, from bulbs. Bulbs solitary or clustered, tunicate
; tunic black or brown. Leaves basal, appearing whorled
. Inflorescences appearing terminal
, racemose, bracteate
; bracts sterile
flowers, narrowly lanceolate. Flowers actinomorphic
or zygomorphic; tepals 6, persistent
, ± equal in 2 whorls of 3, distinct
, violet, blue, or white, each 3-9-veined, lanceolate, ± twisted in drying; stamens 6; filaments
on receptacles at base
of tepals, slender; anthers
versatile, dehiscence introrse
; ovary 3-locular, septal nectaries present, ovules 6-36; style filiform
; stigma 3-lobed; pedicel spreading
to incurving-erect in fruit. Fruits capsular
, ovoid to ellipsoid
or subglobose, dehiscence loculicidal. Seeds 6-36, lustrous
to ovoid-ellipsoid, 2-4 mm.
Species 6: North America.
Cmassia has been associated with other western North American genera of Liliaceae such as Schoenolirion, Hastingsia, and especially Chlorogalum (F. Speta 1998; M. Pfosser and F. Speta 1999), but recent molecular evidence (D. J. Bogler and B . B. Simpson 1996; M. F. Fay and M. W. Chase 1996) suggests that it may be related instead to the Agavaceae. Furthermore, the bimodal, 2n = 30 karyology of Camassia (A. Fernandez and J. R. Davina 1991) is similar to that of Agavaceae (D. SatÃ´ 1935) and not that of Chlorogalum.
Camassia bulbs have been an important food staple for native Americans, especially in the Pacific Northwest (G. R. Downing and L. S. Furniss 1968; N. J. Turner and H. V. Kuhnlein 1983), where bulbs were dug and traded on large encampment meadows. Similarity to the poisonous bulbs of Zigadenus (€œdeath camas€) is a concern where ranges of the two genera overlap. Several Camassia species are cultivated and represent a major horticultural contribution from the native flora.
Variation and intergradation of C. angusta and C. scilloides have been reviewed by T. A. Ranker and A. F. Schnabel (1986), as well as J. A. Steyermark (1961), R. O. Erickson (1941), and F. W. Gould (1942).
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Order: Asparagales () - Bromhead, 1838
- Superorder: Lilianae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Liliidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : Lindl. Publication : Edwards's Bot. Reg. 18: t. 1486 1832
Members of the genus Camassia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 27 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
C. angusta (Prairie Camas) · C. cusickii (Cusick's Camas) · C. cusickii 'Zwanenburg' (Cusick's Camas) · C. howellii (Howell Camassia) · C. leichtlinii (Camas) · C. leichtlinii 'Blue Danube' (Blue Danube Camassia) · C. leichtlinii leichtlinii (Large Camas) · C. leichtlinii suksdorfii (Camas) · C. leichtlinii 'Alba' (Camassia) · C. leichtlinii 'Caerulea' (Camassia) · C. leichtlinii 'Semiplena' (Camassia) · C. leichtlinii subsp. suksdorfii (Suksdorf's Large Camas) · C. quamash azurea (Camas Lily) · C. quamash intermedia (Small Camas) · C. quamash linearis (Small Camas) · C. quamash maxima (Small Camas) · C. quamash utahensis (Camas) · C. quamash walpolei (Walpole's Small Camas) · C. quamash subsp. azurea (Small Camas) · C. quamash 'Blue Melody' (Camas Lily) · C. quamash subsp. intermedia (Small Camas) · C. quamash subsp. linearis (Small Camas) · C. quamash subsp. maxima (Small Camas) · C. quamash subsp. utahensis (Utah Small Camas) · C. quamash subsp. walpolei (Walpole's Small Camas) · C. scilloides (Atlantic Camas) · C. walpolei (Walpole's Small Camas)
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