy Canna Lily) · C. glauca 'Longwood Hybrid' (Longwood Canna) · C. glauca 'Panache' (Panache Aquatic Canna Lily Canna Glauca) · C. glauca 'Ra' (Ra Aquatic Canna Lily Canna Glauca) · C. glauca 'Taney' (Taney Aquatic Canna Lily Canna Glauca) · C. indica (Canna) · C. indica var. maculata (Canna Lily) · C. indica 'Alberich' (Alberich Indian Shot Canna Indica) · C. indica 'Anchiras' (Anchiras Tous Les Mois Canna Indica) · C. indica 'Belize' (Belize Canna Lily) · C. indica 'Crozy's New Hybrids' (Crozy's New Hybrids Canna Lily) · C. indica 'Mactro' (Tropicanna® Gold Canna) · C. indica 'Musafolia' (Musafolia Banana Canna Canna Indica) · C. indica 'Phasion' (Tropicanna® Canna) · C. indica 'Purpurea' (Edible Canna) · C. indica 'Red Stripe' (Canna Lily) · C. indica 'Rosea' (Rosea Canna Lily) · C. iridiflora (Canna Lily Canna Iridiflora) · C. jacobiniflora (Canna) · C. lambertii (Lambert's Canna) · C. lanuginosa (Canna Lily Canna Lanuginosa) · C. liliiflora (Canna Lily Canna Liliiflora) · C. lumbautum (Canna Lily) · C. lutea (Yellow Canna) · C. 'Musifolia' (Banana Canna Canna Musifolia) · C. 'Musifolia Grande' (Grande Banana Canna Canna Musifolia) · C. neglecta (Broadleaf Canna) · C. orchiodes (Orchid Canna) · C. orchioides (Orchid Canna Canna Orchioides) · C. orientalis (Canna Lily Canna Orientalis) · C. paniculata (Canna Lily Canna Paniculata) · C. patens (Canna Lily Canna Patens) · C. pertusa (Canna) · C. speciosa (Canna Lily Canna Speciosa) · C. sylvestris (Canna) · C. tuerckheimii (Canna Lily Canna Tuerckheimii) · C. var. Oiseau De Feu (Firebird Canna) · C. warszewiczii (Canna Lily Canna Warszewiczii) · C. x (Canna Lily) · C. x ehemanii (Canna Lily Canna X Ehemanii) · C. × generalis (Tropicanna Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Adam's Orange' (Adam's Orange Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'African Scarlet Speckle' (African Scarlet Speckle Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Afterglow' (Afterglow Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Aida' (Aida Canna Lily) · C. x generalis'Aires' (Aires Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Alaska' (Alaska Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Alfred Cole' (Alfred Cole Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Allegheny' (Allegheny Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Alyse' (Alyse Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Amazing Grace' (Amazing Grace Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Amazon Butterfly' (Amazon Butterfly Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Ambassador' (Ambassador Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Ambassadour' (Ambassadour Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Ambrosia' (Ambrosia Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'America' (America Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Angele Martin' (Angele Martin Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Angel Pink' (Angel Pink Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Annaei' (Annaei Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Anthony De Crozy' (Anthony De Crozy Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Apache Blaze' (Apache Blaze Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Aphrodite' (Aphrodite Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Apricot Dream' (Apricot Dream Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Apricot Frost' (Apricot Frost Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Apricot Ice' (Apricot Ice Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Aquarius' (Aquarius Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Aranalyom' (Aranalyom Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Arctic' (Arctic Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Argentia' (Argentia Canna Lily) · C. x generalis'Aristote' (Aristote Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Assaut' (Assaut Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Australia' (Australia Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Autumn Dragon' (Autumn Dragon Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Aztec' (Aztec Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Bangkok Yellow' (Bangkok Yellow Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Beloved' (Beloved Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Bengal Tiger' (Bengal Tiger Canna) · C. x generalis 'Bill Johnson' (Bill Johnson Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Bittersweet' (Bittersweet Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Black Knight' (Black Knight Canna) · C. x generalis 'Black Magic' (Black Magic Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Black Velvet' (Black Velvet Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Blushing Beauty' (Blushing Beauty Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Boca Blue' (Boca Blue Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Bonfire' (Bonfire Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Bonnezeaux' (Bonnezeaux Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Borneo' (Canna)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 15, 2007:
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- , Australian National Herbarium
- Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Bishop Museum Natural History Specimen Data
- Botanical Research Institute of Texas, Andes to Amazon Biodiversity Program
- Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden Virtual Herbarium Darwin Core format
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- inatura - Erlebnis Naturschau Dornbirn, inatura - Erlebnis Naturschau Dornbirn
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2662182
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Kew-223906
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13754434
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:796023-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 8858
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 42413
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 149712-3
- MoBot NameID: 5800006
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PMCAN01060
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: CAED2
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 18985
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- Mean = 532.090 meters (1,745.702 feet), Standard Deviation = 881.980 based on 503 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]