Common Names in English:
The Campanulaceae are herbs, shrubs , or rarely small trees comprising about 70 genera and 2,000 species usually with milky sap . The leaves are nearly always alternate and simple ; stipules are absent The flowers are bisexual , and actinomorphic in the subfamily Campanuloideae but zygomorphic in the Lobelioideae. The perianth and androecium are usually 5-merous, sometimes 3-10-merous. The calyx and corolla each consist of connate segments. The stamens equal the number of corolla lobes , alternate with them, and are adnate to the extreme base of the corolla or epigynous zone or more commonly arise from the annular epigynous nectary disk; the filaments are distinct and the anthers are introrse and only weakly connivent around the style in the Campanuloideae but in the lobelioideae the introrse anthers and also often the filaments are firmly connate. The gynoecium consists of a single compound pistil of usually 2 carpels and locules with numerous axile ovules in the subfamily Lobelioideae but usually consists of 3-5 carpels and locules with numerous axile ovules in the subfamily Campanuloideae. The single style commonly has a number of lobes or stigmas equal to the number of carpels. The ovary is nearly always inferior and is generally crowned with an epigynous annular nectary disk. The fruit is usually a capsule or berry. -- Gerald Carr.
, or hirsute
. Leaves simple
, alternate or forming rosettes at the base
. Inflorescence 1-many flowered, with racemes
or spikes. Flowers blue to purple or white. Sepals 5, with or without reflexed
; calyx tube
to the ovary, segments 5-lobed. Corolla campanulate
, funnel-shaped or tubular
. Stamens 5, free
at the base. Ovary 3-locular; style cylindrical; stigmas 3. Fruit a capsule, elongated to ovoid
, with membran¬ous walls; dehiscence by irregular pores
at the bases or the sides. Seeds minute, numerous
A genus of over 300 species, mostly in the temperate regions . Represented in Pakistan by c.15 species.
Habit: Evergreen .
Flowers: Bloom Period: June. • Flower Color: light blue, medium blue, near white, white
Size: 6-12" tall.
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,500 meters (0 to 8,202 feet).
Culture: Space 6-9" apart.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 4a, 4b, 5a, 5b, 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Campanulanae () - Takhtajan Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Status: Accepted Name
Last scrutiny: 13-Jun-2008
Members of the genus Campanula
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 219 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
C. alliariifolia (Ivory Bells) · C. alpestris (Alpine Bellflower) · C. angustiflora (Eastwood's Bellflower) · C. aparinoides (Bedstraw Bellflower) · C. arvatica (Campanula) · C. aucheri (Bellflower) · C. aurita (Yukon Bellflower) · C. barbata (Bearded Bellflower) · C. betulifolia (Birch-Leaved Bellflower) · C. bononiensis (European Bellflower) · C. californica (Swamp Bellflower) · C. carnica (Bellflower) · C. carpatica (Carpathian Bellflower) · C. carpatica 'Blue Clips' (Carpathian Bellflower) · C. carpatica f. alba 'Weisse Clips' (White Clips Carpathian Harebell) · C. carpatica 'White Clips' (Carpathian Bellflower) · C. carpatica 'Alba' (Carpathian Bellflower) · C. carpatica 'China Cup' (Carpathian Bellflower) · C. carpatica 'China Doll' (Carpathian Bellflower) · C. carpatica 'Deep Blue Clips' (Carpathian Bellflower) · C. carpatica 'Pearl Deep Blue' (Carpathian Bellflower) · C. carpatica 'Pearl White' (Carpathian Bellflower) · C. carpatica 'Peter Nix' (Carpathian Bellflower) · C. carpatica 'Thor Pedo' (Carpathian Bellflower) · C. carpatica 'Ultra' (Carpathian Bellflower) · C. carpatica 'White Star' (Carpathian Bellflower) · C. cashmeriana (Kashmir Bellflower) · C. cashmeriana 'Blue Cloud' (Kashmir Bellflower) · C. cenisia (Mt. Cenis Bellflower) · C. chamissonis (Dasyantha) · C. chamissonis 'Oyobenii' (Dasyantha) · C. cochlearifolia (Earleaf Bellflower) · C. cochlearifolia 'Bavarian Blue' (Earleaf Bellflower) · C. cochlearifolia 'Bavarian White' (Earleaf Bellflower) · C. cochlearifolia 'Elizabeth Oliver' (Earleaf Bellflower) · C. cochleariifolia 'Bavaria Blue' (Bavaria Blue Dwarf Bellflower) · C. collina (Blue Dwarf Bellflower) · C. divaricata (Panicled Bellflower) · C. elatines var. fenestrellata (Bellflower) · C. elatinoides (Bellflower) · C. excisa (Bellflower) · C. exigua (Chaparral Bellflower) · C. floridana (Florida Bellflower) · C. formanekiana (Bellflower) · C. formanekiana 'Pkmfor168' (Macedonian Harebell 'pkmfor168') · C. garganica (Adriatic Bellflower) · C. garganica 'Backhouse' (Adriatic Bellflower 'backhouse') · C. garganica 'Dickson's Gold' (Dickson's Gold Adriatic Bellflower) · C. garganica 'Hirsuta' (Adriatic Bellflower) · C. gieseckiana groenlandica (Gieseck's Bellflower) · C. gieseckiana subsp. groenlandica (Greenland Bellflower) · C. glomerata (Clustered Bellflower) · C. glomerata 'Crown of Snow' (Clustered Bellflower) · C. glomerata 'Acaulis' (Clustered Bellflower) · C. glomerata 'Alba' (Clustered Bellflower) · C. glomerata 'Caroline' (Clustered Bellflower) · C. glomerata 'Joan Elliott' (Clustered Bellflower) · C. glomerata'Joan Elliot' (Clustered Bellflower) · C. glomerata 'Purple Pixie' (Clustered Bellflower) · C. glomerata 'Superba' (Clustered Bellflower) · C. griffinii (Griffin's Bellflower) · C. groenlandica (Greenland Bellflower) · C. grossekii (Bellflower) · C. hawkinsiana (Bellflower) · C. incurva (Bellflower) · C. isophylla (Falling Stars) · C. isophylla Starina Bicolor Star = 'Camp Bulewhit' (Italian Bellflower [starina Bicolor Star]) · C. isophylla 'Mayi' (Falling Stars) · C. kemulariae (Bellflower) · C. kolenatiana (Bellflower) · C. lactiflora 'Dwarf Pink' (Milky Bellflower) · C. lactiflora 'Loddon Anna' (Milky Bellflower) · C. lactiflora 'Pritchards Variety' (Milky Bellflower) · C. lanata (Woolly Bellflower) · C. lasiocarpa (Common Alaska Harebell) · C. latifolia (Giant Bellflower) · C. latifolia var. macrantha (Wide-Leaved Bellflower) · C. latifolia 'Brantwood' (Wide-Leaved Bellflower) · C. latifolia 'Eriocarpa' (Wide-Leaved Bellflower) · C. latifolia 'Gloaming' (Wide-Leaved Bellflower) · C. latiloba 'Faichem Lilac' (Bellflower) · C. latiloba 'Splash' (Bellflower) · C. ledebouriana (Bellflower) · C. linarioides (Tuffybells) · C. longistyla 'Isabella' (Compact Lavender Bellflower) · C. lusitanica (Bellflower) · C. makaschvilii (Bellflower) · C. medium (Canterbury Bellflower) · C. medium 'Alba' (Canterbury Bells) · C. medium 'Caerulea' (Blue Cup And Saucer) · C. medium 'Calycanthema Double Mix' (Canterbury Bells) · C. medium 'Calycanthema Mix' (Canterbury Bells Cup And Saucer) · C. medium 'Champion Blue' (Canterbury Bells) · C. medium 'Chelsea Pink' (Canterbury Bells) · C. medium 'Cup and Saucer' (Canterbury Bells) · C. medium 'Pkmm01' (Bellflower 'pkmm01') · C. medium 'Rosea' (Canterbury Bells) · C. mirabilis (Campanula) · C. morettiana (Campanula) · C. ochroleuca (Bellflower)
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Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 15, 2007:
- Biologiezentrum der Oberoesterreichischen Landesmuseen, Biologiezentrum Linz
- Bundesamt für Naturschutz / Zentralstelle für Phytodiversität Deutschland, Bundesamt fuer Naturschutz / Zentralstelle fuer Phytodiversitaet Deutschland
- European Environment Agency, EUNIS
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plant Herbarium, Oslo
- Natural History Museum, University of Oslo, Vascular Plants, Field notes, Oslo
- Steiermärkisches Landesmuseum Joanneum - Herbarium GJO, Herbarium GJO
- Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum
- inatura - Erlebnis Naturschau Dornbirn, inatura - Erlebnis Naturschau Dornbirn
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 1671908
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Kew-364044
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13745220
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:139966-1
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 139966-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 645354
- E. Nasir "Campanula". in Flora of Pakistan . Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 658.690 meters (2,161.056 feet), Standard Deviation = 532.300 based on 212 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]