Common Names in English:
Carolina Allspice, Common Sweetshrub, Strawberry Shrub
, deciduous, rhizomatous
. Leaves opposite, without stipules, petiolate
. Leaf blade
entire or, on fast-growing shoots
, occasionally with a few teeth. Inflorescences terminal
on short, leafy branches of current
growth, solitary flowers. Flowers bisexual
. Hypanthium urn-shaped; tepals and stamens perigynous; inner tepals, stamens, and staminodes with succulent, white food bodies at tips
. Tepals 15-30, fleshy
, spirally inserted
on outside of hypanthium. Stamens 5-30, spirally inserted at top of hypanthium; staminodes 10-25, on inner surface of hypanthium; locules opening by longitudinal
slits. Pistils 5-35, 1-carpellate, spirally inserted within hypanthium; ovules 2 per locule, distal ovule abortive, submarginal
; style elongate
; stigma dry, decurrent. Fruits achenes, 1-35, dark reddish brown, cylindric
, enclosed within enlarged, fibrous
hypanthium (pseudocarp) . Seeds : endosperm absent.
Genera 3, species 6 (1 genus, 2 species in the flora ) : temperate North America and China.
Calycanthus is often grown ornamentally. Also in cultivation is Chimonanthus praecox (Linnaeus) Link, an eastern Asiatic shrub. Chimonanthus differs from Calycanthus in its scaly buds and yellow flowers that appear long before the leaves.
Calycanthus contains calycanthine, an alkaloid similar to strychnine, and it is toxic to humans and livestock (W. H. Lewis and M. P. F. Elvin-Lewis 1977) .
to nearly terete
. Buds naked. Leaves 2-ranked. Leaf blade
, or ovate-lanceolate; surfaces adaxially scabrous
. Flowers maroon or reddish brown, rarely greenish or green-tipped, with strawberry or pineapple scent. x
Species 3: temperate North America.
ID Features: Foliage aromatic when crushed. Maroon, multi-tepal flowers in summer. Fragrant flowers. Persistent urn-shaped fruits; distinctive. Buds are densely brown-hairy and surrounded by shelf-like leaf scars.
Flowers: Blooms May through July. Flowers are reddish-brown and very fragrant. Up to 2" across. Comprised of numerous tepals. Not as showy in bloom as one might expect. Spicy fragrance, especially in the evening.
Foliage: Summer foliage: Opposite leaf arrangement . 2" to 5" long. Ovate to elliptical with acute tip . Dark green color. Fragrant when crushed. • Fall foliage: Fall color is a reasonably good yellow.
Size: 10' tall.
Landscape Uses: Specimen. Shrub border . Woods edge . Foundation plant. For aromatic flowers. • Liabilities: A favorite target of rabbits. Can become leggy in shade. Generally insect and disease free .
Culture: Full sun is best, but tolerant of partial shade. Likes moist, rich soils best. Soil pH adaptable. Prune after flowering. May need renewal pruning if it becomes leggy .
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967
- (Perleb, 1826) Takhtajan, 1997
- Perleb, 1826
- Lindley, 1819, nom. cons.
- Strawberry Shrub Family
- C. Linnaeus, 1759, nom. cons.
- Strawberry-shrub, sweetshrub, spicebush [Greek kályx, covering, cup, and anthos, flower]
- Specific epithet:
- Botanical name: - Calycanthus floridus 'Edith Wilder' Linnaeus
- Specific epithet: floridus - Linnaeus
- Genus: Calycanthus () - C. Linnaeus, 1759, nom. cons. - Strawberry-shrub, sweetshrub, spicebush [Greek kályx, covering, cup, and anthos, flower]
- Family: Calycanthaceae () - Lindley, 1819, nom. cons. - Strawberry Shrub Family
- Order: Laurales () - Perleb, 1826
- Superorder: Lauranae () - (Perleb, 1826) Takhtajan, 1997
- Subclass: Magnoliidae () - Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Members of the genus Calycanthus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 13 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
C. brockiana (Brock Sweetshrub) · C. chinensis (Chinese Allspice) · C. floridus (Bubby Bush) · C. floridus L. var. floridus (Eastern Sweetshrub) · C. floridus L. var. glaucus (Willd.) Torr. and A.Gray (Eastern Sweetshrub) · C. floridus var. floridus (Eastern Sweetshrub) · C. floridus var. glaucus (Eastern Sweetshrub) · C. floridus 'Athens' (Bubby Bush) · C. floridus 'Edith Wilder' (Carolina Allspice) · C. floridus 'Michael Lindsey' (Common Sweetshrub) · C. occidentalis (California Allspice) · C. raulstonii 'Hartlage Wine' (Eastern Sweetshrub) · C. raulstonii 'Venus' (Eastern Sweetshrub)
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- Nicely, K. A. 1965. A monographic study of the Calycanthaceae. Castanea 30: 38-81.
- Wood, C. E. Jr. 1958. The genera of the woody Ranales in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 39: 296-346.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed March 27, 2012.
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 711900