Click on the language to view common names.
Common Names in Chinese:
Common Names in Danish:
ægte Kamelia, Kamelia
Common Names in English:
April Tryst Spring Blooming Camellia, April Tryst Spring-Blooming Camellia, Bette Sette Common Camellia, Bette Sette Japanese Camellia, Camellia, Camellia 'chandleri Elegans', Camellia 'nuccio's Pearl', Common Camellia, Japanese Camellia
Common Names in Estonian:
Common Names in French:
Camélia, Camélia Du Japon, Rose Du Japon
Common Names in German:
Japanische Kamelie, Kamelie
Common Names in Informal Latinized N:
Common Names in Japanese:
Housan Tsubaki, taiwan Yama Tsubaki, tsubaki, yabu Tsubaki, Yama Tsubaki
Common Names in Polish:
Common Names in Portuguese:
Common Names in Russian:
Common Names in Spanish:
Common Names in Swedish:
or rarely deciduous, usually bisexual
, rarely dioecious (Eurya) or androdioecious
(Ternstroemia) . Stipules absent. Leaves simple
, alternate, petiolate
or rarely sessile; leaf blade
secondary veins pinnate, margin
usually serrate or rarely entire. Flowers axillary
, solitary or sometimes to 3(-10 or more) in a cluster
. Bracteoles 2-8 or rarely more, persistent
, sometimes undifferentiated from sepals. Sepals 5(or 6) or rarely more, persistent. Corolla white, red, or yellow; petals 5 or rarely more, basally connate
or rarely distinct
to androecium. Stamens numerous
, in 1-6 whorls; outer filaments
basally ± connate; anthers
, 2-loculed, laterally and longitudinally dehiscent
. Gynoecium 3-5-carpellate. Carpels connate or rarely incompletely connate to nearly distinct. Ovary superior, rarely half inferior, 3-5-loculed, placentation axile
or rarely nearly basal; ovules 2-5(to ca.
100) or more per locule; styles distinct to basally connate, rarely completely united
. Fruit a loculicidal capsule or indehiscent and drupaceous
, with 1 to many seeds per locule; pericarp woody, leathery, or fleshy
; columella persistent or ± degenerating. Seeds globose
, semiglobose, compressed
, or reniform
or wingless; testa bony, leathery, or sometimes with a fleshy red outer layer or sarcotesta
(in Anneslea and Ternstroemia), smooth
; endosperm present or absent; embryo large or small; cotyledons fleshy or thin.
About 19 genera and 600 species: tropical and subtropical Africa, tropical America, E, S, and SE Asia, SE North America, Pacific islands; 12 genera (two endemic) and 274 species (204 endemic) in China.
The greatest species diversity of Theaceae is in S China and adjacent SE Asia.
The two subfamilies of Theaceae used here are sometimes treated as separate families (Theaceae and Ternstroemiaceae) .
or small trees
, rarely large trees, evergreen
. Leaves petiolate
or rarely sessile and amplexicaul
; leaf blade
leathery to thinly leathery, margin
, or rarely entire. Flowers axillary
, solitary or rarely to 3 in a cluster
. In C. subg. Thea flowers clearly pedicellate
; bracteoles differentiated from sepals, 2-10, spirally arranged
; sepals 5(or 6), persistent, distinct
or basally connate
. In C. subg. Camellia flowers apparently sessile, actually with a short stout pedicel completely covered by bracteoles and sepals at anthesis
; bracteoles and sepals not differentiated, ca.
10, caducous or persistent. Petals 5-8(-12), white, red, or yellow, basally ± connate. Stamens numerous
, in 2-6 whorls; outer filament
whorl basally ± connate into a tube
to petals; anthers
, 2-loculed, longitudinally and laterally cleft
. Ovary superior, 3-5-loculed, placentation axile
. Capsule globose
, 3-5-loculed, sometimes reduced to 1- or 2-loculed by abortion
, loculicidal into (1-) 3-5 valves
from apex; columella persistent or lacking. Seeds globose, semiglobose, or polygonal; testa hornlike; hilum
; cotyledons full and fleshy
with high oil
content; endosperm absent.
About 120 species: Bhutan, Cambodia, China, NE India, Indonesia, S Japan, S Korea, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam; 97 species (76 endemic) in China.
Some of the varieties of Camellia used in this treatment may represent extremes in a range of variation that in reality is continuous and would be better treated by just describing the pattern of variation within an overall species. Additional study may show that fewer varieties are justified in being recognized than are represented in the present treatment.
The main economic value of Camellia is the production of tea made from the young leaves of C. sinensis var. sinensis and C. sinensis var. assamica. The next most economically important species is C. oleifera which has the longest history of cultivation and utilization in China for oil, used primarily in cooking, extracted from its seeds. Other species used locally for seed oil production include C. chekiangoleosa, C. drupifera, and C. reticulata.
Camellia species are of great ornamental value, especially C. japonica, C. reticulata, and C. sasanqua Thunberg, with by far the greatest number of named cultivars being those of C. japonica, although many other species have ornamental potential. Other species have been used ornamentally for hybridization, particularly with C. japonica, to incorporate desirable characteristics such as the yellow petal color of C. petelotii, the frost hardiness of C. oleifera, or the fragrance of C. grijsii and C. lutchuensis. The species C. hiemalis Nakai, C. maliflora Lindley, C. rosiflora Hooker, C. sasanqua, and C. uraku Kitamura were treated in FRPS (49(3) . 1998) but occur in China only as cultivated plants and are therefore not treated here.
Species Camellia japonica
Shrubs or trees , 1.5-6(-11) m tall. Young branches grayish brown; current year branchlets purplish brown, glabrous . Petiole 5-10 mm, glabrous or adaxially pubescent ; leaf blade broadly elliptic , elliptic, or oblong-elliptic, 5-10.5(-12) × 2.5-6(-7) cm, leathery, abaxially pale green and brown glandular punctate , adaxially dark green, both surfaces glabrous, midvein yellowish green, thick, and elevated on both surfaces, secondary veins 6-9 on each side of midvein, slender, and visible on both surfaces, base cuneate to broadly cuneate, margin serrulate , apex shortly acuminate and with an obtuse tip . Flowers axillary or subterminal , solitary or paired , 6-10 cm in diam., subsessile . Bracteoles and sepals ca. 9, green at anthesis ; outer 4 bracteoles and sepals lunate to semiorbicular, 2-5 mm, glabrous, subglabrous, or grayish white velutinous ; inner bracteoles and sepals green, persistent to young fruit, orbicular to broadly ovate , 1-2 cm, thinly leathery, both surfaces grayish white velutinous or subglabrous, margin membranous. Petals 6 or 7 but often more for cultivars, rose or white, obovate to broadly obovate, 3-4.5 × 1.5-2.5 cm, apex emarginate ; inner 5 petals basally connate for 0.5-1.5 cm. Stamens 2.5-3.5 cm, glabrous; outer filament whorl basally connate for 1.5-2.5 cm. Gynoecium ca. 3 cm, glabrous. Ovary ovoid , 3-loculed; style ca. 2.8 cm, apically 3-lobed. Capsule globose , 2.5-4.5 cm in diam., 3-loculed with 1 or 2 seeds per locule; pericarp 5-8 mm thick when dry, woody. Seeds brown, semiglobose to globose, 1-2 cm in diam., glabrous. Fl. Jan-Mar, fr. Sep-Oct. 2n = 30, 45, 75. [source]
Habit: Evergreen .
Flowers: Bright red, anemone-form flowers. Blooms in spring . • Bloom Period: January, February, March. • Flower Color: mauve , red, rose • Flower Conspicuous: Rosette, white and variegated blooms , too
Foliage: Leathery, glossy • Foliage Shape: Elliptic • Normal foliage color: Green • Underside foliage: Green • Juvenile foliage: Green • Mature foliage: Green • New foliage: Green • Spring foliage: Green • Summer foliage: Green • Fall foliage: Green • Winter foliage: Green
Growth Rate: Moderate. • Size: 4-6' tall.
Landscape Uses: Foundation. Border . • Care: Follow a regular watering schedule during the first growing season to establish a deep, extensive root system . Provide well drained soil, rich in organic matter. Feed with an acid fertilizer after bloom . Keep roots cool with a thick layer of mulch.
Forests ; 300-1100 m .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 4,212 meters (0 to 13,819 feet).
Culture: Space 36-48" apart.
Soil: Organic , well-drained soil. • Minimum pH: 5.6 • Maximum pH: 6.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full Sun .
Moisture: Water Requirements: Water regularly, when top 3 in. of soil is dry.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Camellia japonica H. Lév. • Thea japonica (L.) Baill.
Publishing author : Champ. Publication : Hooker's J. Bot. Kew Gard. Misc. 3: 309 1851
Members of the genus Camellia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 290 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus. Here are just 100 of them:
C. brevistyla (Camellia) · C. caudata (Camellia) · C. chekiangoleosa (Camellia) · C. chrysantha (Yellow Camellia) · C. cuspidata (Camellia) · C. edithae (Camellia) · C. edithae 'Dongnan Shancha' (Camellia) · C. hiemalis 'Autumn Breeze' (Snow Camellia) · C. hiemalis 'Autumn Rose' (Snow Camellia) · C. hiemalis 'Pink Goddess' (Snow Camellia) · C. hiemalis 'Shishi Gashira' (Snow Camellia) · C. hiemalis 'Showa-No-Sakae' (Snow Camellia) · C. hiemalis 'Showa Supreme' (Snow Camellia) · C. japonica (April Tryst Spring Blooming Camellia) · C. japonica 'Herme' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Lady Clare' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Dahlonega' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica L. 'Debbie' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica L. 'Extravaganza' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica L. 'Mrs. Tingley' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Lady Vansittart' (Lady Vansittart Red Japanese Camellia) · C. japonica 'Tama Vino' (Tama Vino) · C. japonica 'Adorable' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Aki No Yama' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Alba Plena' (Alba Plena Camellia) · C. japonica 'April Blush' (April Blush Camellia) · C. japonica 'April Dawn' (April Dawn Japanese Camellia) · C. japonica 'April Kiss' (April Kiss Spring Blooming Camellia) · C. japonica 'April Remembered' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'April Rose' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica'April Snow' (April Snow Spring Blooming Camellia) · C. japonica 'Ascona' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Aso-Musune' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Ave Maria' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Ballet Dancer' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Bamby' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Bella Romana' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Bellbird' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Bernice Boddy' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Betty Foy Sanders' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Betty Ridley' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Betty Sette' (Betty Sette Camellia) · C. japonica 'Black Magic' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Blood of China' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Bob Hope' (Bob Hope Camellia) · C. japonica 'Bocco' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Brushfield's Yellow' (Brushfield's Yellow Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Candidissima' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Carter's Sunburst' (Carter's Sunburst Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Chandleri Elegans Variegated' (Chandleri Elegans Variegated Camellia) · C. japonica 'Choho-No-Nishiki' (Garden Camellia) · C. japonica 'Classic Pink' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Colonel Firey' (Colonel Firey Camellia) · C. japonica 'Contessa Lavinia Maggi' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Coronation' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Crane's Feather' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Dahlohnega' (Dahlohnega Camellia) · C. japonica 'Daikagura Variegated' (Daikagura Variegated Camellia) · C. japonica 'Debutante' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Doctor Tinsley' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Dona Herzilia De Freitas Magalhaes' (Comon Camellia) · C. japonica 'Drama Girl' (Drama Girl Japanese Camellia) · C. japonica 'Eguzen' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Elaine's Betty Coral' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Eleanor Hagood' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Eleanor McCown' (Eleanor Mccown Camellia) · C. japonica 'Elegans Alba' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Elegans Champagne' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Elegans Splendor' (Elegans Splendor Camellia) · C. japonica 'Fluted Orchid' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Francesco Ferruccio' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Francis Eugene Phillips' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Giuseppina Mercatelli' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Glen 40' (Glen 40 Camellia) · C. japonica 'Governor Mouton' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Grand Prix' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Gran Sultano' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Greensboro Red' (Greensboro Red Camellia) · C. japonica 'Guilio Nuccio' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Higo Hiodoshi' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Honey Glow' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Jacks' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'James Hyde Porter' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Jane Steptoe' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Jean Clere' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Jordan's Pride' (Jordan`s Pride Camellia) · C. japonica 'Ketita' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Kramers Supreme' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Kumasaka' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Kuro Delight' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Lady Laura' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Latifolia Rubra' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'La Citri' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Lemon Glow' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Magnoliaeflora' (Magnoliaeflora Camellia) · C. japonica 'Mansize' (Miniature Camellia) · C. japonica 'Marc Eleven' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Marie Bracey' (Common Camellia) · C. japonica 'Marie Mackall' (Marie Mackall Japanese Camellia) · C. japonica 'Marmorata' (Common Camellia)
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- Mean = 555.680 meters (1,823.097 feet), Standard Deviation = 1,347.840 based on 25 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]