Herbs or shrubs
, usually with twining
stems or erect
, often with milky
juice. Leaves alternate, simple
, entire, dissected
, or compound
, absent in parasitic species. Flowers solitary, axillary
or in cymes, racemes
, panicles, umbels, or capitula, bisexual
, usually 5-merous, often showy. Sepals free
, often persistent
, sometimes enlarged in fruit. Corolla sympetalous
, or urceolate
; limb subentire
or deeply lobed
. Stamens alternating with corolla lobes
to corolla; filaments
, equal or unequal in length
, laterally and longitudinally dehiscing; pollen smooth
or finely spiny
. Disc ringlike or cupular. Ovary superior, mostly 2-carpellate, 1- or 2-loculed, rarely 3- or 4-loculed; ovules basal, erect. Styles 1 or 2, terminal
in Dichondra) or very short or absent; stigma entire or 2- (or 3) -lobed, rarely peltate. Fruit a capsule, dehiscing by valves
, circumscissile, or irregularly shattering, less often a berry or nutlike. Seeds usually trigonous
, smooth or pubescent
About 58 genera and 1650 species: widely distributed in tropical , subtropical , and temperate regions ; 20 genera and 129 species in China.
Aniseia biflora (Linnaeus) Choisy and A. stenantha (Dunn) Ling, recognized in the Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin., are here treated as Ipomoea biflora and I. fimbriosepala, respectively, because both have pantoporate and spinulose pollen. Strictly speaking, Aniseia is a neotropical genus of about five species, of which A. martinicensis (Jacquin) Choisy is widely naturalized as a common weed in rice paddies in Thailand and other southeast Asian countries. It will probably be found in S China eventually.
The family is important in China for food plants (Ipomoea batatas (Linnaeus) Lamarck and I. aquatica Forsskål), several ornamentals (Ipomoea), several medicinal plants (Erycibe, Ipomoea, Cuscuta, Merremia, Dichondra, Evolvulus), and numerous noxious weeds (Cuscuta, Calystegia, Convolvulus) .
Pollen aperture type and surface ornamentation are important characters in the classification of Convolvulaceae at the generic level and above. The most critical feature of the pollen is whether the grain surface is spiny or not. This distinction separates the eight tribes recognized by Austin (Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60: 306-412. 1973) into two rather cohesive groups. A low magnification (20 ) is adequate for discerning the presence or absence of minute spines on the surface.
For the successful identification of Convolvulaceae, both flowering and fruiting material should be collected. The first key to genera requires adequate fertile material with both flowers and fruit, and requires use of a pollen character. The second key may be used as an aid to identification where material is lacking flowers or fruit, but in some instances it is still partially dependent upon having both flowers and fruit.
to several meters tall, rhizomatous
[or woody at base
]. Leaves subsessile
to hastate or sagittate
[or rarely pedate]. Inflorescences axillary
, 1-flowered [or few-flowered] cymes; bracteoles 2, sepal-like, inserted
immediately below calyx, ovate
and sometimes saccate
, enclosing calyx [or remote
from calyx and subulate
or leaf-shaped], persistent
. Sepals subequal
, persistent. Corolla white, pink [or pale
, with 5 distinct
. Stamens included
, equal. Pollen globose
, not spiny
. Ovary 1-loculed, 4-ovuled. Style 1, included in corolla; stigmas 2, clavate
. Capsule globose, glabrous, indehiscent. Seeds 4, smooth
or minutely tuberculate
Approximately 70 intergrading subspecific taxa which can be arbitrarily combined into about 25 species: mostly temperate but sparingly extending to the tropics; six species in China.
Nearly all taxa in Calystegia intergrade geographically into neighboring taxa with the exception of the widespread coastal species, C. soldanella (Linnaeus) R. Brown. Almost half of the genus is endemic in California, U.S.A., and the exceptions noted in the generic description in brackets [ ] all refer to the Californian endemics. It is impossible to draw clearly defined specific limits , and intermediate forms are always found where two taxa approximate geographically.
Flowers: Bloom Period: June, July, August, September. • Flower Color: pale pink, pink
Size: 6-8' tall.
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.8
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Full sun .
Temperature: Cold Hardiness: 6a, 6b, 7a, 7b, 8a, 8b. (map)
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Solananae () - R. Dahlgren Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Publishing author : Lindl. Publication : Journ. Hort. Soc. i. (1846) 70
Members of the genus Calystegia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 67 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
C. atriplicifolia (Night-Blooming Bindweed) · C. atriplicifolia subsp. buttensis (Nightblooming False Bindweed) · C. catesbeiana (Catesby's Bindweed) · C. catesbiana (Catesby's False Bindweed) · C. collina (Coast Range Bindweed) · C. collina tridactylosa (Coast Range False Bindweed) · C. collina subsp. oxyphylla (Coast Range False Bindweed) · C. collina subsp. tridactylosa (Coast Range False Bindweed) · C. collina subsp. venusta (Coast Range False Bindweed) · C. hederacea (Japanese False Bindweed) · C. hederacea 'Flore Pleno' (Creeping Verbena) · C. japonica (Calystegia) · C. longipes (Paiute False Bindweed) · C. macounii (Macoun's Bindweed) · C. macrostegia (Island Bindweed) · C. macrostegia arida (Coast Range False Bindweed) · C. macrostegia intermedia (Island False Bindweed) · C. macrostegia macrostegia (Island False Bindweed) · C. macrostegia subsp. amplissima (Island False Bindweed) · C. macrostegia subsp. arida (Island False Bindweed) · C. macrostegia subsp. cyclostegia (Island False Bindweed) · C. macrostegia subsp. intermedia (Island False Bindweed) · C. macrostegia subsp. tenuifolia (Island False Bindweed) · C. malacophylla (Sierra Bindweed) · C. malacophylla (Greene) Munz var. berryi (Eastw.) Brummitt (Berry Morning-Glory) · C. malacophylla pedicellata (Sierra False Bindweed) · C. malacophylla subsp. pedicellata (Sierra False Bindweed) · C. marginata (Forest Bindweed) · C. occidentalis (Chaparral False Bindweed) · C. occidentalis fulcrata (Chaparral False Bindweed) · C. occidentalis occidentalis (Chaparral False Bindweed) · C. occidentalis var. tomentella (Chaparral False Bindweed) · C. occidentalis subsp. fulcrata (Chaparral False Bindweed) · C. peirsonii (Peirson's False Bindweed) · C. pellita (Calystegia) · C. purpurata (Pacific Bindweed) · C. purpurata saxicola (Pacific False Bindweed) · C. purpurata solanensis (Solano False Bindweed) · C. purpurata subsp. saxicola (Pacific False Bindweed) · C. purpurata subsp. solanensis (Solano False Bindweed) · C. sepium (Bearbind) · C. sepium americana (American Bindweed) · C. sepium binghamiae (Bearbind) · C. sepium spectabilis (Wild Morning-Glory) · C. sepium subsp. americana (Hedge False Bindweed) · C. sepium subsp. angulata (Hedge False Bindweed) · C. sepium subsp. appalachiana (Appalachia False Bindweed) · C. sepium subsp. binghamiae (Bingham's False Bindweed) · C. sepium subsp. erratica (Hedge False Bindweed) · C. sepium subsp. limnophila (Hedge False Bindweed) · C. silvatica (Shortstalk False Bindweed) · C. silvatica fraterniflora (Hedge False Bindweed) · C. silvatica silvatica (Shortstalk False Bindweed) · C. silvatica subsp. fraterniflora (Shortstalk False Bindweed) · C. soldanella (Beach Morning Glory) · C. spithamaea (Low Bindweed) · C. spithamaea stans (Low False Bindweed) · C. spithamaea subsp. purshiana (Low False Bindweed) · C. spithamaea subsp. stans (Low False Bindweed) · C. spithamaeus (Upright Bindweed) · C. stans (Low False Bindweed) · C. stebbinsii (Stebbins' False Bindweed) · C. subacaulis (Hill Bindweed) · C. subacaulis episcopalis (Hillside False Bindweed) · C. subacaulis subacaulis (Hillside False Bindweed) · C. subacaulis subsp. episcopalis (Hillside False Bindweed) · C. tuguriorum (Powhiwhi)
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- A practical guide to garden plants, containing descriptions of the hardiest and most beautiful annuals and biennials, hardy herbaceous and bulbous perennials, hardy water and bog plants, flowering and ornamental trees and shrubs, conife London;Longmans, Green, 1901. url p. 92.
- American flower-garden directory: containing practical directions for the culture of plants in the flower-garden, hot-house, green-house, rooms, or parlour windows. .. / by Robert Buist. New York: Orange Judd, 1854. url p. 84.
- Beeton's Dictionary of everyday gardening. .. to which is added a monthly calendar of garden work throughout the year. London, Ward, Lock, 1909. url p. 121, p. 248, p. 488.
- Colour in my garden, by Louise Beebe Wilder. Illustrated in colour, by Anna Winegar. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, Page, 1918. url p. 354, p. 391, p. 397, p. 399, p. 400, p. 402, p. 403.
- Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants sold in the United by L. H. Bailey. .. assisted by William Miller. .. and many expert cultivators and botanists. London: The Macmillan company, 1909. url p. 367.
- Garden and forest; a journal of horticulture, landscape art and forestry. New York: The Garden and forest publishing co., 1888-97. url , p. 189, p. 432, p. 615.
- Garden flowers: how to cultivate them. A treatise on the culture of hardy ornamental trees, shrubs, annuals, herbaceous and bedding plants. By Edward Sprague Rand, jr. Boston, J. E. Tilton, 1866. url p. 83, p. 83.
- Garden flowers; how to cultivate them. A treatise on the culture of hardy ornamental trees, shrubs, annuals, herbaceous and bedding plants. By Edward Sprague Rand, jr.. .. Boston, J. E. Tilton and company, 1866. url p. 83.
- Gardening for beginners; a handbook to the garden, by E. T. Cook. New York, Charles Scribner's sons, 1901. url p. 482, p. 75.
- Genesee farmer. Rochester, N.Y.: B.F. Smith & Co., [1845-1865] url p. 93.
- Handbook of hardy trees, shrubs, and herbaceous plants. Based on the French work of Messrs. Decaisne and Naudin entitled 'Manuel de l'amateur des jardins, ' and including the original woodcuts by Riocreux and Leblanc. Boston, Estes & Lauriat, 1873. url p. 317.
- Hardy plants for cottage gardens, New York, H. Holt and company, 1910. url , .
- Hardy plants for cottage gardens, by Helen R. Albee; illustrated from photographs. New York, H. Holt and company, 1910. url .
- Meehan's monthly: a magazine of horticulture, botany, and kindred subjects. Phila., PA: T. Meehan & Sons, 1891-1902. url .
- Meehans' monthly: a magazine of horticulture, botany and kindred subjects / conducted by Thomas Meehan. Philadelphia: Thomas Meehan & Sons, 1891-1902. url p. 186.
- My garden, its plan and culture together with a general description of its geology, botany, and natural history, London, Bell and Daldy, 1872. url .
- Pennsylvania farm journal Lancaster, Pa.: A.M. Spangler, 1851-1855. url p. 323.
- Popular gardening and fruit growing; An illustrated periodical devoted to horticulture in all its branches. Buffalo, New York;Popular gardening publishing company. url p. 130.
- Prince's select catalogue of the unrivaled collection of fruit & ornamental trees and shrubs, vines, creepers, p©onies, &c.: cultivated at the Linn©an Botanic Garden & Nurseries (founded 1732), Flushing, near New-York / Prince & Co. New York, N.Y.?: s.n., 1863 or 1864. url p. 21.
- The American florist: a weekly journal for the trade. Chicago: American Florist Company, [1885-1931] url p. 605, p. 624, p. 874.
- The California horticulturist and floral magazine. San Francisco, Calif.: F.A. Miller & Co., 1870- url p. 104, p. 104, p. 237.
- The Canadian horticulturist [monthly] St. Catharines, E.S. Leavenworth. url p. 365.
- The English flower garden and home grounds: design and arrangement shown by existing examples of gardens in Great Britain and Ireland, followed by a description of the plants, shrubs, and trees for the open-air garden and their culture / by W. Robinson. London: J. Murray, 1911. url p. 508.
- The Floral world and garden guide. London, Groombridge and Sons, 1858-1880. url p. 159, p. 6, p. 66.
- The Florists' exchange: a weekly medium of interchange for florists, nurserymen, seedsmen and the trade in general. New York, N.Y.: [A.T. De la Mare Ptg. and Pub. Co., url p. 336.
- The Garden: an illustrated weekly journal of gardening in all its branches. London: [s.n., url , , p. 120, p. 132, p. 143, p. 169, p. 176, p. 191, p. 192, p. 201, p. 254, p. 311, p. 356, p. 378, p. 416, p. 421, p. 46, p. 524, p. 94.
- The Gardener's monthly and horticulturist. Philadelphia, Pa.: Charles H. Marot, 1876-1888. url p. 29.
- The Gardeners' chronicle and agricultural gazette. 1848 London: published for the proprietors, 1844-1873. url p. 202, p. 256, p. 287, p. 314, p. 354, p. 417, p. 455, p. 736, p. 740.
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url , p. 100, p. 140, p. 152, p. 200, p. 204, p. 249, p. 263, p. 348, p. 478, p. 548, p. 633, p. 699, p. 74.
- The Horticulturist and journal of rural art and rural taste. Albany, N.Y.: Luther Tucker, 1846-1875. url , p. 216, p. 218, p. 220, p. 240, p. 416, p. 44, p. 576.
- The Journal of horticulture, cottage gardener and country gentlemen. London: George W. Johnson and Robert Hogg, 1861-1877. url , p. 195, p. 261, p. 285.
- The Journal of the Linnean Society. Botany. 26 1889-90 London: the Society: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts & Green: ||Williams and Norgate, 1865-1968. url p. 164.
- The Magazine of horticulture, botany, and all useful discoveries and improvements in rural affairs. Boston: Hovey and Co., 1837- url , p. 235, p. 285, p. 285, p. 358, p. 367, p. 398, p. 75.
- The Portland catalogue of Maine plants. Portland: Portland society of natural history, 1892. url p. 57.
- The Western pomologist.. Des Moines, Ia, ;1870-1872. url p. 157.
- The book of climbing plants and wall shrubs, by S. Arnott. London, J. Lane, 1903 [pub. 1902] url p. 34, p. 34.
- The complete home landscape, by Arthur J. Jennings, in collaboration with Leonard H. Johnson. New York, A. T. De La Mare, 1924. url p. 145, p. 147, p. 152, p. 155, p. 159, p. 164.
- The encyclopedia of gardening. A dictionary of cultivated plants, etc., giving in alphabetical sequence the culture and propagation of hardy and half-hardy plants, trees and shrubs, orchids, ferns, fruit, vegetables, hothouse and g London, W. H. & L. Collingridge url .
- The florist, fruitist, and garden miscellany. London: Chapman and Hall, 1852- url p. 236.
- The journal of the Horticultural Society of London. London, [England]: Published for the Society, by Longman and Co., 1846-1855. url , p. 302, p. 48, p. 51.
- The rock garden, London, C. Scribner's sons, 1920. url .
- The standard cyclopedia of horticulture; a discussion, for the amateur, and the professional and commercial grower, of the kinds, characteristics and methods of cultivation of the species of plants grown in the regions of the United States a Illustrated with colored plates, four thousand engravings in the text, and ninety-six full-page cuts. New York, Macmillan, 1919 [c1914] url p. 839.
- Tilton's journal of horticulture and florist's companion. Boston: J.E. Tilton and Co., 1869-1871. url p. 192.
- Torreya. Burlington, Vt., Torrey Botanical Club, 1901-1945. url p. 106, p. 175.
- Transactions of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. [S.l.: s.n.], 1843-1920. url p. 10, p. 107.
- Trees & shrubs for English gardens. [London]"Country life", 1908. url p. 643.
- Villa gardening: a handbook for amateur and practical gardeners / by Edward Hobday. London; MacMillan, 1887. url p. 86.
- Fang Rhui-cheng & Huang Shu-hua in Wu Cheng-yih, ed. 1979. Convolvulaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 64(1): 1-153.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
- Ruizheng Fang & George Staples "Convolvulaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 271. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Fang Rhui-cheng, Richard K. Brummitt "Calystegia". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 286. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]