Common Names in English:
Bandana of the Everglades, Bandana-Of-The-Everglades, Bandanna of the Everglades, Golden Canna, Golden Canna Canna Flaccida, Panama Canna
. Stems erect
. Rhizomes tuberous
. Leaves alternate, spirally arranged
, large, veins pinnate and parallel, base
. Inflorescence a terminal
or panicle of showy, 1- or 2-flowered cincinni. Flowers bisexual
, mostly large. Sepals 3, green, free
. Corolla lobes
3, green or colored
, basally connate
into a tube
to staminodes. Staminodes and stamen in 2 whorls: outer whorl with (2 or) 3 conspicuous
staminodes, usually red or yellow; inner whorl with a reflexed
staminode (labellum), narrower than outer staminodes, and a fertile
1-loculed, adnate to apical margin
of filament. Ovary inferior, 3-loculed; ovules numerous
per locule; placentation axile
. Style petaloid. Fruit a capsule, 3-valved, usually warty. Seeds many, globose
; endosperm copious
; embryo straight.
One genus and ten to twenty species: tropical and subtropical America; one species (introduced ) in China.
, 1--2[--5] m
, forming small to large monotypic stands. Leaves green [bronze or magenta in hybrids and cultivars], often glaucous [lanuginose]; blade
to narrowly elliptic
, 20--70 cm ´ 15--30 cm, base
gradually or abruptly tapered, apex acute to acuminate. Inflorescences: peduncles green [magenta], often glaucous; bracts green [magenta], often glaucous; primary
bracts to 30 cm, secondary bracts to 20 cm; floral
bracts 0.5--3 ´ 0.3--1.5 cm, papery
. Flowers nearly sessile, subtended by pedicel bract; sepals usually green [magenta], often less than half size of petals; petals sharply reflexed
or not, green or brightly colored
, 4--15 cm, generally shorter than staminodes; staminodes pale
yellow to deep crimson red; labellum 3--9 ´ 4--10 cm; ovary green [magenta]. Capsules brown, 1.5--6 ´ 2--4.5 cm, warty, becoming papery. Seeds 5--25[--75] per capsule, medium to dark brown or black, 4--10 ´ 4--8 mm.
Species 10: tropical and subtropical Americas with some species naturalized and many cultivated hybrids.
Until recently taxonomists recognized more than 50 species in Canna, but that number has now been reduced to ten (P. J. M. Maas 1985; P. J. M. Maas and H. Maas 1988) based mainly on new concepts of biogeographical history, the extent of hybridization during cultivation, and the plasticity of morphological features, especially in the highly polymorphic species C. indica.
Little has been published regarding pollination of these plants . The two North American species with pale yellow flowers, Canna glauca and C. flaccida, flower at dusk and may be pollinated by hawkmoths. Several neotropical species with bright red or orange flowers are hummingbird-pollinated. Nectar, which accumulates at the base of the floral tube , is the apparent reward in all cases. Pollen is shed from the bisporangiate anther onto the adjacent style before the flower opens (secondary pollen presentation), which usually results in self-pollination ; thus, greenhouse-grown plants readily set seed. The large seed size and lack of reward for potential animal dispersal agents suggests that seeds are dispersed by gravity and water. Seeds can germinate and produce reproductive shoots in a single growing season .
Both Canna flaccida and C. glauca, as well as several Central American species, are hosts to the larva of the skipper butterfly Calpodes ethlius (Cramer), ), which builds protective tents by folding or rolling the apices of the leaves.
The most common use of Canna by Europeans and North Americans is as ornamentals . Both the hybrids and some species are grown for their striking foliage and large, delicate flowers. Two hybrids commonly grown in both temperate and tropical zones are C. Ã—generalis L. H. Bailey and C. Ã—orchioides L. H. Bailey. The former is apparently a cross between C. indica and C. glauca, or C. iridiflora Ruiz & and Pavóon and the latter between C. Ã—generalis and C. flaccida (L. H. Bailey 1924; J. W. Donahue 1965) . These hybrids are usually sterile , although they may persist in cultivation.
The seeds of Canna indica are used as beads (especially for rosaries) and in gourds to form rattles . The rhizomes are used to make a form of arrowroot. The vegetation and rhizomes have been used as medicinals for both humans and domesticated animals.
Species Canna flaccida
. Leaves: sheath
glaucous; blade narrowly
to narrowly elliptic
, 20--50 ´ 8--12 cm, base
narrowed into sheath, apex acute. Inflorescences racemes
bearing 1-flowered cincinni, fewer than 5 flowers per inflorescence;
bracts 10--30 cm; secondary bracts generally absent; floral
, (broadly) ovate-triangular, 0.5--1 ´ 0.4--0.7
cm, glaucous, apex entire or irregularly lobed
; bracteoles ovate-triangular,
0.3--2 cm ´ 4--8 mm, apex entire or irregularly lobed. Flowers
pure yellow, 10--15 cm; pedicels short, to 0.5 cm; sepals narrowly
oblong-elliptic, 2.5--3.5 ´ 0.4--0.6 cm; petals strongly reflexed
10--12 cm, tube
4 cm, lobes
narrowly oblong-elliptic, 6--8 cm
´ 4--13 mm, base sharply reflexed; staminodes 3, broadly ovate,
9--11 ´ 8--9 cm; labellum not obviously reflexed, broadly ovate,
ca. 10 ´ 8--9 cm. Capsules irregularly ellipsoid
, 5--6 ´
4--4.5 cm. Seeds brown, nearly globose
, 6--6.5 ´ 5--6 mm.
= 18. Flowering primarily summer; fruiting shortly thereafter. [source]
Canna flaccida was reported from Texas (D. S. Correll and M. C. Johnston 1970), but no specimens have been seen to verify. Although no specimens have been seen from the area between the Louisiana site and the Alabama site, Canna flaccida is to be expected there. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: March, May, June, July. • Flower Color: pale yellow, yellow
Size: 24-36" tall.
Typically found in the intertidal zone at the water's edge at a mean distance from sea level of 19 meters (62 feet).
Culture: Space 15-18" apart.
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 8a, 8b, 9a, 9b, 10a, 10b, 11. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Zingiberanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Commelinidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 21-Jun-2005
Members of the genus Canna
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 570 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
C. altensteinii (Canna) · C. americanallis var. Variegata f. ruminoides (Variegated Canna) · C. aurantiaca (Canna Lily Canna Aurantiaca) · C. bangii (Canna Lily Canna Bangii) · C. brasiliensis (Canna Lily Canna Brasiliensis) · C. compacta (Canna Lily Canna Compacta) · C. discolor (Canna Lily Canna Discolor) · C. esculenta (Canna Lily Canna Esculenta) · C. flaccida (Bandana of the Everglades) · C. generalis (Canna Lily) · C. glauca (Louisiana Canna) · C. glauca 'Endeavour' (Endeavour Aquatic Canna Lily Canna Glauca) · C. glauca 'Erebus' (Erebus Aquatic Canna Lily Canna Glauca) · C. glauca 'Fuchsia Fantasy' (Fuchsia Fantasy Canna Lily) · C. glauca 'Longwood Hybrid' (Longwood Canna) · C. glauca 'Panache' (Panache Aquatic Canna Lily Canna Glauca) · C. glauca 'Ra' (Ra Aquatic Canna Lily Canna Glauca) · C. glauca 'Taney' (Taney Aquatic Canna Lily Canna Glauca) · C. indica (Canna) · C. indica var. maculata (Canna Lily) · C. indica 'Alberich' (Alberich Indian Shot Canna Indica) · C. indica 'Anchiras' (Anchiras Tous Les Mois Canna Indica) · C. indica 'Belize' (Belize Canna Lily) · C. indica 'Crozy's New Hybrids' (Crozy's New Hybrids Canna Lily) · C. indica 'Mactro' (Tropicanna® Gold Canna) · C. indica 'Musafolia' (Musafolia Banana Canna Canna Indica) · C. indica 'Phasion' (Tropicanna® Canna) · C. indica 'Purpurea' (Edible Canna) · C. indica 'Red Stripe' (Canna Lily) · C. indica 'Rosea' (Rosea Canna Lily) · C. iridiflora (Canna Lily Canna Iridiflora) · C. jacobiniflora (Canna) · C. lambertii (Lambert's Canna) · C. lanuginosa (Canna Lily Canna Lanuginosa) · C. liliiflora (Canna Lily Canna Liliiflora) · C. lumbautum (Canna Lily) · C. lutea (Yellow Canna) · C. 'Musifolia' (Banana Canna Canna Musifolia) · C. 'Musifolia Grande' (Grande Banana Canna Canna Musifolia) · C. neglecta (Broadleaf Canna) · C. orchiodes (Orchid Canna) · C. orchioides (Orchid Canna Canna Orchioides) · C. orientalis (Canna Lily Canna Orientalis) · C. paniculata (Canna Lily Canna Paniculata) · C. patens (Canna Lily Canna Patens) · C. pertusa (Canna) · C. speciosa (Canna Lily Canna Speciosa) · C. sylvestris (Canna) · C. tuerckheimii (Canna Lily Canna Tuerckheimii) · C. var. Oiseau De Feu (Firebird Canna) · C. warszewiczii (Canna Lily Canna Warszewiczii) · C. x (Canna Lily) · C. x ehemanii (Canna Lily Canna X Ehemanii) · C. × generalis (Tropicanna Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Adam's Orange' (Adam's Orange Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'African Scarlet Speckle' (African Scarlet Speckle Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Afterglow' (Afterglow Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Aida' (Aida Canna Lily) · C. x generalis'Aires' (Aires Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Alaska' (Alaska Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Alfred Cole' (Alfred Cole Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Allegheny' (Allegheny Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Alyse' (Alyse Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Amazing Grace' (Amazing Grace Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Amazon Butterfly' (Amazon Butterfly Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Ambassador' (Ambassador Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Ambassadour' (Ambassadour Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Ambrosia' (Ambrosia Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'America' (America Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Angele Martin' (Angele Martin Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Angel Pink' (Angel Pink Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Annaei' (Annaei Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Anthony De Crozy' (Anthony De Crozy Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Apache Blaze' (Apache Blaze Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Aphrodite' (Aphrodite Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Apricot Dream' (Apricot Dream Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Apricot Frost' (Apricot Frost Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Apricot Ice' (Apricot Ice Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Aquarius' (Aquarius Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Aranalyom' (Aranalyom Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Arctic' (Arctic Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Argentia' (Argentia Canna Lily) · C. x generalis'Aristote' (Aristote Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Assaut' (Assaut Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Australia' (Australia Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Autumn Dragon' (Autumn Dragon Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Aztec' (Aztec Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Bangkok Yellow' (Bangkok Yellow Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Beloved' (Beloved Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Bengal Tiger' (Bengal Tiger Canna) · C. x generalis 'Bill Johnson' (Bill Johnson Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Bittersweet' (Bittersweet Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Black Knight' (Black Knight Canna) · C. x generalis 'Black Magic' (Black Magic Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Black Velvet' (Black Velvet Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Blushing Beauty' (Blushing Beauty Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Boca Blue' (Boca Blue Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Bonfire' (Bonfire Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Bonnezeaux' (Bonnezeaux Canna Lily) · C. x generalis 'Borneo' (Canna)
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- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 18, 2007:
- Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden, Fairchild Tropical Botanic Garden Virtual Herbarium Darwin Core format
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2662180
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Kew-223885
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13754435
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:796007-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 8855
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 42410
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 146049-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PMCAN01030
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: CAFL11
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 27725
- Delin Wu & W. John Kress "Cannaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 24 Page 378. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Canna". in Flora of North America Vol. 22. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Canna flaccida". in Flora of North America Vol. 22. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Standard Deviation = 113.570 based on 133 observations. Terrestrial altitude and ocean depth information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]