Common Names in English:
Herbs or shrubs
, usually with twining
stems or erect
, often with milky
juice. Leaves alternate, simple
, entire, dissected
, or compound
, absent in parasitic species. Flowers solitary, axillary
or in cymes, racemes
, panicles, umbels, or capitula, bisexual
, usually 5-merous, often showy. Sepals free
, often persistent
, sometimes enlarged in fruit. Corolla sympetalous
, or urceolate
; limb subentire
or deeply lobed
. Stamens alternating with corolla lobes
to corolla; filaments
, equal or unequal in length
, laterally and longitudinally dehiscing; pollen smooth
or finely spiny
. Disc ringlike or cupular. Ovary superior, mostly 2-carpellate, 1- or 2-loculed, rarely 3- or 4-loculed; ovules basal, erect. Styles 1 or 2, terminal
in Dichondra) or very short or absent; stigma entire or 2- (or 3) -lobed, rarely peltate. Fruit a capsule, dehiscing by valves
, circumscissile, or irregularly shattering, less often a berry or nutlike. Seeds usually trigonous
, smooth or pubescent
About 58 genera and 1650 species: widely distributed in tropical , subtropical , and temperate regions ; 20 genera and 129 species in China.
Aniseia biflora (Linnaeus) Choisy and A. stenantha (Dunn) Ling, recognized in the Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin., are here treated as Ipomoea biflora and I. fimbriosepala, respectively, because both have pantoporate and spinulose pollen. Strictly speaking, Aniseia is a neotropical genus of about five species, of which A. martinicensis (Jacquin) Choisy is widely naturalized as a common weed in rice paddies in Thailand and other southeast Asian countries. It will probably be found in S China eventually.
The family is important in China for food plants (Ipomoea batatas (Linnaeus) Lamarck and I. aquatica Forsskål), several ornamentals (Ipomoea), several medicinal plants (Erycibe, Ipomoea, Cuscuta, Merremia, Dichondra, Evolvulus), and numerous noxious weeds (Cuscuta, Calystegia, Convolvulus) .
Pollen aperture type and surface ornamentation are important characters in the classification of Convolvulaceae at the generic level and above. The most critical feature of the pollen is whether the grain surface is spiny or not. This distinction separates the eight tribes recognized by Austin (Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 60: 306-412. 1973) into two rather cohesive groups. A low magnification (20 ) is adequate for discerning the presence or absence of minute spines on the surface.
For the successful identification of Convolvulaceae, both flowering and fruiting material should be collected. The first key to genera requires adequate fertile material with both flowers and fruit, and requires use of a pollen character. The second key may be used as an aid to identification where material is lacking flowers or fruit, but in some instances it is still partially dependent upon having both flowers and fruit.
to several meters tall, rhizomatous
[or woody at base
]. Leaves subsessile
to hastate or sagittate
[or rarely pedate]. Inflorescences axillary
, 1-flowered [or few-flowered] cymes; bracteoles 2, sepal-like, inserted
immediately below calyx, ovate
and sometimes saccate
, enclosing calyx [or remote
from calyx and subulate
or leaf-shaped], persistent
. Sepals subequal
, persistent. Corolla white, pink [or pale
, with 5 distinct
. Stamens included
, equal. Pollen globose
, not spiny
. Ovary 1-loculed, 4-ovuled. Style 1, included in corolla; stigmas 2, clavate
. Capsule globose, glabrous, indehiscent. Seeds 4, smooth
or minutely tuberculate
Approximately 70 intergrading subspecific taxa which can be arbitrarily combined into about 25 species: mostly temperate but sparingly extending to the tropics; six species in China.
Nearly all taxa in Calystegia intergrade geographically into neighboring taxa with the exception of the widespread coastal species, C. soldanella (Linnaeus) R. Brown. Almost half of the genus is endemic in California, U.S.A., and the exceptions noted in the generic description in brackets [ ] all refer to the Californian endemics. It is impossible to draw clearly defined specific limits , and intermediate forms are always found where two taxa approximate geographically.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- R. Dahlgren Ex Reveal, 1992
- Order: Solanales () - Dumortier, 1829
- Superorder: Solananae () - R. Dahlgren Ex Reveal, 1992
- Subclass: Asteridae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Magnoliopsida () - Brongniart, 1843 - Dicotyledons
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Convolvulus japonicus Thunb.
Publishing author : Choisy Publication : Syst. Verz. (Zollinger) 130, 132.
Members of the genus Calystegia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 67 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
C. atriplicifolia (Night-Blooming Bindweed) · C. atriplicifolia subsp. buttensis (Nightblooming False Bindweed) · C. catesbeiana (Catesby's Bindweed) · C. catesbiana (Catesby's False Bindweed) · C. collina (Coast Range Bindweed) · C. collina tridactylosa (Coast Range False Bindweed) · C. collina subsp. oxyphylla (Coast Range False Bindweed) · C. collina subsp. tridactylosa (Coast Range False Bindweed) · C. collina subsp. venusta (Coast Range False Bindweed) · C. hederacea (Japanese False Bindweed) · C. hederacea 'Flore Pleno' (Creeping Verbena) · C. japonica (Calystegia) · C. longipes (Paiute False Bindweed) · C. macounii (Macoun's Bindweed) · C. macrostegia (Island Bindweed) · C. macrostegia arida (Coast Range False Bindweed) · C. macrostegia intermedia (Island False Bindweed) · C. macrostegia macrostegia (Island False Bindweed) · C. macrostegia subsp. amplissima (Island False Bindweed) · C. macrostegia subsp. arida (Island False Bindweed) · C. macrostegia subsp. cyclostegia (Island False Bindweed) · C. macrostegia subsp. intermedia (Island False Bindweed) · C. macrostegia subsp. tenuifolia (Island False Bindweed) · C. malacophylla (Sierra Bindweed) · C. malacophylla (Greene) Munz var. berryi (Eastw.) Brummitt (Berry Morning-Glory) · C. malacophylla pedicellata (Sierra False Bindweed) · C. malacophylla subsp. pedicellata (Sierra False Bindweed) · C. marginata (Forest Bindweed) · C. occidentalis (Chaparral False Bindweed) · C. occidentalis fulcrata (Chaparral False Bindweed) · C. occidentalis occidentalis (Chaparral False Bindweed) · C. occidentalis var. tomentella (Chaparral False Bindweed) · C. occidentalis subsp. fulcrata (Chaparral False Bindweed) · C. peirsonii (Peirson's False Bindweed) · C. pellita (Calystegia) · C. purpurata (Pacific Bindweed) · C. purpurata saxicola (Pacific False Bindweed) · C. purpurata solanensis (Solano False Bindweed) · C. purpurata subsp. saxicola (Pacific False Bindweed) · C. purpurata subsp. solanensis (Solano False Bindweed) · C. sepium (Bearbind) · C. sepium americana (American Bindweed) · C. sepium binghamiae (Bearbind) · C. sepium spectabilis (Wild Morning-Glory) · C. sepium subsp. americana (Hedge False Bindweed) · C. sepium subsp. angulata (Hedge False Bindweed) · C. sepium subsp. appalachiana (Appalachia False Bindweed) · C. sepium subsp. binghamiae (Bingham's False Bindweed) · C. sepium subsp. erratica (Hedge False Bindweed) · C. sepium subsp. limnophila (Hedge False Bindweed) · C. silvatica (Shortstalk False Bindweed) · C. silvatica fraterniflora (Hedge False Bindweed) · C. silvatica silvatica (Shortstalk False Bindweed) · C. silvatica subsp. fraterniflora (Shortstalk False Bindweed) · C. soldanella (Beach Morning Glory) · C. spithamaea (Low Bindweed) · C. spithamaea stans (Low False Bindweed) · C. spithamaea subsp. purshiana (Low False Bindweed) · C. spithamaea subsp. stans (Low False Bindweed) · C. spithamaeus (Upright Bindweed) · C. stans (Low False Bindweed) · C. stebbinsii (Stebbins' False Bindweed) · C. subacaulis (Hill Bindweed) · C. subacaulis episcopalis (Hillside False Bindweed) · C. subacaulis subacaulis (Hillside False Bindweed) · C. subacaulis subsp. episcopalis (Hillside False Bindweed) · C. tuguriorum (Powhiwhi)
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- Flora of Japan: in English: combined, much revised and extended translation / by the author of his Flora of Japan (1953) and Flora of Japan, Pteridophyta (1957); edited by Frederick G. Meyer and Egbert H. Walker. Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1965. url p. 753.
- List of herbaceous perennials tested in the arboretum and botanic garden: central experimental farm, Ottawa, Canada, with descriptions of flowers, and other notes by W. T. Macoun. Ottawa: Government Printing Bureau, 1908. url p. 26.
- Miyabe-festschrift, or A collection of botanical papers presented to Prof. Dr. Kingo Miyabe on the occasion of the twenty-fifth anniversary of his academic service by his friends and pupils. Tokio, Rokumeikwan, 1911. url p. 332.
- The Journal of the College of Science, Imperial University of Tokyo, Japan = Tokyo Teikoku Daigaku kiyo. Rika. Tokyo, Japan: The University, 1898-1925. url p. 110.
- Fang Rhui-cheng & Huang Shu-hua in Wu Cheng-yih, ed. 1979. Convolvulaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 64(1): 1-153.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 14, 2007:
- National Institute of Genetics, ROIS, Herbarium Specimens of Museum of Nature and Human Activities, Hyogo Pref., Japan
- National Science Museum of Korea, National Science Museum of Korea Plant
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 9373116
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 15384447
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:265663-1
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 265663-1
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 990025
- Ruizheng Fang & George Staples "Convolvulaceae". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 271. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Fang Rhui-cheng, Richard K. Brummitt "Calystegia". in Flora of China Vol. 16 Page 286. Published by Science Press (Beijing) and Missouri Botanical Garden Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]