- The maroon flowers of this shrub have a "vinegary" odor, but the leaves have a pleasant, spicy smell. The name "Bubby Bush" comes from the practice of the mountain women putting crushed leaves in their dress tops to make themselves smell nice!
Common Names in English:
Bubby Bush, Carolina Allspice, Carolina-Allspice, Common Sweetshrub, Eastern Sweetshrub, Pineapple Shrub, Spicebush, Strawberry Shrub, Strawberry-Shrub, Sweet Betsy, Sweet Shrub, Sweetshrub
, deciduous, rhizomatous
. Leaves opposite, without stipules, petiolate
. Leaf blade
entire or, on fast-growing shoots
, occasionally with a few teeth. Inflorescences terminal
on short, leafy branches of current
growth, solitary flowers. Flowers bisexual
. Hypanthium urn-shaped; tepals and stamens perigynous; inner tepals, stamens, and staminodes with succulent, white food bodies at tips
. Tepals 15-30, fleshy
, spirally inserted
on outside of hypanthium. Stamens 5-30, spirally inserted at top of hypanthium; staminodes 10-25, on inner surface of hypanthium; locules opening by longitudinal
slits. Pistils 5-35, 1-carpellate, spirally inserted within hypanthium; ovules 2 per locule, distal ovule abortive, submarginal
; style elongate
; stigma dry, decurrent. Fruits achenes, 1-35, dark reddish brown, cylindric
, enclosed within enlarged, fibrous
hypanthium (pseudocarp) . Seeds : endosperm absent.
Genera 3, species 6 (1 genus, 2 species in the flora ) : temperate North America and China.
Calycanthus is often grown ornamentally. Also in cultivation is Chimonanthus praecox (Linnaeus) Link, an eastern Asiatic shrub. Chimonanthus differs from Calycanthus in its scaly buds and yellow flowers that appear long before the leaves.
Calycanthus contains calycanthine, an alkaloid similar to strychnine, and it is toxic to humans and livestock (W. H. Lewis and M. P. F. Elvin-Lewis 1977) .
to nearly terete
. Buds naked. Leaves 2-ranked. Leaf blade
, or ovate-lanceolate; surfaces adaxially scabrous
. Flowers maroon or reddish brown, rarely greenish or green-tipped, with strawberry or pineapple scent. x
Species 3: temperate North America.
Species Calycanthus floridus
Shrubs , to 3.5 m. Lateral bud partially hidden by petiole base . Petiole 3-10 mm, pubescent to glabrous . Leaf blade elliptic , broadly elliptic, oblong , or ovate , 5-15 × 2-6 cm, base acute to truncate , apex acute, acuminate, or blunt ; surfaces abaxially green or glaucous, pubescent to glabrous. Flowers : hypanthium cylindric , ellipsoid , pyriform , or globose at maturity, 2-6 × 1-3 cm; tepals oblong-elliptic to obovate-lanceolate, 2-4 cm × 3-8 mm, apex acute; stamens 10-20, oblong. 2 n = 22, 33. [source]
ID Features: Foliage aromatic when crushed. Maroon, multi-tepal flowers in summer. Fragrant flowers. Persistent urn-shaped fruits; distinctive. Buds are densely brown-hairy and surrounded by shelf-like leaf scars.
Flowers: Blooms May through July. Flowers a dark, chocolate brown to maroon. Up to 2" across. Comprised of numerous tepals. Not as showy in bloom as one might expect. Spicy fragrance, especially in the evening. • Bloom Period: March, April, May. • Flower Color: Red • Flower Conspicuous: Slipper shaped, brown tinged
Foliage: Glossy, clove-like scent when crushed • Foliage Shape: Oval • Normal foliage color: Green • Underside foliage: Gray • Juvenile foliage: Green • Mature foliage: Green • New foliage: Green • Spring foliage: Green • Summer foliage: Opposite leaf arrangement . 2" to 5" long. Ovate to elliptical with acute tip . Dark green color. Fragrant when crushed. • Fall foliage: Can be yellow green. Usually nothing to write home about. • Winter foliage: Green
Growth Rate: Moderate. • Size: 4 to 10 ft . tall, 5 to 8 ft. wide.
Landscape Uses: Specimen. Shrub border . Woods edge . Foundation plant. For aromatic flowers. • Liabilities: A favorite target of rabbits. Can become leggy in shade. Generally insect and disease free . • Care: Follow a regular watering schedule during the first growing season to establish a deep, extensive root system . Watering can be reduced after establishment. Feed with a general purpose fertilizer before new growth begins in spring .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 1,338 meters (0 to 4,390 feet).
Culture: Full sun is best, but tolerant of partial shade. Likes moist, rich soils best. Soil pH adaptable. Prune after flowering. May need renewal pruning if it becomes leggy .
Soil: Minimum pH: 6.1 • Maximum pH: 7.5
Sunlight: Sun Exposure: Thrives in either full sun or shade.
Moisture: Water Requirements: Water regularly, when top 3 in. of soil is dry.
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967
- (Perleb, 1826) Takhtajan, 1997
- Perleb, 1826
- Family: Calycanthaceae () - Lindley, 1819, nom. cons. - Strawberry Shrub Family
- Order: Laurales () - Perleb, 1826
- Superorder: Lauranae () - (Perleb, 1826) Takhtajan, 1997
- Subclass: Magnoliidae () - Novák ex Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Butneria florida (L.) Kearney
Publishing author : L. Publication : Syst. Nat., ed. 10. 2: 1053, 1066, 1371 1759 [7 Jun 1759]
Members of the genus Calycanthus
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 13 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
C. brockiana (Brock Sweetshrub) · C. chinensis (Chinese Allspice) · C. floridus (Bubby Bush) · C. floridus L. var. floridus (Eastern Sweetshrub) · C. floridus L. var. glaucus (Willd.) Torr. and A.Gray (Eastern Sweetshrub) · C. floridus var. floridus (Eastern Sweetshrub) · C. floridus var. glaucus (Eastern Sweetshrub) · C. floridus 'Athens' (Bubby Bush) · C. floridus 'Edith Wilder' (Carolina Allspice) · C. floridus 'Michael Lindsey' (Common Sweetshrub) · C. occidentalis (California Allspice) · C. raulstonii 'Hartlage Wine' (Eastern Sweetshrub) · C. raulstonii 'Venus' (Eastern Sweetshrub)
- Search for Pictures: images.google.com
- Search for Scholarly Articles: Google Scholar
- Search using Scientific Name and Vernacular Names: All the Web | AltaVista Canada | AltaVista | Excite | Google | HotBot | Lycos
- Search using Specialized Databases: GenBank | Medline | Scirus | CISTI/CAL | Agricola Periodicals | Agricola Books
- A Manual of botany: being an introduction to the study of the structure, physiology, and classification of plants / Edinburgh: A. and C. Black, 1875. url .
- A class-book of botany, designed for colleges, academies, and other seminaries. Illustrated by a flora of northern, middle, and western states; particularly of the United States north of the Capitol, lat. 38 3/4. Claremont, N. H., Manufacturing Co., S. Ide, agent, 1850. url p. 258.
- A dictionary of American plant names / compiled by Willard N. Clute. Joliet, Ill.: W.N. Clute, 1923. url p. 116.
- A general system of botany, descriptive and analytical. In two parts. Part I. Outlines of organography, anatomy, and physiology. Part II. Descriptions and illustrations of the orders. By Emm. Le Maout [and] J. Decaisne. With 5500 figures by L. Steinheil a London, Longmans, Green & Co.1873. url .
- A manual of botany: being an introduction to the study of the structure, physiology, and classification of plants. By John Hutton Balfour. London: J. J. Griffin [etc.] 1851. url p. 47, p. 60.
- A manual of botany: including the structure, classification, properties, uses, and functions of plants. London, John Churchill and Sons, 1870. url p. 533.
- A manual of gardening for Bengal and Upper India. By Thomas A. C. Firminger. .. Calcutta, Thacker, Spink and co.; [etc., etc.]1874. url p. 441.
- A manual of poisonous plants, chiefly of eastern North America, with brief notes on economic and medicinal plants, and numerous illustrations, Cedar Rapids, Ia., The Torch Press, 1911. url , .
- A manual of poisonous plants: chiefly of eastern North America, with brief notes on economic and medicinal plants, and numerous illustrations / by L. H. Pammel. 1911 Cedar Rapids, Ia.: The Torch Press, 1910-11. url fig. 246, p. 475.
- A manual of scientific terms, pronouncing, etymological, and explanatory, chiefly comprising terms in botany, natural history, anatomy, medicine, and veterinary science, with an appendix of specific names. Designed for the use of by Rev. James Stormonth Edinburgh, Maclachlan and Stewart, 1885 url p. 61.
- A partial list of plants available for various uses in general landscape planting, comp. by Albert D. Taylor. Cleveland, A.D. Taylor, c1916 url p. 23, p. 23, p. 25, p. 26, p. 26, p. 41, p. 41.
- A practical guide to garden plants, containing descriptions of the hardiest and most beautiful annuals and biennials, hardy herbaceous and bulbous perennials, hardy water and bog plants, flowering and ornamental trees and shrubs, conife London;Longmans, Green, 1901. url , p. 172.
- A practical handbook of trees, shrubs, vines and herbaceous perennials, by John Kirkegaard. Boston, Williams Bookstores Co., 1916. url p. 131, p. 53.
- A student's text-book of botany, by Sydney H. Vines. With 483 illustrations. London, Macmillan & co., 1896. url .
- A supplement to the Pharmacopia, and treatise on pharmacology in general: including not only the drugs and preparations used by practitioners of medicine, but also most of those employed in the chemical arts: together with a collection of the most useful medical formulæ. . by Samuel Frederic Gray. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, and Longman, 1836. url p. 92.
- A tribute to the memory of Peter Collinson: with some notice of Dr. Darlington's Memorials of John Bartram and Humphry Marshall. Philadelphia: W.H. Mitchell, 1851. url p. 33.
- A woman's hardy garden, London, Macmillan & co., ltd., 1903. url p. 163, p. 211.
- A woman's hardy garden, by Helena Rutherford Ely; with illustrations from photographs taken in the author's garden by Professor C. F. Chandler. London, Macmillan & co., ltd., 1903. url p. 163, p. 211.
- Agronomy; a course in practical gardening for high schools, by Willard Nelson Clute. .. Boston, Ginn and Company, [c1913] url p. 288.
- Among school gardens, by M. Louise Greene. New York, Charities publication committee, 1910. url p. 289.
- An elementary course of botany: structural, physiological, and systematic / by Arthur Henfrey. London: John Van Voorst, 1878. url p. 681.
- An encyclopaedia of trees and shrubs: being the Arboretum et fruticetum britannicum abridged: containing the hardy trees and shrubs of Britain, native and foreign, scientifically and popularly described; with their propagation, culture, by J. C. Loudon. London: F. Warne; 1869. url p. 21, p. 454.
- An essay toward a natural history of La Salle County, Illinois, in two parts / J. W. Huett. Ottawa, Illinois: Fair-dealer print, 1898. url p. 74.
- An historical, geographical, commercial, and philosophical view of the United States of America, and of the European settlements in America and the West-Indies / by W. Winterbotham. New-York: Printed by Tiebout and O'Brien, for J. Reid, 1796. url p. 389.
- An illustrated dictionary of medicine, biology and allied sciences. .. by George M. Gould. 5th ed., with additions and corrections. PhiladelphiaP. Blakiston's Son1907 url p. 241, p. 479.
- An illustrated encyclopaedia of gardening, by Walter P. Wright London, J. M. Dent & sons, ltd.; url p. 57.
- An illustrated flora of the Pacific States: Washington, Oregon, and California. Stanford University, Stanford University Press, 1923- url p. 221.
- An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British possessions: from Newfoundland to the parallel of the southern boundary of Virginia and from the Atlantic Ocean westward to the 102nd meridian / by Nathaniel Lord Britton and Hon. Addison Brown. New York: Scribner, 1913. url p. 132.
- An index to the scientific contents of the Journal and Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia [1817-1910] Published in commemoration of the centenary of the academy, March 21, PhiladelphiaAcademy of Natural Sciences url p. 125.
- An introduction to botany, by John Lindley. London, Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green, & Longman, 1832. url p. 528, p. 67.
- An introduction to botany. 2d ed., with corrections and numerous additions. LondonLongman, Rees, Orme, Brown, Green & Longman1835 url p. 75.
- An introduction to botany. By John Lindley. London, Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1848. url p. 209.
- An introduction to the study of landscape design [by] Henry Vincent Hubbard and Theodora Kimball. New York, The Macmillan Company, [c1929] url p. 429.
- Analytical class-book of botany, designed for academies and private students. In two parts: Part 1. Elements of vegetable structure and physiology. By Frances H. Green. Part 11. Systematic botany: illustrated by a compendious flora of the northern states. By Joseph W. Congdon. London, D. Appleton, 1855. url p. 155.
- Analytical class-book of botany. New York, Appleton, 1859. url p. 155.
- Analytical class-book of botany: designed for academies and private students. In two parts: Part 1. Elements of vegetable structure and physiology / by Frances H. Green. Part 11. Systematic botany, by Joseph W. Congdon. New York: D. Appleton, 1856. url p. 155.
- Andorra hand-book [of trees and shrubs] Philadelphia url p. 71.
- Annual record of science and industry. New York: Harper & Brothers, 1872- url p. 340.
- Annual report Missouri Botanical Garden. 23 1912 St. Louis: Board of Trustees, 1890-1912. url p. 113, p. 126, p. 127.
- Annual report of the Director of Forestry. Manila [etc.] url p. 66.
- Annual report of the Secretary of the State Board of Agriculture of the State of Michigan. .. Lansing: The Board, 1862- url p. 146.
- Annual reports of the Department of Agriculture for the fiscal year ended. ..: report of the Secretary of Agriculture, miscellaneous reports. Washington: G.P.O., 1897-1924. url .
- Annual wholesale catalogue of American trees, shrubs, plants and seeds: cultivated and for sale at the Linn©an Botanic Garden and Nurseries, near New-York / William Prince & Sons, proprietors. New York: s.n., 1832 url p. 176.
- Applied and economic botany for students in technical and agricultural schools, pharmaceutical and medical colleges, for chemists, food analysts and for the those engaged in the morphological and physiological study of plants. New York, Wiley url p. 256.
- Arboretum et fruticetum Britannicum; or, The trees and shrubs of Britain, native and foreign, hardy and half-hardy, pictorially and botanically delineated, and scientifically and popularly described; with their propagation, culture, mana London, Henry G. Bohn, 1854. url p. 170.
- Around the year in the garden, a seasonable guide and reminder for work with vegetables, fruits, and flowers, and under glass, New York, The Macmillan company, 1917. url .
- Bartonia;proceedings of the Philadelphia botanical club. .. 1944-1945 Philadelphia, Philadelphia Botanical Club, Academy of Natural Sciences. url p. 15, p. 34.
- Beautiful and rare trees & plants. London, C. Scribner's Sons[pref. 1903] url .
- Beautiful home surroundings. Framingham, Mass., Framingham nurseries, c1918 url p. 10.
- Bergen's botany, key and flora. Northern and central states ed. By Joseph Y. Bergen. Boston, Ginn,  url p. 94.
- Bibliographical catalogue of the described tranformations of North American Lepidoptera by Henry Edwards. Washington: G.P.O., 1889. url .
- Bibliographical index to North American botany; or, Citations of authorities for all the recorded indigenous and naturalized species of the flora of North America, with a chronological arrangement of the synonymy. by Sereno Watson. Washington, Smithsonian Institution, 1878. url p. 28.
- Bird-lore. New York, National Association of Audubon Societies. url p. 96, p. 96.
- Book of garden plans, Garden City, N. Y., Doubleday, Page & company, 1916. url .
- Botany; containing a catalogue of the indigenous and naturalized plants of the state / by Rev. M.A. Curtis. Raleigh: Printed at N.C. Institution for the deaf and dumb and blind, 1867. url p. 21.
- Britton, N. L. (ed.). North American flora. 22 1908 [New York]New York Botanical Garden. url p. 237.
- Bulletin - Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station. Amherst, : Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station, 1907-1974. url p. 25, p. 81.
- Bulletin - United States National Museum. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, [etc.];1877-1971. url p. 134, p. 135, p. 136, p. 145.
- Bulletin / U.S. Department of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry. Washington: G.P.O., 1901-1913. url p. 17.
- Bulletin Harrisburg, Pa.: The Department, - url .
- Bulletin of miscellaneous information /Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 1919 1919 London: H.M. Stationery Office, 1900-1941. url p. 15, p. 17, p. 17, p. 22.
- Bulletin of the Charleston Museum. [Charleston, S.C.: the Museum], 1907-1922. url .
- Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 27 1900 New York: Torrey Botanical Club, 1870-1996 url p. 323, p. 585.
- Bulletin. Bureau of Plant Industry. U. S. Department of Agriculture. 1901-13. WashingtonGovt. Print. Off. url p. 17, p. 18.
- Bulletin. Salem, Mass. url p. 85.
- Catalogue of scientific papers (1800-1900) Comp. by the Royal society of London. Cambridge, C. J. Clay and sons, 1867-1902; url p. 406, p. 512.
- Catalogue of scientific papers, 1800-1900. Compiled by the Royal Society of London. London, C.J. Clay and Sons, 1867-1902 [etc.] Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1914-25. url p. 406, p. 465, p. 512.
- Catalogue of the library of the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University / compiled under the direction of Charles Sprague Sargent by Ethelyn Maria Tucker. Cambridge: Printed at the Cosmos Press, 1914-1933. url p. 227.
- Colour in my garden, by Louise Beebe Wilder. Illustrated in colour, by Anna Winegar. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, Page, 1918. url p. 354.
- Commercial plant propagation; an exposition of the art and science of increasing plants as practiced by the nurseryman, florist and gardener, by Alfred C. Hottes. New York, A. T. De La Mare Company, 1918. url p. 146.
- Common sense gardens: how to plan and plant them / by Cornelius V. V. Sewell; illustrated from photographs mostly by the author; Decorated by Chas. Edw. Hooper. New York: The Grafton press, 1906. url p. 152.
- Comparative anatomy of the vegetative organs of the phanerogams and ferns / by A. de Bary; translated and annotated by F.O. Bower and D.H. Scott; with 241 woodcuts and an index. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1884. url p. 630.
- Contributions from the New York Botanical Garden. New York: The Garden, 1899- url p. 130, p. 133.
- Contributions to horticultural literature; being a selection of articles written for gardening periodicals, and papers read before various societies, from 1843 to 1892. By William Paul. Waltham Cross, Herts: W. Paul & Son, 1892. url p. 241.
- Cultivated plants, their propagation and improvement. Edinburgh, W. Blackwood & Sons, 1877. url p. 226.
- Curtis's botanical magazine. 1-20 1805 London; New York [etc.]: Academic Press [etc.] url p. 2, p. 2, p. 35, p. 50, p. 55, p. 69, p. 7.
- Cyclopedia of American horticulture, comprising suggestions for cultivation of horticultural plants, descriptions of the species of fruits, vegetables, flowers and ornamental plants sold in the United by L. H. Bailey. .. assisted by William Miller. .. and many expert cultivators and botanists. London: The Macmillan company, 1909. url p. 222.
- Cytology, with special reference to the metazoan nucleus, by W. E. Agar. London, Macmillan, 1920. url p. 21, p. 21.
- Economic botany of Alabama. University, Ala., 1913-1928. url p. 179.
- Edwards's botanical register. 26 1840 London: James Ridgway, 1829-1847. url p. 80.
- Edwards, S. T. The Botanical register: consisting of coloured figures of. .. 5 1819 London: Printed for James Ridgway, 1815-1828. url .
- Entomological news. [Philadelphia]American Entomological Society, 1925- url , p. 397, p. 399, p. 402.
- Erigenia: journal of the Illinois Native Plant Society. Carbondale, Ill.: The Society, 1982- url p. 27, p. 6, p. 67, p. 70.
- Essentials of botany. Boston, Ginn[c1908] url , .
- Every woman her own flower gardener. A handy manual of flower gardening for ladies. New York, H. T. Williams,  url .
- FWS/0BS. [Washington]Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Dept. of the Interior. url p. 94.
- Familiar features of the roadside; the flowers, shrubs, birds, and insects. By F. Schuyler Mathews. .. With. .. drawings by the author, and many of the songs of our common birds and insects. New York, D. Appleton and company, 1897. url p. 262, p. 28.
- Field, forest, and garden botany, a simple introduction to the common plants of the United States east of the Mississippi, both wild and cultivated. New York, Ivison, Phinney, Blakeman, 1869. url p. 131.
- Flora of Indiana, by Charles C. Deam. Indianapolis, Wm. B. Burford printing co., contractor for state printing and binding, 1940. url p. 1049.
- Flora of West Virginia, by Charles Frederick Millspaugh and Lawrence William Nuttall. 1 1896 Chicago, 1896. url p. 206.
- Flora of the southern United States, containing an abridged description of the flowering plants and ferns of Tennessee, North and South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, and Florida; arranged according to the natural system by A.W. Chapman. New York, American Book Company url p. 130.
- Flora's dictionary / by a lady. Baltimore: Published by Fielding Lucas Jr., 1832. url , .
- Florists' review Chicago: Florists' Pub. Co. url , , , , .
- Flowering trees & shrubs. LondonA.L. Humphreys1905 url , p. 119, p. 15.
- Flowers of field, hill, and swamp, by Caroline A. Creevey. Illustrated by Benjamin Lander. New York, Harper, 1897. url p. 559.
- Flowers of field, hill, and swamp; New York, Harper & Brothers, 1899. url , , .
- Garden and forest; a journal of horticulture, landscape art and forestry. New York: The Garden and forest publishing co., 1888-97. url p. 233, p. 238, p. 323, p. 434, p. 508.
- Garden flowers: how to cultivate them. A treatise on the culture of hardy ornamental trees, shrubs, annuals, herbaceous and bedding plants. By Edward Sprague Rand, jr. Boston: J. E. Tilton and Company, 1866. url p. 82.
- Garden guide; the amateur gardeners' handbook. Profusely illustrated with over 275 teaching plans and diagrams and reproduced photographs, all made expressly for this standard text book. Edited by A. T. De La Mare. New York, A. T. De La Mare[c1920] url , p. 52, p. 60.
- Garden trees and shrubs illustrated in colour. By Walter P. Wright. London: Headley brothers,  url p. 157.
- Gardening for beginners; a handbook to the garden, by E. T. Cook. New York, Charles Scribner's sons, 1901. url p. 197.
- Gardening for pleasure. A guide to the amateur in the fruit, vegetable, and flower garden, with full directions for the greenhouse, conservatory, and window-garden. New York, O. Judd company[c1875] url p. 104.
- Gardening for pleasure: a guide to the amateur in the fruit, vegetable, and flower garden, with full directions for the greenhouse, conservatory, and window-garden / by Peter Henderson. New York: O. Judd Company, [c1875] url p. 104.
- Gardens near the sea; the making and care of gardens on or near the coast with reference also to lawns and grounds and to trees and shrubbery, New York, Frederick A. Stokes company[c1910] url , .
- General index to the reports and bulletins of the experimental farms of the Dominion of Canada, 1887-1901. Ottawa, Printed by S.E. Dawson, printer to the King's Most excellent Majesty, 1902. url p. 40.
- Gray's School and field book of botany: consisting of "Lessons in botany" and "Field, forest, and garden botany" bound in one volume / New York: Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor & Co., 1875. url .
- Gray's school and field book of botany, consisting of "Lessons in botany, " and "Field, forest, and garden botany, " bound in one volume / by Asa Gray... New York: American Book co.,  url p. 131.
- Hand-list of Coniferae: grown in the Royal botanic gardens. London: Printed for H. M. Stationery off. by Darling & son, Ltd., 1903. url p. 9.
- Hand-list of trees and shrubs, excluding Coniferae, grown in Arboretum. LondonPrinted for H.M. Stationery Off., by Darling1902 url p. 9.
- Handbook of flower pollination based upon Hermann Müller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects'; tr. by J.R. Ainsworth Davis. Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1906. url p. 15, p. 308, p. 37, p. 53, p. 90.
- Handbook of flower pollination: based upon Hermann Mu?ller's work 'The fertilisation of flowers by insects' / Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1906-09. url , , , , .
- Handbook of plants. New York: P. Henderson, 1881. url p. 222, p. 36.
- Hardy ornamental flowering trees and shrubs / by A. D. Webster. London: Smith, Elder, 1908. url p. 216, p. 24.
- Hardy plants for cottage gardens, New York, H. Holt and company, 1910. url , , .
- Hardy plants for cottage gardens, by Helen R. Albee; illustrated from photographs. New York, H. Holt and company, 1910. url , , .
- Harper's guide to wild flowers, by Mrs. Caroline A. Creevey. New York, Harper, 1912. url p. 451, p. 489, p. 500.
- Henderson's Handbook of plants and general horticulture / By Peter Henderson. New York, P. Henderson & Co., 1910. url p. 437, p. 441.
- Home studies / by Rebecca A. Upton. Boston: Crosby, Nichols; 1856. url p. 12.
- Horticulture by irrigation, Denver, Colo., The Republican publishing company, 1888. url p. 115.
- Horticulture by irrigation. Denver, Colo., Republican Pub. Co.[c1888] url p. 115.
- Horticulture. Boston, Mass.: Horticulture Pub. Co., c1904- url p. 135, p. 304, p. 381, p. 533, p. 549.
- How to make a country place; an account of the successes and the mistakes of an amateur in thirty-five years of farming, building, and development: together with a practical plan for securing a home and an independent income, starting with small capital, by Joseph Dillaway Sawyer. .. New York: Orange Judd company; [etc., etc.], 1914. url p. 367.
- How to make a flower garden; a manual of practical information and suggestions. New York, Doubleday, Page & company, 1903. url p. 340, p. 341, p. 341.
- How to plan the home grounds, by S. Parsons, jr.... With illustrations drawn by W. E. Spader... New York, Doubleday & McClure co., 1899. url p. 198, p. 198.
- How to plan the home grounds; New York:Doubleday & McClure Co., 1899. url .
- Iconographic encyclopaedia of science, literature, and art. systematically arranged by J.G. Heck. Translated from the German, with additions, and edited by Spencer F. Baird. .. illustrated by five hundred steel plates, containing upwards to twelve thousand en New York, R. Garrigue, 1851. url p. 161.
- International catalogue of scientific literature. LondonPublished for the International Council by the Royal Society of London1901-1920 url p. 338.
- Introduction to botany, Boston, Ginn and company[c1914] url .
- Introduction to botany. Boston, Ginn url p. 94.
- Introduction to structural and systematic botany and vegetable physiology: being a fifth and revised edition of The botanical text-book / by Asa Gray. New York: Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor, 1877. url p. 417.
- Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society. Chapel Hill, N.C. [etc.]Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society [etc.] url p. 136.
- Journal of the New York Botanical Garden. 19 1918 Lancaster, Pa.: Published for the Garden by the New Era Printing Co., 1900- url p. 15, p. 162, p. 289, p. 290, p. 295, p. 314, p. 319, p. 327.
- Key and flora, northern and central states. Boston, Ginn,  url p. 94.
- Key and flora: northern and central states / Boston: Ginn, 1908. url .
- Landscape garden series, ed. by Ralph Rodney Root. Davenport, Ia.: The Garden Press,  url p. 15, p. 17, p. 23.
- Landscape gardening as applied to home decoration. By Samuel T. Maynard. .. New York, J. Wiley, 1915. url p. 219, p. 220.
- Landscape gardening. New York [etc.]G. P. Putnam's sons, 1891. url p. 319, p. 72.
- Landscape gardening. Notes and suggestions on lawns and lawn planting--laying out and arrangement of country places, large and small parks, cemetery plots, and railway-station lawns--deciduous and evergreen trees and shru New York, G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1891. url .
- Landscape gardening; treatise on the general principles governing outdoor art; with sundry suggestions for their application in the commoner problems of gardening, by F. A. Waugh. New York, O. Judd, 1899. url p. 115.
- Landscaping your home / Urbana: University of Illinois Press, c1975. url p. 239.
- Lawns and gardens. How to plant and beautify the home lot, the pleasure ground and garden, by N. Jönsson-Rose. With numerous plans and illustrations by the author. New York, G. P. Putnam, 1897. url p. 232.
- List of Pteridophyta and Spermatophyta growing without cultivation in northeastern North America. Prepared by a Committee of the Botanical Club, American Association for the Advancement of Science. New York, 1894. url p. 163.
- Lists of plant types for landscape planting; the materials of planting for ornament listed according to their various uses, by Stephen F. Hamblin. Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1923. url , , , , , , , , , , p. 31, p. 35, p. 39, p. 43, p. 47, p. 50, p. 52, p. 60, p. 68.
- Loudon's encyclopaedia of plants; comprising the specific character, description, culture, history, application in the arts, and every other desirable particular respecting all the plants indigenous to, cultivated in, or introduced in Edited by Mrs. Loudon, assisted by George Don and David Wooster. London, Longmans, Green, 1866. url p. 455.
- Magazine of natural history and journal of zoology, botany, mineralogy, geology and meteorology. London: printed for Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, 1829-1837. url p. 416, p. 434.
- Making the grounds attractive with shrubbery, New York, McBride, Nast & company, 1912. url p. 45.
- Manual of gardening: a practical guide to the making of home grounds and the growing of flowers, fruits, and vegetables for home use / New York: Macmillan Co., 1911. url , .
- Manual of gardening; a practical guide to the making of home grounds and the growing of flowers, fruits, and vegetables for home use, New York, The Macmillan Company, 1917. url , .
- Manual of plant diseases, Wilkes-Barré, Pa., The Record press, c1914-22 url p. 561, p. 863.
- Manual of plant diseases, by Paul Sorauer. Wilkes-Barré, Pa.The Record Press, c1914-22 url p. 863.
- Manual of the southeastern flora: being descriptions of the seed plants growing naturally in Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, eastern Louisiana, Tennessee, North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. 1933 New York: The author, 1933. url p. 631.
- Meehan's monthly: a magazine of horticulture, botany, and kindred subjects. Phila., PA: T. Meehan & Sons, 1891-1902. url .
- Meehans' monthly: a magazine of horticulture, botany and kindred subjects / conducted by Thomas Meehan. Philadelphia: Thomas Meehan & Sons, 1891-1902. url p. 25.
- Memoirs of the Torrey Botanical Club. 5 1893 - 18 Durham, N.C.: Published for the Club by the Seeman Printery, 1889- url p. 163.
- Microscopic objects, animal, vegetable and mineral; with instructions for preparing and viewing them. London, Whittaker, 1847. url p. 10.
- Morphology of the angiosperms. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1961. url p. 109.
- My garden, by Louise Beebe Wilder. .. illustrated by Will Simmons. Garden City, N. Y.: Doubleday, Page & company, [c1916] url p. 217, p. 217.
- My garden, its plan and culture together with a general description of its geology, botany, and natural history, London, Bell and Daldy, 1872. url .
- My shrubs / by Eden Phillpotts, with fifty illustrations. London; John Lane, 1915. url p. 26.
- Native woody plants of the United States, their erosion-control and wildlife values. Washington, U. S. Govt. print. off., 1938. url , , , , p. 79.
- Nicholson, G. The illustrated dictionary of gardening: a practical and scientific encyclopædia of horticulture for gardeners and botanists /edited by George Nicholson; assisted by J.W.H. Trail. .. and J. Garrett. .. 8 1884 London: L.U. Gill, -88. url p. 394, p. 394, p. 451.
- Old-fashioned gardening; a history and a reconstruction, New York, McBride, Nast & company, 1913. url .
- Ornamental gardening in Florida, by Charles Torrey Simpson; a treatise on the decorative plants adapted to Florida and their cultivation, with suggestions for the ornamentation of Florida homes and grounds. Little River, Fla., The author, 1916. url p. 143, p. 143, p. 189, p. 189.
- Ornamental shrubs for garden, lawn, and park planting, with an account of the origin, capabilities, and adaptations of the numerous species and varieties, native and foreign, and especially of the new and rare sorts, suited to cultivation in the United St by Lucius D. Davis. New York, Putnam, 1899. url p. 12, p. 12, p. 13.
- Ornamental shrubs of the United States (hardy, cultivated) Cincinnati [etc]American Book Company[c1910] url , .
- Our northern shrubs and how to identify them: a handbook for the nature-lover / New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1922, c1903. url .
- Parks: a manual of municipal and county parks compiled as a result of a nation-wide study of municipal and county parks conducted by the Playground and Recreation Association of America, in co-operation with edited by L.H. Weir. New York: A.S. Barnes & Co., 1928. url p. 681, p. 682, p. 683, p. 685, p. 687, p. 688, p. 689, p. 690, p. 691, p. 692.
- Physiology at the farm in aid of rearing and feeding the live stock. Edinburgh and London, W. Blackwood and sons. url p. 384, p. xviii.
- Plant culture; a working hand-book of every day practice for all who grow flowering and ornamental plants in the garden and greenhouse, by George W. Oliver. New York, A. T. De La Mare Printing and Publishing Co., c1912. url , p. 232, p. 232.
- Plant culture; a working handbook of every day practice for all who grow flowering and ornamental plants in the garden and greenhouse, New York, A. T. De La Mare Co., Inc.[c1921] url , .
- Plant life of Alabama, an account of the distribution, modes of association, and adaptations of the flora of Alabama, together with a systematic catalogue of the plants growing in the state. By Charles Mohr. .. Montgomery, Ala., Brown printing co., 1901. url p. 518.
- Plant life of Alabama. An account of the distribution, modes of association, and adaptations of the flora of Alabama, together with a systematic catalogue of the plants growing in the state. Prepared in cooperationwith the Washington, Govt. Print. Off., 1901. url .
- Plant materials of decorative gardening; the woody plants. Urbana, The author, 1921. url p. 163, p. 43.
- Practical floriculture, a guide to the successful cultivation of florists' plants, for the amateur and professional florist. New York, Judd url p. 15.
- Practical floriculture: a guide to the successful cultivation of florists' plants, for the amateur and professional florist / by Peter Henderson. .. New York: Orange Judd co., 1892 [c1887] url p. 35.
- Practical floriculture; a guide to the successful cultivation of florists' plants for the amateur and professional florist. New York: Orange Judd, 1899. url p. 35.
- Practical landscape gardening: the importance of careful planning, locating the house, arrangement of walks and drives, construction of walks and drives, lawns and terraces, how to plant a property, laying out a flower garden, arch New York, A.T. De La Mare Company, inc., 1916. url .
- Practical landscape gardening; the importance of careful planning, locating the house, arrangement of walks and drives, construction of walks and drives, lawns and terraces, how to plant a property, laying out a flower garden, arch by Robert B. Cridland. New York, A.T. De La Mare Company, inc., 1918. url p. 257.
- Practical plant propagation; an exposition of the art and science of increasing plants as practiced by the nurseryman, florist and gardener, by Alfred C. Hottes. New York, A. T. De La Mare company, inc., 1922. url p. 187.
- Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington. Washington, Biological Society of Washington url p. 1013.
- Proceedings of the Delaware County Institute of Science. Media, Pa.: The Institute, 1906- url p. 28.
- Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington. Washington, etc.: Entomological Society of Washington url p. 371, p. 374.
- Publication. Field Columbian Museum. Chicago.: Field Columbian Museum, 1895-1909. url p. 206.
- Rafinesque, C. S. Medical flora, or, Manual of the medical botany of the United States of North America. .. /by C.S. Rafinesque. 2 1830 Philadelphia: Atkinson & Alexander, 1828-1830. url p. 203.
- Report of the Geological Survey of Ohio. Columbus, Nevins & Myers, state printers, 1873-93. url .
- Report: . .. Washington, Blair & Rives, printers, 1838 url p. 92.
- Reports of the Director. .. / Experimental Farms. Ottawa: Experimental Farms, 1888-1916. url p. 40.
- Reproductive ecology of Conradina verticillata Jennison, a rare, endemic mint of the Cumberland PlateauT'ai Honda Roulston. 1994 1994. url p. 13.
- School and home gardens, Boston, Ginn and Co.[c1913] url .
- Secrets of ornamental planting, comprising "Landscaping simplified, hardy ornamental shrubs and trees", and "The rose garden." Chicago, The Commonwealth Press, c1916 url p. 21.
- Shrubs of Florida; a handbook of the native and naturalized shrubs of Florida, by John Kunkel Small... New York: The author, 1913. url p. 28.
- Smith, James Edward The natural history of the rarer lepidopterous insects of Georgia: including their systematic characters, the particulars of their several metamorphoses, and the plants on which they feed. Collected from the observation of Mr. John Abbot, many years resident in that country /by James Edward Smith. 2 1797 London: Printed by T. Bensley, for J. Edwards [etc.] 1797. url tab. CIV.
- Smithsonian miscellaneous collections. 15 1878 Washington: Smithsonian Institution, 1862-1968. url p. 28.
- Spring flowers at Belvoir castle; with directions for cultivation and notes on the gardens by W. H. Divers. London, Longmans, Green1909. url , p. 141.
- Standardized plant names; a catalogue of approved scientific and common names of plants in American commerce. Salem, Mass., 1923. url p. 484, p. 70, p. 9.
- Stout manual training school; a handbook for planning and planting small home grounds. .. with a list of native and commonly cultivated plants that are represented in the collection upon the Stout manual training school grounds. Menomonie, Wis., Stout manual training school, 1899. url p. 63, p. 68.
- Students' handbook to accompany Plants and their uses / by Frederick Leroy Sargent. New York: Henry Holt, 1914. url .
- Sylvan sketches; or, A companion to the park and the shrubbery: with illustrations from the works of the poets. By the author of the Flora domestica... London: Whittaker, Treacher and co., 1831. url p. 66.
- Textbook of theoretical botany, by R. C. McLean and W. R. Ivimey-Cook. London, Longmans, Green[1951- url p. 1052, p. 920.
- The American botanist and florist: including lessons in the structure, life, and growth of plants: together with a simple analytical flora, descriptive of the native and cultivated plants growing in the Atlantic division of the Americ by Alphonso Wood. New York: A. S. Barnes, 1877, c1870. url p. 25.
- The American farmer's encyclopedia and dictionary of rural affairs: embracing all the most recent discoveries in agricultural chemistry / adapted to the comprehension of unscientific readers by Gouverneur Emerson. Philadelphia: Carey and Hart, 1844. url p. 250.
- The American farmer's encyclopedia: embracing all the recent discoveries in agricultural chemistry, and the use of mineral, vegetable and animal manures, with descriptions and figures of American insects, injurious to vegetation. Being by Gouverneur Emerson, of Pennsylvania, upon the basis of Johnson's Farmer's encyclopedia. New York: A.O. Moore, Agricultural Book Publisher, 1858, [c1857] url p. 250.
- The American farmer's encyclopedia; embracing all the recent discoveries in agricultural chemistry, New York, A. O. Moore, 1858. url p. 250.
- The American florist: a weekly journal for the trade. Chicago: American Florist Company, [1885-1931] url p. 1078, p. 300, p. 349, p. 385.
- The American flower garden / by Neltje Blanchan; planting lists by Leonard Barron; illustrated with one hundred full-page photographs. New York: Doubleday, Page & Company, 1909. url , p. 186, p. 186.
- The American gardener's calendar: adapted to the climates and seasons of the United States: containing a complete account of all the work necessary to be done. .. for every month in the year: with ample practical directions for perf by Bernard M'Mahon. Philadelphia: A. M'Mahon, 1839. url p. 601, p. 602.
- The American gardener's calendar; adapted to the climate and seasons of the United States. By Bernard M'Mahon. Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott, 1857. url p. 625, p. 626, p. 635.
- The American journal of science and arts. New-Haven: S. Converse, url p. 72.
- The American journal of science. 21(2) 1856 New Haven, Kline Geology Laboratory, Yale University. url p. 298, p. 72.
- The Annals and magazine of natural history; zoology, botany, and geology being a continuation of the Annals combined with Loudon and Charlesworth's Magazine of Natural History. London, Taylor and Francis, Ltd. url p. 125, p. 125, p. 125, p. 126, p. 126.
- The Bradley bibliography; a guide to the literature of the woody plants of the world published before the beginning of the twentieth century; Cambridge, Riverside Press, 1911-18. url p. 214, p. 561.
- The Canadian horticulturist [monthly] St. Catharines, E.S. Leavenworth. url p. 139, p. 284.
- The Cottage gardener. [London: W.S. Orr, url p. 94.
- The English flower garden and home grounds: design and arrangement followed by a description of the plants, shrubs and trees for the open-air garden and their culture / by W. Robinson. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1921. url p. 376.
- The Floral world and garden guide. London, Groombridge and Sons, 1858-1880. url p. 192, p. 67.
- The Florists' exchange: a weekly medium of interchange for florists, nurserymen, seedsmen and the trade in general. New York, N.Y.: [A.T. De la Mare Ptg. and Pub. Co., url , , , , , p. 1055, p. 1123, p. 117, p. 1179, p. 1247, p. 13, p. 1318, p. 1347, p. 248, p. 270, p. 289, p. 411, p. 427, p. 453, p. 513, p. 541, p. 566, p. 587, p. 638, p. 716, p. 717, p. 759, p. 801, p. 825, p. 875, p. 887, p. 895, p. 907, p. 926, p. 940, p. 95, p. 953, p. 985, p. 999.
- The Garden: an illustrated weekly journal of gardening in all its branches. London: [s.n., url , , , , , p. 123, p. 139, p. 184, p. 2, p. 215, p. 239, p. 252, p. 27, p. 271, p. 274, p. 29, p. 307, p. 333, p. 337, p. 364, p. 370, p. 373, p. 39, p. 392, p. 40, p. 447, p. 489, p. 500, p. 507, p. 519, p. 554, p. 585, p. 591, p. 60, p. 8, p. 8.
- The Gardener's magazine and register of rural & domestic improvement. London: Longman, Rees, Orome, Brown and Green, 1826-1844. url p. 155.
- The Gardener's monthly and horticulturist. Philadelphia, Pa.: Charles H. Marot, 1876-1888. url p. 262, p. 262.
- The Gardeners' chronicle and agricultural gazette. London: published for the proprietors, 1844-1873. url p. 812.
- The Gardeners' chronicle: a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects. London: [Gardeners Chronicle], 1874-1955. url , , p. 107, p. 126, p. 130, p. 135, p. 138, p. 142, p. 151, p. 154, p. 169, p. 171, p. 192, p. 196, p. 21, p. 215, p. 23, p. 24, p. 256, p. 28, p. 280, p. 284, p. 296, p. 300, p. 345, p. 373, p. 377, p. 383, p. 40, p. 40, p. 40, p. 40, p. 400, p. 400, p. 412, p. 428, p. 428, p. 432, p. 44, p. 44, p. 441, p. 45, p. 52, p. 58, p. 60, p. 66, p. 711, p. 730, p. 744, p. 749, p. 75, p. 76, p. 766, p. 784, p. 787, p. 797, p. 802, p. 806, p. 811, p. 821, p. 823, p. 827, p. 831.
- The Horticulturist and journal of rural art and rural taste. Albany, N.Y.: Luthur Tucker, 1846/1847-1875 url p. 126, p. 138, p. 43, p. 55.
- The Illustrated dictionary of gardening: a practical and scientific encyclopaedia of horticulture for gardeners and botanists / edited by George Nicholson. ..; assisted by J.W.H. Trail. .. and J. Garrett. ... London: L. Upcott Gill; 1887-1889. url p. 408, p. 451.
- The Journal of experimental zoology. [New York, etc.]Wiley-Liss [etc.] url p. 213, p. 213, p. 248.
- The Journal of horticulture, cottage gardener and country gentlemen. London: George W. Johnson and Robert Hogg, 1861-1877. url , p. 221, p. 221, p. 224, p. 282, p. 70.
- The Journal of the Linnean Society. Botany. 42 1914 London: the Society: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts & Green: ||Williams and Norgate, 1865-1968. url p. 528.
- The Magazine of horticulture, botany, and all useful discoveries and improvements in rural affairs. Boston: Hovey and Co., 1837- url , p. 272, p. 290.
- The New England farmer. Boston: Thomas W. Shepard, 1822-1835. url p. 371.
- The San Jose or Chinese scale. Washington, Gov't print. off., 1906. url p. 40.
- The San José scale (Aspidiotus perniciosus, Comst.) and methods of treatment. A. E. Stene. Joint bulletin of the State board of agriculture and Extension department of the Rhode Island college of agriculture and mechanic arts. 1908. Providence, 1908 url p. 30.
- The San José scale and methods of controlling it / [New Haven]: Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 1909. url p. 13.
- The Universal herbal; or, Botanical, medical, and agricultural dictionary; containing an account of all the known plants in the world, arranged according to the Linnean system. Specifying the uses to which they are or may be applied, whether as food, as medicine, or in the a London, Caxton Press url p. 861.
- The Woods and Timbers of North Carolina By P.M. Hale. A compilation from the botanical and geological reports of Drs. Curtis, Emmons and Kerr; to which are added information obtained from the Census bureau and accurate reports from the seve New York, E. J. Hale and Son, 1883. url p. 173.
- The art & craft of garden making / Thomas H. Mawson. London: B.T. Batsford;  url p. 292.
- The art of beautifying suburban home grounds of small extent. Illustrated by upward of two hundred plates and engravings of plans for residences and their grounds, of trees and shrubs, and garden embellishments; with descriptions of the beautiful and hardy trees By Frank J. Scott. New York, John B. Alden, 1886. url p. 477.
- The book of garden management: Comprising information on laying out and planting gardens... London: S.O. Beeton, [1862?] url p. 393, p. 698.
- The book of shrubs, by George Gordon. London andJ. Lane, 1903. url .
- The book of the seasons: or, The calendar of nature / by William Howitt. Philadelphia: Carey and Hart, 1842. url p. 147.
- The book of the seasons; or, The calendar of nature. LondonR. Bentley1833 url p. 122.
- The botanical text-book, an introduction to scientific botany, both structural and systematic. For colleges, schools, and private students. By Asa Gray. New York, Putnam, 1850. url p. 415.
- The care of trees in lawn, street and park. With a list of trees and shrubs for decorative use. New YorkHolt1910 url p. 357.
- The complete garden, by Albert D. Taylor, assisted by Gordon D. Cooper. Illustrated with fifty full page cuts, four line charts, and nine coloured plates. Garden City, N.Y., Doubleday, Page, 1921. url , , p. 131, p. 193, p. 193, p. 196, p. 196, p. 276, p. 289, p. 289, p. 307, p. 307, p. 325, p. 325, p. 337, p. 337, p. 388, p. 388.
- The complete home landscape, by Arthur J. Jennings, in collaboration with Leonard H. Johnson. New York, A. T. De La Mare, 1924. url p. 121, p. 129, p. 132, p. 143, p. 150.
- The complete illustrated book of garden magic. Chicago, J.G. Ferguson Pub. Co. url p. 68.
- The culture of pot-plants in rooms, greenhouses, & frames, by Hugh C. Davidson. London, C. Lockwood, 1922. url , p. 80, p. 81.
- The encyclopedia of gardening. A dictionary of cultivated plants, etc., giving in alphabetical sequence the culture and propagation of hardy and half-hardy plants, trees and shrubs, orchids, ferns, fruit, vegetables, hothouse and g London, W. H. & L. Collingridge url .
- The farmer's and planter's encyclopaedia of rural affairs; embracing all the most recent discoveries in agricultural chemistry, suited to the comprehension of unscientific readers. By Cuthbert W. Johnson. .. With extensive additions adapting the work to the United States. .. By Gouverneur Emerson. .. Philadelphia, J. B. Lippincott & Co., 1868. url p. 250.
- The farmer's and the planter's encyclopædia of rural affairs; Philadelphia, Lippincott, Grambo & co., 1851. url p. 250.
- The farmer's dictionary: a vocabulary of the technical terms recently introduced into agriculture and horticulture from various sciences, and also a compendium of practical farming, the latter chiefly from the works of the Re edited by D. P. Gardner. New York: Harper, 1846. url p. 129.
- The fertilisation of flowers. Translated and edited by D'Arcy W. Thompson, with a preface by Charles Darwin. LondonMacmillan1883 url .
- The flora of Tennessee and a philosophy of botany: respectfully dedicated to the citizens of Tennessee / by Augustin Gattinger. Nashville: Press of Gospel Advocate Pub. Co., 1901. url p. 83.
- The florist cultivator, or, Plain directions for the management of the principal florist flowers, shrubs, etc. etc.: adapted to the flower-garden, shrubbery, and greenhouse: with select lists of the finest roses, geraniums, carnations, pinks, auriculas, polyanthuses, tulips, dahlias, heartsease, &c &c.. .. / by Thomas Willats. London: J. Ridgeway, 1836. url p. 71.
- The florist, fruitist, and garden miscellany. London: Chapman and Hall, 1852- url p. 348.
- The florists' manual / by William Scott; a reference book for commercial florists. Chicago: Florists' Publishing Co., 1899. url p. 124.
- The florists' manual, by William Scott. A reference book for commercial florists. Chicago, Florists' publishing company, 1906. url p. 130.
- The garden... London, 1872- url p. 364.
- The gardener's magazine and register of rural & domestic improvement. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown and Green, 1826-1844. url .
- The handbook for practical farmers, dealing with the more important aspects of farming in the United States, ed. by Hugh Findlay. .. special chapters dealing with farm problems and practices by practical experts in different parts of the United States. .. New York and London, D. Appleton and company, 1920. url p. 417.
- The home florist: a treatise on the cultivation, management and adaptability of flowering and ornamental plants, designed for the use of amateur florists. Springfield, Ohio, C.A. Reeser url p. 159.
- The housekeeper and gardener / by Rebecca A. Upton. Boston: Crosby, Nichols; 1858. url p. 12.
- The joyous art of gardening; a book of first aid to the amateur, by Frances Duncan. New York, C. Scribner's sons, 1917. url p. 117.
- The landscape gardening book, wherein are set down the simple laws of beauty and utility which should guide the development of all grounds, by Grace Tabor. New York, R. M. McBride, 1916. url p. 117.
- The lipids, their chemistry and biochemistry. New York, Interscience Publishers, 1951-57. url p. 352, p. 896.
- The natural history of plants. By H. Baillon. Tr. by Marcus M. Hartog. London, L. Reeve & co., 1871-88. url p. 321.
- The natural history of plants. Translated by Marcus M. Hartog. LondonL. Reeve1871- url p. 282, p. 321.
- The new American orchardist; or, An account of the most valuable varieties of fruit, of all climates, adapted to cultivation in the United States; with their history, modes of culture, management, uses, &c. With an appendix on ve By William Kenrick. Boston, Otis, Broaders, & co., 1844. url p. 387.
- The new botanic garden, illustrated with one hundred and thirty-three plants, engraved by Sansom, from the original pictures, and coloured with the greatest exactness from drawings by Sydenham Edwards... London, J. Stockdale, 1812. url .
- The new gardening: a guide to the most recent developments in the culture of flowers, fruits, and vegetables, by Walter P. Wright. .. New York, Doubleday, Page and company, 1913. url p. 281.
- The practical American gardener; Baltimore, F. Lucas, jr., 1819. url .
- The practical flower garden, London, Macmillan & co., ltd., 1911. url , p. 196.
- The practical flower garden, by Helena Rutherfurd Ely. .. with illustrations made from photographs taken in the author's garden, and in the "Connecticut garden." London, The Macmillan company, 1911. url p. 196.
- The seasons in a flower garden; New York, C. Scribner's sons, 1907. url p. 74.
- The seasons in a flower garden; a handbook of information and instruction for the amateur, by Louise Shelton. New York: C. Scribner's sons, 1907. url p. 74.
- The standard cyclopedia of horticulture; a discussion, for the amateur, and the professional and commercial grower, of the kinds, characteristics and methods of cultivation of the species of plants grown in the regions of the United States a Illustrated with colored plates, four thousand engravings in the text, and ninety-six full-page cuts. New York, Macmillan, 1919 [c1914] url p. 1801, p. 2695, p. 638.
- The trees of America: native and foreign, pictorially and botanically delineated, and scientifically and popularly described...illustrated by numerous engravings. By D. J. Browne. New York: Harper & brothers, 1851. url p. 337.
- The trees of America; native and foreign, pictorially and botanically delineated, and scientifically and popularly described, illustrated by numerous engravings. By D. J. Browne. New York, Harper & brothers, 1857. url p. 337.
- The vegetable kingdom: or, The structure, classification, and uses of plants, illustrated upon the natural system / by John Lindley. London: Bradbury and Evans, 1846. url p. 540.
- The vegetable kingdom; or, The structure, classification, and uses of plants, LondonBradbury & Evans1853 url p. 814.
- The villa gardener; comprising the choice of a suburban villa residence; the laying out, planting, and culture of the garden and grounds; and the management of the villa farm, including the dairy and poultry-yard. .. By J. C. Loudon. London, W. S. Orr & co., 1850. url p. 335.
- The weekly florists' review. Chicago: Florists' Pub. Co., 1897-1912. url p. 128, p. 681.
- Third American edition of the British encyclopedia, or Dictionary of arts and sciences: comprising an accurate and popular view of the present improved state of human knowledge / by William Nicholson. Philadelphia: Mitchell, Ames and White, 1818. url .
- Timber and botany. comprising seven reports on the forests and botany of different parts of the state / Geological Survey of Kentucky. [S.l.]: The Survey, 1884. url p. 102, p. 232, p. 78.
- Torrey, J. & A. Gray A flora of North America: containing abridged descriptions of all the known indigenous and naturalized plants growing north of Mexico, arranged according to the natural system /by John Torrey and Asa Gray. New York: Wiley & Putnam, 1838-. url p. 475.
- Torreya. Burlington, Vt., Torrey Botanical Club, 1901-1945. url , p. 104, p. 143, p. 168, p. 190.
- Transactions and proceedings of the New Zealand Institute. Wellington: New Zealand Institute. url p. 397.
- Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Science. [Lexington, Ky.]Kentucky Academy of Science, 1923-1997. url p. 131, p. 136, p. 146, p. 147, p. 155, p. 162, p. 7, p. 8, p. 86.
- Transactions of the Massachusetts Horticultural Society. [S.l.: s.n.], 1843-1920. url p. 29.
- Transactions of the Natural History Society of Glasgow. Glasgow, The Society. url .
- Trees & shrubs for English gardens. [London]"Country life", 1908. url p. 217, p. 227.
- Trees and plants for the world out of doors. Rochester, N.Y., Brown brothers company[c1909] url p. 55.
- Trees and shrubs hardy in the British Isles / by W. J. Bean. London: J. Murray, 1916. url p. 283.
- Trees and shrubs of Central Park, New York, Manhattan press[c1903] url , .
- Trees and shrubs of Central Park, by Louis Harman Peet. New York, Manhattan press, [c1903] url p. 167, p. 8, p. 8.
- Trees and shrubs of Nantucket; Descriptions, identification keys, list of trees and shrubs [by] Mabel Agnes Rice. [Ann Arbor, Michigan., Lithoprinted by Edwards brothers, inc.]1946. url p. 56, p. 75.
- Trees and shrubs of the British Isles; native and acclimatised, LondonDent1909 url p. 244, p. 258, p. 28, p. 30.
- Trees and shrubs, hardy in the British isles. LondonJ. Murray1914 url p. 283.
- Trees and shrubs: an abridgment of the Arboretum et fruticetum britannicum: containing the hardy trees and schrubs of Britain, native and foreign, scientifically and popularly described: with their propagation, cultu London: F. Warne & Co.; 1875. url , .
- Trees and shrubs; an abridgment of the Arboretum et fruticetum britannicum: containing the hardy trees and shrubs of Britain, native and foreign, scientifically and popularly described; with their propagation, culture LondonF. Warne1875 url p. 21, p. 454.
- Trees for Long Island. [S.l.:s.n.], 1908. url p. 65.
- Trees in winter; their study, planting, care and identification, New YorkMacmillan1913 url p. 91.
- Trees, shrubs and vines of the northeastern United States. .. together with an account of the principal foreign hardy trees, shrubs and vines cultivated in our country, and found in Central Park, New York City by H.E. Parkhurst. New York, C. Scribner's sons, 1903. url p. 154, p. 289.
- Tropical agriculture: the climate, soils, cultural methods, crops, live stock, commercial importance and opportunities of the tropics / London: D. Appleton and Company, 1916. url .
- U.S. gardening guide: everything you need to know about how to make things grow / compiled by Jeffery Feinman. New York: Simon and Schuster, c1979. url p. 105, p. 128.
- W. Curtis (ed.) The Botanical magazine, or, Flower-garden displayed. .. /by William Curtis. 14 1800 [S.l.: s.n.], 1790-1800; url , .
- Wanderings in the great forests of Borneo; travels and researches of a naturalist in Sarawak, London, A. Constable & co., ltd, 1904. url p. 104.
- West Virginia trees. Morgantown, 1920. url p. 232, p. 232.
- Westbury nurseries and the Hicks patent treemovers... [S.l.:s.n.], 1904. url p. 53.
- Winter botany, a companion volume to the author's Plant materials of decorative gardening, by William Trelease. .. Urbana, The author, 1918. url p. 66.
- Winter botany, by William Trelease. .. Urbana, The author, 1918. url p. 66.
- Woodward's record of horticulture for. . New York: Geo. E. & F.W. Woodward, 1867-1868. url p. 90.
- Woody plants in winter; a manual of common trees and shrubs in winter in the Northeastern United States and southeastern Canada, by Earl L. Core and Nelle P. Ammons. Pittsburgh, Boxwood Press url p. 96, p. 97.
- Yard and garden; a book of practical information for the amateur gardener in city, town or suburb, Indianapolis, The Bobbs-Merrill company[c1908] url , p. 408.
- Nicely, K. A. 1965. A monographic study of the Calycanthaceae. Castanea 30: 38-81.
- Wood, C. E. Jr. 1958. The genera of the woody Ranales in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 39: 296-346.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed March 27, 2012.
- "Calycanthus floridus". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Published by Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org.
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility. Accessed November 18, 2007. http://www.gbif.org Mediated distribution data from 9 providers.
- Light, Kris. East Tennessee Wildflowers
- Ruggiero M., Gordon D., Bailly N., Kirk P., Nicolson D. (2011). The Catalogue of Life Taxonomic Classification, Edition 2, Part A. In: Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist (Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds). DVD; Species 2000: Reading, UK.
- The International Plant Names Index. Accessed Dec 27, 2011.
- USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland. URL (May 04, 2008)
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 18, 2007:
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- The Swedish Museum of Natural History
- , Herbarium of Oskarshamn
- US National Plant Germplasm System, United States National Plant Germplasm System Collection
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2645105
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: ITS-18142
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13729075
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:139221-1
- GRIN Nomen Number: 8661
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 18142
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 139221-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PDCLC01010
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 166533
- George P. Johnson "Calycanthaceae". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Calycanthus". in Flora of North America Vol. 3. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 263.920 meters (865.879 feet), Standard Deviation = 233.670 based on 348 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]