Plants small to large, often in dense tufts. Stems erect
or dichotomously to irregularly branched, usually with central strand, often densely radiculose
occasionally deciduous. Leaves in several rows
around the stem, erect or secund
, often falcate-secund, sometimes crispate
, short- to long-lanceolate, whole leaves or their tips sometimes deciduous; costa single, usually strong
to excurrent, sometimes ending in a short to long hyaline
or lamellose on abaxial
surface, rhizoids occasionally on adaxial
or abaxial surface near leaf base
smooth or sometimes distal cells mammillose
on one or both sides, papillae rarely forked
, or toothed
cell ends, pitted
or nonpitted; proximal
, often differentiated in alar
region, sometimes undifferentiated. Specialized asexual
reproduction absent or occasionally present as brood leaves, microphyllous
branches, borne in axils of distal leaves or as rhizoidal tubers. Sexual condition autoicous
, dioicous or pseudomonoicous. Seta solitary or several per perichaetium
, elongate, usually straight, sometimes flexuose or cygneous
. Capsule exserted, erect, inclined
, or sometimes curved
, cylindrical or ovoid
, smooth, ridged, furrowed
or irregularly wrinkled, sometimes strumose
; stomata present or absent, superficial; annulus present or absent, often compound
, deciduous or persistent
; operculum conic or obliquely rostrate
from a conic base; peristome single, usually of 16 lanceolate teeth, deeply divided
into 2 or rarely 3 divisions, usually vertically striolate
or pitted-striolate proximally, papillose distally. Calyptra cucullate
, smooth, naked, sometimes fringed
at base, usually covering most of capsule, fugacious
. Spores mostly spheric, smooth to papillose.
Genera 50-52, species ca. 900 (17 genera, 90 species in the flora ) : worldwide.
Distinctive characters of this large acrocarpous family include the erect, often tomentose stems; mostly narrow, lanceolate, occasionally falcate or falcate-secund leaves, with a single, narrow to broad costa, with or without rhizoids at the base, sometimes ending in a hyaline, occasionally toothed apex, costa in cross section with or without stereid bands , leaf cells usually smooth, sometimes mammillose, or rarely with a single papilla on one or both sides, papillae rarely forked, asexual propagation by specialized deciduous branches, deciduous leaves or leaf apices, rarely rhizoidal tubers; sporophytes usually solitary or rarely clustered, setae mostly elongate, straight or rarely flexuose or cygneous, capsule cylindric to ovoid, erect to horizontal, smooth or ribbed , sometimes strumose, operculum usually obliquely rostrate, peristome single, with 16 teeth often divided 1/2 way to the base, usually striolate or pitted-striolate proximally, papillose distally.
Plants usually 3-10 cm, occasionally longer
. Stems usually simple
, not tomentose
or with dense reddish or whitish tomentum
. Leaves 3-12 mm, erect-patent or appressed
, narrowly lanceolate, ending in a smooth
, straight or reflexed
; alar cells
or reddish brown, or not differentiated; basal laminal
thin-walled, hyaline, or thick-walled, chlorophyllose, sometimes with pitted
walls, rectangular to subquadrate
; distal laminal cell walls incrassate
to short-rectangular, oblique
, or oval
oval; costa strong
, filling 1/3-4/5 of leaf width
, excurrent in a more or less long, chlorophyllose or hyaline awn, in transverse
showing a median
of deuters, an adaxial
layer of hyalocysts
, and abaxially layers of stereid or non-stereid cells, and an abaxial
; abaxial side of the costa smooth, ridged
or lamellose. Specialized asexual
reproduction by brood leaves, microphyllous
branches, deciduous leaves or stem tips or rhizoidal tubers. Sexual condition dioicous. Perichaetia terminal
, often bud like, rarely pseudolateral; perichaetial leaves with a broader, sheathing
and a long, narrow subula. Seta 5-10 mm, those of young sporophytes curved
downward, pushing the immature
capsule between the comal
leaves and leaving the calyptra behind
when the mature
capsule curves upward, sinuose, twisted, cygneous
when wet and performing uncoiling movements. Capsule erect
or curved and asymmetric
, sometimes strumose
when empty; annulus present but not dehiscent
; operculum rostrate
, half as long as the capsule; peristome teeth divided
to the middle
in two prongs, reddish or orange and horizontally striate
proximally, hyaline and papillose
distally. Calyptra cucullate
or entire at base. Spores ca.
13 µm, smooth or papillose.
Species ca. 180: North America, Mexico, West Indies, Central America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, Atlantic Islands, Pacific Islands, Australia.
The North American species of Campylopus were revised by J.-P. Frahm (1980) based on a study of more than 1000 herbarium specimens. At that time, four species of Campylopus were recorded as new to North America and two species were placed into synonymy . The most recent checklist of the mosses of North America (L. E. Anderson et al. 1990) lists 18 species. Of these, the record of C. zygodonticarpus is based on a misidentification and C. paradoxus is a superfluous name for C. flexuosus, which is also included in the list. Since that time, C. japonicus has been newly recorded for North America, resulting in a total of 17 species, and new names have been introduced for C. aureus, C. japonicus, and C. schwarzii.
Campylopus was formerly divided into three subgenera on the basis of morphology of the transverse section of the costa. Although this classification is no longer used, the anatomy of the costa is still an important character for identification. It is, however, not in all cases necessary to prepare cross sections. The presence of adaxial stereids or hyalocysts can also be observed under the microscope by surface view of the adaxial side of the costa. Since the perichaetial leaves vary in both form and by the presence of thin-walled cells walls in species that usually have thick-walled cells, the study of such characters should be avoided. Alar cells are generally also not a valuable character in Campylopus; they are little differentiated in plants growing in damp habitats but are well developed in plants in exposed habitats with water uptake from the underground. The same is true for the presence or absence of a tomentum. Identification is facilitated if the ranges of the species are considered. Many species are found only very locally.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,936 meters (0 to 16,194 feet).
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- A. Braun, in Ascherson, 1860
- (Linnaeus, 1753) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Superorder: Haplolepideae ()
- Subclass: Dicranidae ()
- Class: Bryopsida () - Mosses
- Infraphylum: Bryatae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Subphylum: Musci () - (Linnaeus, 1753) Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Phylum: Bryophyta () - A. Braun, in Ascherson, 1860 - Mosses
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 19-Jul-2004
Members of the genus Campylopus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 20 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
C. angustiretis (Campylopus Moss) · C. arctocarpus (Campylopus Moss) · C. atrovirens (Campylopus Moss) · C. atrovirens var. cucullatifolius (Campylopus Moss) · C. aureus (Campylopus Moss) · C. carolinae (Carolina Campylopus Moss) · C. cucullatifolius (Campylopus Moss) · C. flexuosus (Campylopus Moss) · C. fragilis (Fragile Campylopus Moss) · C. introflexus (Campylopus Moss) · C. oerstedianus (Oersted's Campylopus Moss) · C. paradoxus (Paradox Campylopus Moss) · C. pilifer (Campylopus Moss) · C. pyriformis (Campylopus Moss) · C. schimperi (Schimper's Campylopus Moss) · C. schwarzii (Schwarz's Campylopus Moss) · C. subulatus (Campylopus Moss) · C. surinamensis (Surinam Campylopus Moss) · C. tallulensis (Tallul Campylopus Moss) · C. zygodonticarpus (Campylopus Moss)
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- Dusén, P. (1905a): Beiträge zur Bryologie der Magellansländer, von Westpatagonien und Südchile (Teil 2) - Arkiv för botanik utgivet av k. svenska vetenskapsakedemien 4(1), pp. 1-45 [Tafel 1-11]
- Müller, P. and J.-P. Frahm. 1987. A review of the Paraleucobryoideae (Dicranaceae). Nova Hedwigia 45: 283-314.
- Williams, R. S. 1913. Dicranaceae. In: N. L. Britton et al., eds. 1905+. North American Flora. ..... 47+ vols. New York. Vol. 15, pp. 77-158.
- Frahm, J.-P. 1994. A contribution to the differentiation of Campylopus subulatus and C. tallulensis in North America. Evansia 11: 95-99.
- Frahm, J.-P. 1980. Synopsis of the genus Campylopus in North America north of Mexico. Bryologist 83: 570-588.
- Frahm, J.-P. and D. H. Vitt. 1978. A taxonomic study of Campylopus schimperi and C. subulatus in North America. Brittonia 30: 365-372.
- Bisby, F.A., Y.R. Roskov, M.A. Ruggiero, T.M. Orrell, L.E. Paglinawan, P.W. Brewer, N. Bailly, J. van Hertum, eds (2007). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2007 Annual Checklist. Species 2000: Reading, U.K.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed February 27, 2008. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 5 providers.
- MOST: Moss TROPICOS Database. Release date: July 19, 2004
- Moss TROPICOS: the World Checklist of Mosses
- Moss TROPICOS DatabaseJul 1, 2004.
- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal February 27, 2008:
- Australian National Herbarium (CANB)
- Canadian Museum of Nature: Canadian Museum of Nature Herbarium
- GBIF-Spain: Real Jardin Botanico, Madrid: MA-Musci
- Herbarium of the University of Aarhus: The AAU Herbarium Database
- Missouri Botanical Garden
- UNIBIO, IBUNAM: MEXU/Colección de Briofitas
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 3935463
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: MOS-35156457
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 531171
- Robert R. Ireland Jr. "Dicranaceae". in Flora of North America Vol. 27 Page 12, 39, 331, 358, 360, 426, 427, 433, 440, 443, 444, 548, 564. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Jan-Peter Frahm "Campylopus". in Flora of North America Vol. 27 Page 25, 359, 366, 367, 376, 394, 395, 440. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 2,185.020 meters (7,168.701 feet), Standard Deviation = 1,189.130 based on 152 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]