Common Names in English:
Southern Bluethread, Cap Burmannia, Southern Burmannia
, mycotrophic and white or purplish, or autotrophic and green. Roots
, mycorrhizal, filiform
or stoutly terete
. Stems monopodial, unbranched or with few branches, erect
, slender; rhizomes present or absent. Leaves present or absent, cauline or basal, alternate, simple
, sessile, often scalelike, margins
entire; stipules absent. Inflorescences terminal
cymes, sometimes appearing racemose or capitate, or flowers solitary; each flower subtended by scalelike floral
bract. Flowers: tepals 6, partially or wholly connate
in fruit, limb lobes
3 in 1 whorl or 6 in 2 whorls, greenish, purple, or white, sometimes blue-tinged, often ribbed
with or without annulus; stamens 3 or 6, sessile or subsessile
; pollen sacs
separated on appendaged connective
or connective broadened and connate, forming ring
to annulus; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1- or 3-locular; placentation parietal
; ovules numerous
; style 1, 3-branched apically; stigmas 3. Fruits capsules, ovoid
, obconic, or cup-shaped; dehiscence transverse
by 3 valves
, or irregular. Seeds numerous, minute.
Genera ca. 15, species ca. 125 (3 genera, 5 species in the flora ) : mostly tropical and subtropical , worldwide.
Although Burmanniaceae have traditionally been placed in the Orchidales, it has been suggested that the family may be more closely related to the Melanthiales (= Liliales in the broad sense, as traditionally circumscribed) (R. M. T. Dahlgren et al. 1985) . More recently, molecular and morphological studies by L. R. Caddick et al. (2000, 2000b) support placement of the family in the Dioscoreales .
Burmanniaceae traditionally have been characterized as saprophytic , but the life form is more accurately described as mycotrophic or myco-heterotrophic (J. R. Leake 1994) . Even the photosynthetic species have been shown to be endomycorrhizal (P. J. M. Maas et al. 1986b; C. E. Wood Jr. 1983) and have been described as hemisaprophytic. Saprophytism in the Burmanniaceae and other achlorophyllous families has been fully discussed by J. R. Leake (1994) .
, autotrophic, at least partly green. Rhizomes absent. Roots
. Stems usually unbranched, green. Leaves cauline, sometimes basal, green, purplish, or pale
, scalelike to linear
. Inflorescences 2-25-flowered cymes or flowers solitary; floral
bracts sometimes appearing imbricate if internodes of cyme rachis are very short; pedicels 0-1 mm.
, 3-ribbed to 3-winged; perianth persistent
in fruit; annulus absent; stamens 3, proximal
to inner perianth lobes, sessile; ovary 3-locular; placentation axile
. Capsules obovoid
, transversely dehiscent
Species ca. 60 (3 in the flora ) : mostly tropical and subtropical , Western Hemisphere, Africa, Asia (China) .
Species Burmannia capitata
Stems 3-24(-33) cm. Leaves: basal leaves
0-3, ± same size
as cauline leaves; cauline leaves subulate-lanceolate, 2-8 ×
Inflorescences 2-25-flowered cymes, usually appearing
capitate (rarely less contracted
), or occasionally flower solitary;
cyme rachis usually absent, rarely to 6 mm; floral
to lanceolate, 1.5-4 mm. Flowers 3-ribbed or slightly 3-winged, 2-6
mm; perianth cream-colored to white, sometimes tinged with blue or
green; perianth tube (3- or) 6-lobed, to 0.8 mm wide; outer lobes
, triangular, 0.3-0.5 mm, margins
lobes absent or linear
, to 0.3 mm; pedicel 0-1 mm. Capsules
1.5-3 mm. [source]
Chromosome counts of this species are not known from our region. A count of 2n = ca. 136 was reported for collections from Argentina. [source]
Flowers: Bloom Period: July, August, September, October.
Low woods , pond margins , savannas , bogs , swamps , ditches; 0--100 m .
Typically found at an altitude of 0 to 2,388 meters (0 to 7,835 feet).
- Whittaker & Margulis,1978
- Haeckel, 1866
- Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998
- Vascular Plants
- Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Brongniart, 1843
- Takhtajan, 1967
- Superorder: Lilianae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Subclass: Liliidae () - Takhtajan, 1967
- Class: Spermatopsida () - Brongniart, 1843
- Infraphylum: Radiatopses () - Kenrick & Crane, 1997
- Subphylum: Euphyllophytina ()
- Phylum: Tracheophyta () - Sinnott, 1935 ex Cavalier-Smith, 1998 - Vascular Plants
- Subkingdom: Viridaeplantae () - Cavalier-Smith, 1981
- Kingdom: Plantae () - Haeckel, 1866 - Plants
Syst. Nat. 1: 107. 1791 • Vogelia capitata Walter Ex J. F. Gmelin
: Mart. Publication
: Nov. Gen. Sp.
Name Status: Accepted Name .
Last scrutiny: 21-Jun-2005
Members of the genus Burmannia
ZipcodeZoo has pages for 4 species, subspecies, varieties, forms, and cultivars in this genus:
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- Wood, C. E. Jr. 1983. The genera of Burmanniaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 64: 293307.
- Brands, S.J. (comp.) 1989-present. The Taxonomicon. Universal Taxonomic Services, Zwaag, The Netherlands. Accessed January 10, 2012.
Accessed through GBIF Data Portal November 11, 2007:
- Comisión nacional para el conocimiento y uso de la biodiversidad, Herbario del Instituto de Ecología, A.C., México
- Herbier de la Guyane, Herbier de la Guyane
- Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad
- , Biodiversidad de Costa Rica
- Missouri Botanical Garden, Missouri Botanical Garden
- SysTax, Herbarium Universitat Ulm
- SysTax, Nationaal Herbarium Nederland, Utrecht University branch
- SysTax, SysTax
- SysTax, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso
- USDA PLANTS, USDA PLANTS Database
- University of Alabama Biodiversity and Systematics, Herbarium
- Biodiversity Heritage Library NamebankID: 2662919
- Catalogue of Life Accepted Name Code: Kew-222650
- Global Biodiversity Information Facility Taxonkey: 13754985
- Globally Unique Identifier: urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:126582-1
- Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Taxonomic Serial Number (TSN): 43389
- International Plant Names Index (IPNI) ID: 126582-1
- Natural Heritage Network Species Identifier: PMBUR02020
- U.S.D.A. Plant Symbol: BUCA3
- Zipcode Zoo Species Identifier: 26526
- Deborah Q. Lewis "Burmanniaceae". in Flora of North America Vol. 26 Page 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 486. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Burmannia". in Flora of North America Vol. 26 Page 487. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- "Burmannia capitata". in Flora of North America Vol. 26 Page 487, 488. Oxford University Press. Online at EFloras.org. [back]
- Mean = 58.960 meters (193.438 feet), Standard Deviation = 636.060 based on 383 observations. Altitude information for each observation from British Oceanographic Data Centre. [back]